Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

Elements of Argument

9 Toulmin Argument Model

By liza long, amy minervini, and joel gladd.

Stephen Edelston Toulmin (born March 25, 1922) was a British philosopher, author, and educator. Toulmin devoted his works to analyzing moral reasoning. He sought to develop practical ways to evaluate ethical arguments effectively. The Toulmin Model of Argumentation, a diagram containing six interrelated components, was considered Toulmin’s most influential work, particularly in the fields of rhetoric, communication, and computer science. His components continue to provide useful means for analyzing arguments.

Visual representation of the Toulmin argument model

The following are the parts of a Toulmin argument (see Figure 9.1 for an example):

Claim: The claim is a statement that you are asking the other person to accept as true (i.e., a conclusion) and forms the nexus of the Toulmin argument because all the other parts relate back to the claim. The claim can include information and ideas you are asking readers to accept as true or actions you want them to accept and enact. One example of a claim is the following:

My grandfather should wear a hearing aid.

This claim both asks the reader to believe an idea and suggests an action to enact. However, like all claims, it can be challenged. Thus, a Toulmin argument does not end with a claim but also includes grounds and warrant to give support and reasoning to the claim.

Grounds: The grounds form the basis of real persuasion and include the reasoning behind the claim, data, and proof of expertise. Think of grounds as a combination of premises and support. The truth of the claim rests upon the grounds, so those grounds should be tested for strength, credibility, relevance, and reliability. The following are examples of grounds:

Over 70% of all people over 65 years have a hearing difficulty. Hearing aids raise hearing quality.

Information is usually a powerful element of persuasion, although it does affect people differently. Those who are dogmatic, logical, or rational will more likely be persuaded by factual data. Those who argue emotionally and who are highly invested in their own position will challenge it or otherwise try to ignore it. Thus, grounds can also include appeals to emotion, provided they aren’t misused. The best arguments, however, use a variety of support and rhetorical appeals.

Warrant: A warrant links data and other grounds to a claim, legitimizing the claim by showing the grounds to be relevant. The warrant may be carefully explained and explicit or unspoken and implicit. The warrant answers the question, “Why does that data mean your claim is true?” For example,

A hearing aid helps most people hear better.

The warrant may be simple, and it may also be a longer argument with additional sub-elements including those described below. Warrants may be based on logos, ethos or pathos, or values that are assumed to be shared with the listener. In many arguments, warrants are often implicit and, hence, unstated. This gives space for the other person to question and expose the warrant, perhaps to show it is weak or unfounded.

Backing: The backing for an argument gives additional support to the warrant. Backing can be confused with grounds, but the main difference is this: grounds should directly support the premises of the main argument itself, while backing exists to help the warrants make more sense. For example,

Hearing aids are available locally.

This statement works as backing because it gives credence to the warrant stated above, that a hearing aid will help most people hear better. The fact that hearing aids are readily available makes the warrant even more reasonable.

Qualifier: The qualifier indicates how the data justifies the warrant and may limit how universally the claim applies. The necessity of qualifying words comes from the plain fact that most absolute claims are ultimately false (all women want to be mothers, e.g.) because one counterexample sinks them immediately. Thus, most arguments need some sort of qualifier, words that temper an absolute claim and make it more reasonable. Common qualifiers include “most,” “usually,” “always,” or “sometimes.” For example,

Hearing aids help most people.

The qualifier “most” here allows for the reasonable understanding that rarely does one thing (a hearing aid) universally benefit all people. Another variant is the reservation, which may give the possibility of the claim being incorrect:

Unless there is evidence to the contrary, hearing aids do no harm to ears.

Qualifiers and reservations can be used to bolster weak arguments, so it is important to recognize them. They are often used by advertisers who are constrained not to lie. Thus, they slip “usually,” “virtually,” “unless,” and so on into their claims to protect against liability. While this may seem like sneaky practice, and it can be for some advertisers, it is important to note that the use of qualifiers and reservations can be a useful and legitimate part of an argument.

Rebuttal: Despite the careful construction of the argument, there may still be counterarguments that can be used. These may be rebutted either through a continued dialogue, or by pre-empting the counter-argument by giving the rebuttal during the initial presentation of the argument. For example, if you anticipated a counterargument that hearing aids, as a technology, may be fraught with technical difficulties, you would include a rebuttal to deal with that counterargument:

There is a support desk that deals with technical problems.

Any rebuttal is an argument in itself, and thus may include a claim, warrant, backing, and the other parts of the Toulmin structure.

Even if you do not wish to write an essay using strict Toulmin structure, using the Toulmin checklist can make an argument stronger. When first proposed, Toulmin based his layout on legal arguments, intending it to be used analyzing arguments typically found in the courtroom; in fact, Toulmin did not realize that this layout would be applicable to other fields until later. The first three elements–“claim,” “grounds,” and “warrant”–are considered the essential components of practical arguments, while the last three—“qualifier,” “backing,” and “rebuttal”—may not be necessary for all arguments.

Toulmin Exercise

Find an argument in essay form and diagram it using the Toulmin model. The argument can come from an Op-Ed article in a newspaper or a magazine think piece or a scholarly journal. See if you can find all six elements of the Toulmin argument. Use the structure above to diagram your article’s argument.

Attributions

“Toulmin Argument Model” by Liza Long, Amy Minervini, and Joel Gladd is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Writing Arguments in STEM Copyright © by Jason Peters; Jennifer Bates; Erin Martin-Elston; Sadie Johann; Rebekah Maples; Anne Regan; and Morgan White is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book

Feedback/errata.

Comments are closed.

Logo for Idaho Pressbooks Consortium

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

62 Toulmin Argument Model

Toulmin argument model.

Stephen Edelston Toulmin (born March 25, 1922) was a British philosopher, author, and educator. Toulmin devoted his works to analyzing moral reasoning. He sought to develop practical ways to evaluate ethical arguments effectively. The Toulmin Model of Argumentation, a diagram containing six interrelated components, was considered Toulmin’s most influential work, particularly in the fields of rhetoric, communication, and computer science.  His components continue to provide useful means for analyzing arguments, and the terms involved can be added to those defined in earlier sections of this chapter.

Toulmin Argument Model

The following are the parts of a Toulmin argument:

1.  Claim : The claim is a statement that you are asking the other person to accept as true (i.e., a conclusion) and forms the nexus of the Toulmin argument because all the other parts relate back to the claim. The claim can include information and ideas you are asking readers to accept as true or actions you want them to accept and enact.  One example of a claim:

My grandfather should wear a hearing aid.

This claim both asks the reader to believe an idea and suggests an action to enact.  However, like all claims, it can be challenged.  Thus, a Toulmin argument does not end with a claim but also includes grounds and warrant to give support and reasoning to the claim.

2.  Grounds : The grounds form the basis of real persuasion and includes the reasoning behind the claim, data, and proof of expertise. Think of grounds as a combination of  premises  and  support .  The truth of the claim rests upon the grounds, so those grounds should be tested for strength, credibility, relevance, and reliability.  The following are examples of grounds:

Over 70% of all people over 65 years have a hearing difficulty.

Hearing aids raise hearing quality.

Information is usually a powerful element of persuasion, although it does affect people differently. Those who are dogmatic, logical, or rational will more likely be persuaded by factual data. Those who argue emotionally and who are highly invested in their own position will challenge it or otherwise try to ignore it. Thus, grounds can also include appeals to emotion, provided they aren’t misused.  The best arguments, however, use a variety of support and rhetorical appeals.

3.  Warrant : A warrant links data and other grounds to a claim, legitimizing the claim by showing the grounds to be  relevant . The warrant may be carefully explained and explicit or unspoken and implicit. The warrant answers the question, “Why does that data mean your claim is true?”  For example,

A hearing aid helps most people hear better.

The warrant may be simple, and it may also be a longer argument with additional sub-elements including those described below.  Warrants may be based on  logos ,  ethos  or  pathos , or values that are assumed to be shared with the listener.  In many arguments, warrants are often implicit and, hence, unstated. This gives space for the other person to question and expose the warrant, perhaps to show it is weak or unfounded.

4.  Backing : The backing for an argument gives additional support to the warrant.  Backing can be confused with grounds, but the main difference is this: Grounds should directly support the premises of the main argument itself, while backing exists to help the warrants make more sense. For example,

Hearing aids are available locally.

This statement works as backing because it gives credence to the warrant stated above, that a hearing aid will help most people hear better.  The fact that hearing aids are readily available makes the warrant even more reasonable.

5.  Qualifier : The qualifier indicates how the data justifies the warrant and may limit how universally the claim applies. The necessity of qualifying words comes from the plain fact that most absolute claims are ultimately false (all women want to be mothers, e.g.) because one counterexample sinks them immediately.  Thus, most arguments need some sort of qualifier, words that temper an absolute claim and make it more reasonable.  Common qualifiers include “most,” “usually,” “always,” or “sometimes.” For example,

Hearing aids help most people.

The qualifier “most” here allows for the reasonable understanding that rarely does one thing (a hearing aid) universally benefit all people.  Another variant is the reservation, which may give the possibility of the claim being incorrect:

Unless there is evidence to the contrary, hearing aids do no harm to ears.

Qualifiers and reservations can be used to bolster weak arguments, so it is important to recognize them.  They are often used by advertisers who are constrained not to lie. Thus, they slip “usually,” “virtually,” “unless,” and so on into their claims to protect against liability.  While this may seem like sneaky practice, and it can be for some advertisers, it is important to note that the use of qualifiers and reservations can be a useful and legitimate part of an argument.

6.  Rebuttal :  Despite the careful construction of the argument, there may still be counterarguments that can be used. These may be rebutted either through a continued dialogue, or by pre-empting the counter-argument by giving the rebuttal during the initial presentation of the argument.  For example, if you anticipated a counterargument that hearing aids, as a technology, may be fraught with technical difficulties, you would include a rebuttal to deal with that counterargument:

There is a support desk that deals with technical problems.

Any rebuttal is an argument in itself, and thus may include a claim, warrant, backing, and the other parts of the Toulmin structure.

Even if you do not wish to write an essay using strict Toulmin structure, using the Toulmin checklist can make an argument stronger.  When first proposed, Toulmin based his layout on legal arguments, intending it to be used analyzing arguments typically found in the courtroom; in fact, Toulmin did not realize that this layout would be applicable to other fields until later.  The first three elements–“claim,” “grounds,” and “warrant”–are considered the essential components of practical arguments, while the last three—“qualifier,” “backing,” and “rebuttal”—may not be necessary for all arguments.

Toulmin Exercise

Find an argument in essay form and diagram it using the Toulmin model.  The argument can come from an Op-Ed article in a newspaper or a magazine think piece or a scholarly journal.  See if you can find all six elements of the Toulmin argument. Use the structure above to diagram your article’s argument.

Write What Matters Copyright © 2020 by Liza Long; Amy Minervini; and Joel Gladd is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book

Table of Contents

Collaboration, information literacy, writing process, toulmin argument.

Stephen Toulmin's model of argumentation theorizes six rhetorical moves constitute argumentation: Evidence , Warrant , Claim , Qualifier , Rebuttal, and Backing . Learn to develop clear, persuasive arguments and to critique the arguments of others. By learning this model, you'll gain the skills to construct clearer, more persuasive arguments and critically assess the arguments presented by others, enhancing your writing and analytical abilities in academic and professional settings.

Toulmin Model Example by Chiswick Chap, CC BY-SA 3.0

Stephen Toulmin’s (1958) model of argument conceptualizes argument as a series of six rhetorical moves :

  • Data, Evidence
  • Counterargument, Counterclaim
  • Reservation/Rebuttal

Related Concepts

Evidence ; Persuasion; Rhetorical Analysis ; Rhetorical Reasoning

Why Does Toulmin Argument Matter?

Toulmin’s model of argumentation is particularly valuable for college students because it provides a structured framework for analyzing and constructing arguments, skills that are essential across various academic disciplines and real-world situations.

By understanding Toulmin’s components—claim, evidence, warrant, backing, qualifier, and rebuttal—students can develop more coherent, persuasive arguments and critically evaluate the arguments of others. This model encourages students to think deeply about the logic and effectiveness of their argumentation, emphasizing the importance of supporting claims with solid evidence and reasoning. Additionally, familiarity with Toulmin’s model prepares students for scenarios involving critical analysis and debate, whether in writing essays, participating in discussions, or presenting research.

By mastering this model, students enhance their ability to communicate effectively, a crucial skill for academic success and professional advancement.

When should writers or speakers consider Toulmin’s model of argument?

Toulmin’s model of argument works especially well in situations where disputes are being reviewed by a third party — such as judge, an arbitrator, or evaluation committee.

Declarative knowledge of Toulmin Argument helps with

  • inventing or developing your own arguments (even if you’re developing a Rogerian or Aristotelian argument )
  • critiquing your arguments or the arguments of others.

Summary of Stephen Toulmin’s Model of Argument

The three essential components of argument.

Stephen Toulmin’s model of argument posits the three essential elements of an argument are

  • Data (aka a Fact or Evidence)
  • Warrant (which the writer, speaker, knowledge worker . . . may imply rather than explicitly state).

Toulmin’s model presumes data, matters of fact and opinion, must be supplied as evidence to support a claim. The claim focuses the discourse by explicitly stating the desired conclusion of the argument.

In turn, a warrant, the third essential component of an argument, provides the reasoning that links the data to the claim.

argumentative essay toulmin model

The example in Figure 1 demonstrates the abstract, hypothetical linking between a claim and data that a warrant provides. Prior to this link–that. people born in Bermuda are British–the claim that Harry is a British subject because he was born in Bermuda is unsubstantiated.

The 6 Elements of Successful Argument

While the argument presented in Figure 1 is a simple one, life is not always simple.

In situations where people are likely to dispute the application of a warrant to data, you may need to develop backing for your warrants. o account for the conflicting desires and assumptions of an audience, Toulmin identifies a second triad of components that may not be used:

  • Reservation
  • Qualification.

Charles Kneupper provides us with the following diagram of these six elements (238):

argumentative essay toulmin model

*This article is adapted from Moxley, Joseph M. “ Reinventing the Wheel or Teaching the Basics ?:  College Writers ‘  Knowledge of Argumentation .” Composition. Studies 21.2 (1993): 3-15.

Kneupper, C. W. (1978). Teaching Argument: An Introduction to the Toulmin Model.  College Composition and Communication ,  29 (3), 237–241. https://doi.org/10.2307/356935

Moxley, Joseph M. “ Reinventing the Wheel or Teaching the Basics ?:  College Writers ‘  Knowledge of Argumentation .” Composition. Studies 21.2 (1993): 3-15.

Toulmin, S. (1969).  The Uses of Argument , Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press

Brevity - Say More with Less

Brevity - Say More with Less

Clarity (in Speech and Writing)

Clarity (in Speech and Writing)

Coherence - How to Achieve Coherence in Writing

Coherence - How to Achieve Coherence in Writing

Diction

Flow - How to Create Flow in Writing

Inclusivity - Inclusive Language

Inclusivity - Inclusive Language

Simplicity

The Elements of Style - The DNA of Powerful Writing

Unity

Suggested Edits

  • Please select the purpose of your message. * - Corrections, Typos, or Edits Technical Support/Problems using the site Advertising with Writing Commons Copyright Issues I am contacting you about something else
  • Your full name
  • Your email address *
  • Page URL needing edits *
  • Name This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

Other Topics:

Citation - Definition - Introduction to Citation in Academic & Professional Writing

Citation - Definition - Introduction to Citation in Academic & Professional Writing

  • Joseph M. Moxley

Explore the different ways to cite sources in academic and professional writing, including in-text (Parenthetical), numerical, and note citations.

Collaboration - What is the Role of Collaboration in Academic & Professional Writing?

Collaboration - What is the Role of Collaboration in Academic & Professional Writing?

Collaboration refers to the act of working with others or AI to solve problems, coauthor texts, and develop products and services. Collaboration is a highly prized workplace competency in academic...

Genre

Genre may reference a type of writing, art, or musical composition; socially-agreed upon expectations about how writers and speakers should respond to particular rhetorical situations; the cultural values; the epistemological assumptions...

Grammar

Grammar refers to the rules that inform how people and discourse communities use language (e.g., written or spoken English, body language, or visual language) to communicate. Learn about the rhetorical...

Information Literacy - Discerning Quality Information from Noise

Information Literacy - Discerning Quality Information from Noise

Information Literacy refers to the competencies associated with locating, evaluating, using, and archiving information. In order to thrive, much less survive in a global information economy — an economy where information functions as a...

Mindset

Mindset refers to a person or community’s way of feeling, thinking, and acting about a topic. The mindsets you hold, consciously or subconsciously, shape how you feel, think, and act–and...

Rhetoric: Exploring Its Definition and Impact on Modern Communication

Rhetoric: Exploring Its Definition and Impact on Modern Communication

Learn about rhetoric and rhetorical practices (e.g., rhetorical analysis, rhetorical reasoning,  rhetorical situation, and rhetorical stance) so that you can strategically manage how you compose and subsequently produce a text...

Style

Style, most simply, refers to how you say something as opposed to what you say. The style of your writing matters because audiences are unlikely to read your work or...

The Writing Process - Research on Composing

The Writing Process - Research on Composing

The writing process refers to everything you do in order to complete a writing project. Over the last six decades, researchers have studied and theorized about how writers go about...

Writing Studies

Writing Studies

Writing studies refers to an interdisciplinary community of scholars and researchers who study writing. Writing studies also refers to an academic, interdisciplinary discipline – a subject of study. Students in...

Featured Articles

Student engrossed in reading on her laptop, surrounded by a stack of books

Academic Writing – How to Write for the Academic Community

argumentative essay toulmin model

Professional Writing – How to Write for the Professional World

argumentative essay toulmin model

Authority – How to Establish Credibility in Speech & Writing

Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Organizing Your Argument

OWL logo

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

This page summarizes three historical methods for argumentation, providing structural templates for each.

How can I effectively present my argument?

In order for your argument to be persuasive, it must use an organizational structure that the audience perceives as both logical and easy to parse. Three argumentative methods —the  Toulmin Method , Classical Method , and Rogerian Method — give guidance for how to organize the points in an argument.

Note that these are only three of the most popular models for organizing an argument. Alternatives exist. Be sure to consult your instructor and/or defer to your assignment’s directions if you’re unsure which to use (if any).

Toulmin Method

The  Toulmin Method  is a formula that allows writers to build a sturdy logical foundation for their arguments. First proposed by author Stephen Toulmin in  The Uses of Argument (1958), the Toulmin Method emphasizes building a thorough support structure for each of an argument's key claims.

The basic format for the Toulmin Method  is as follows:

Claim:  In this section, you explain your overall thesis on the subject. In other words, you make your main argument.

Data (Grounds):  You should use evidence to support the claim. In other words, provide the reader with facts that prove your argument is strong.

Warrant (Bridge):  In this section, you explain why or how your data supports the claim. As a result, the underlying assumption that you build your argument on is grounded in reason.

Backing (Foundation):  Here, you provide any additional logic or reasoning that may be necessary to support the warrant.

Counterclaim:  You should anticipate a counterclaim that negates the main points in your argument. Don't avoid arguments that oppose your own. Instead, become familiar with the opposing perspective.   If you respond to counterclaims, you appear unbiased (and, therefore, you earn the respect of your readers). You may even want to include several counterclaims to show that you have thoroughly researched the topic.

Rebuttal:  In this section, you incorporate your own evidence that disagrees with the counterclaim. It is essential to include a thorough warrant or bridge to strengthen your essay’s argument. If you present data to your audience without explaining how it supports your thesis, your readers may not make a connection between the two, or they may draw different conclusions.

Example of the Toulmin Method:

Claim:  Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.

Data1:  Driving a private car is a typical citizen's most air-polluting activity.

Warrant 1:  Due to the fact that cars are the largest source of private (as opposed to industrial) air pollution, switching to hybrid cars should have an impact on fighting pollution.

Data 2:  Each vehicle produced is going to stay on the road for roughly 12 to 15 years.

Warrant 2:  Cars generally have a long lifespan, meaning that the decision to switch to a hybrid car will make a long-term impact on pollution levels.

Data 3:  Hybrid cars combine a gasoline engine with a battery-powered electric motor.

Warrant 3:  The combination of these technologies produces less pollution.

Counterclaim:  Instead of focusing on cars, which still encourages an inefficient culture of driving even as it cuts down on pollution, the nation should focus on building and encouraging the use of mass transit systems.

Rebuttal:  While mass transit is an idea that should be encouraged, it is not feasible in many rural and suburban areas, or for people who must commute to work. Thus, hybrid cars are a better solution for much of the nation's population.

Rogerian Method

The Rogerian Method  (named for, but not developed by, influential American psychotherapist Carl R. Rogers) is a popular method for controversial issues. This strategy seeks to find a common ground between parties by making the audience understand perspectives that stretch beyond (or even run counter to) the writer’s position. Moreso than other methods, it places an emphasis on reiterating an opponent's argument to his or her satisfaction. The persuasive power of the Rogerian Method lies in its ability to define the terms of the argument in such a way that:

  • your position seems like a reasonable compromise.
  • you seem compassionate and empathetic.

The basic format of the Rogerian Method  is as follows:

Introduction:  Introduce the issue to the audience, striving to remain as objective as possible.

Opposing View : Explain the other side’s position in an unbiased way. When you discuss the counterargument without judgement, the opposing side can see how you do not directly dismiss perspectives which conflict with your stance.

Statement of Validity (Understanding):  This section discusses how you acknowledge how the other side’s points can be valid under certain circumstances. You identify how and why their perspective makes sense in a specific context, but still present your own argument.

Statement of Your Position:  By this point, you have demonstrated that you understand the other side’s viewpoint. In this section, you explain your own stance.

Statement of Contexts : Explore scenarios in which your position has merit. When you explain how your argument is most appropriate for certain contexts, the reader can recognize that you acknowledge the multiple ways to view the complex issue.

Statement of Benefits:  You should conclude by explaining to the opposing side why they would benefit from accepting your position. By explaining the advantages of your argument, you close on a positive note without completely dismissing the other side’s perspective.

Example of the Rogerian Method:

Introduction:  The issue of whether children should wear school uniforms is subject to some debate.

Opposing View:  Some parents think that requiring children to wear uniforms is best.

Statement of Validity (Understanding):  Those parents who support uniforms argue that, when all students wear the same uniform, the students can develop a unified sense of school pride and inclusiveness.

Statement of Your Position : Students should not be required to wear school uniforms. Mandatory uniforms would forbid choices that allow students to be creative and express themselves through clothing.

Statement of Contexts:  However, even if uniforms might hypothetically promote inclusivity, in most real-life contexts, administrators can use uniform policies to enforce conformity. Students should have the option to explore their identity through clothing without the fear of being ostracized.

Statement of Benefits:  Though both sides seek to promote students' best interests, students should not be required to wear school uniforms. By giving students freedom over their choice, students can explore their self-identity by choosing how to present themselves to their peers.

Classical Method

The Classical Method of structuring an argument is another common way to organize your points. Originally devised by the Greek philosopher Aristotle (and then later developed by Roman thinkers like Cicero and Quintilian), classical arguments tend to focus on issues of definition and the careful application of evidence. Thus, the underlying assumption of classical argumentation is that, when all parties understand the issue perfectly, the correct course of action will be clear.

The basic format of the Classical Method  is as follows:

Introduction (Exordium): Introduce the issue and explain its significance. You should also establish your credibility and the topic’s legitimacy.

Statement of Background (Narratio): Present vital contextual or historical information to the audience to further their understanding of the issue. By doing so, you provide the reader with a working knowledge about the topic independent of your own stance.

Proposition (Propositio): After you provide the reader with contextual knowledge, you are ready to state your claims which relate to the information you have provided previously. This section outlines your major points for the reader.

Proof (Confirmatio): You should explain your reasons and evidence to the reader. Be sure to thoroughly justify your reasons. In this section, if necessary, you can provide supplementary evidence and subpoints.

Refutation (Refuatio): In this section, you address anticipated counterarguments that disagree with your thesis. Though you acknowledge the other side’s perspective, it is important to prove why your stance is more logical.  

Conclusion (Peroratio): You should summarize your main points. The conclusion also caters to the reader’s emotions and values. The use of pathos here makes the reader more inclined to consider your argument.  

Example of the Classical Method:  

Introduction (Exordium): Millions of workers are paid a set hourly wage nationwide. The federal minimum wage is standardized to protect workers from being paid too little. Research points to many viewpoints on how much to pay these workers. Some families cannot afford to support their households on the current wages provided for performing a minimum wage job .

Statement of Background (Narratio): Currently, millions of American workers struggle to make ends meet on a minimum wage. This puts a strain on workers’ personal and professional lives. Some work multiple jobs to provide for their families.

Proposition (Propositio): The current federal minimum wage should be increased to better accommodate millions of overworked Americans. By raising the minimum wage, workers can spend more time cultivating their livelihoods.

Proof (Confirmatio): According to the United States Department of Labor, 80.4 million Americans work for an hourly wage, but nearly 1.3 million receive wages less than the federal minimum. The pay raise will alleviate the stress of these workers. Their lives would benefit from this raise because it affects multiple areas of their lives.

Refutation (Refuatio): There is some evidence that raising the federal wage might increase the cost of living. However, other evidence contradicts this or suggests that the increase would not be great. Additionally,   worries about a cost of living increase must be balanced with the benefits of providing necessary funds to millions of hardworking Americans.

Conclusion (Peroratio): If the federal minimum wage was raised, many workers could alleviate some of their financial burdens. As a result, their emotional wellbeing would improve overall. Though some argue that the cost of living could increase, the benefits outweigh the potential drawbacks.

Toulmin Method: Guide to Writing a Successful Essay

How to write an essay in the toulmin method.

Argumentative essays are a genre of writing that challenges the student to research a topic, gather, generate and evaluate evidence, and summarize a position on the issue. It helps to get as much benefit out of the study as possible. The Toulmin model essay could be part of the shaping and self-understanding of the individual, and one day it will provide evidence to rely on in becoming a professional.

What is the Toulmin Method?

The essay form has become widespread in contemporary higher education, so many students are faced with this question – how to write an essay using the Toulmin model? The idea of an essay comes to us from the Anglo-Saxon educational tradition, where it is one of the basic elements of learning, especially in the early years. Starting an essay, especially an argument one, is a creative and demanding task. Not all students have time for such a job, given their academic schedule. If you want professional assistance, you can hire a writer to write an argumentative essay to make sure of the quality.

Toulmin’s approach, based on logic and in-depth analysis, is best suited to solving complex questions. The British philosopher and professor engaged in practical argumentation believed that it is a process of proposing hypotheses involving the discovery of new ideas and verifying existing information. In The Uses of Argument (1958), Stephen Toulmin proposed a set containing six interrelated components for analyzing arguments, and these are what we will talk about today. Toulmin considered that a good argument could be successful in credibility and resistance to additional criticism. We shall therefore take a look at how it is done.

How do you compose an essay based on Toulmin model? Formulate the statement that you intend to defend. Provide evidence to support it. Then use the factors we talk about below. As an alternative, you can use information from a custom essay writing service that guarantees a good grade. Not everyone is really gifted at writing well-organized texts.

The Six Parts of The Toulmin Argument

The structure of Toulmin argumentative essay is slightly more complex than in other types of papers.

Toulmin Method Diagram

Think of this section as the main idea behind the whole argument. The claim can be divided into five following categories:

  • definitions,
  • strategies.

This is the part dealing with the answer to the question, “What is the author trying to prove?”.

The arguments are referred to as the basis for the claim. This is everything that the statement is referring to. It can be statistics, facts, evidence, expert opinions, or public attitudes. At this point, the following issue arises: “What is the author trying to demonstrate his point with?”. This is the body where the connection between the data and the argument is established.

Warrants are assumptions that show how and why the available data results in the claim. It gives credibility to the latter. In addition, it is often common knowledge for both the author and the audience, so in most cases, it is not expressed literally but only implied. The guiding question for determining the warrant of an argument has to be asked, “Why does the author draw this conclusion from the data?”.

Warrant Based Generalization

In the simplest Toulmin essays, the generalization essentially summarizes the common knowledge that applies to each specific case. Due to its simplicity, this technique is also used in public speaking as well as in Toulmin model essay.

Warrant Based on Analogy

An argument by analogy is an argument that is made by extrapolating information from one case to another. This is because they share many characteristics. Therefore, an argument by analogy is also very common.

Warrant Based on Sign

It is a matter of one thing deriving from something else. So one thing indicates the existence of another.

Warrant Based on Causality

The relationship between phenomena in which one major thing called the cause, given certain circumstances, brings about another thing called the effect.

Warrant Based on Authority

It is a reference to the views of persons who are recognized or influential in a particular technology or area of activity in society.

Warrant Based on Principle

Values and attitudes are the brightest and most important factors brought in argumentation. They can equally facilitate the achievement of mutual understanding, make it more difficult, and initially block the development of dialogue.

These are extensions aimed at reinforcing the statement expressed in the introduction. Such support should be used when the grounds themselves are not sufficiently persuasive to the readers and listeners.

It limits the credibility of the claim or describes the conditions under which such a claim is true. If the argument does not assume the existence of another opinion, it will be regarded as feeble. If you struggle to conceive of a contrary view, then writing the rebuttal may seem difficult. We advise you to read through the examples.

These can be words or phrases showing the author’s degree of confidence in the statement, namely: likely, possible, impossible, and unconditional.

The first three elements are considered essential to practical argumentation, while the last three are not always indispensable. An argument described in this way in a counter argument essay reveals its strength and limitations. This is the way it should be. There should be no argument that seems stronger than it is or applies more broadly than it is intended to. The point is not to outplay or defeat every counter-argument, but to get as close to the truth or a suitable solution as we are capable of. Once you have familiarized yourself with the process, you may find it complicated; however, don’t get frustrated and use an additional argumentative essay writing service to create a proper sample.

Sample of a Toulmin Argument Model

The following example of body paragraphs is for you to consider:

People should probably have firearms.
  • Claim: People should probably have firearms.
  • Grounds: People want to be protected.
  • Warrant: Self-defense with a firearm is much more effective.
  • Backing: Research shows that firearms owners are less likely to be robbed.
  • Rebuttal: Not everyone should have access to firearms. Children and people with intellectual disabilities, for example, should not own firearms.
  • Qualifier: The percentage of the population with intellectual health illnesses is much lower than that of the average human. The phrase ” probably” in the claim’s wording is a qualifier.

Essay Which Shows Toulmin Method

So why don’t we put all six points into practice and write a good argumentative essay to enhance understanding?

There is an age-old question of the 21st century. However, are current games more harmful or beneficial? To answer it as objectively as possible, one must rely on biology and psychology. Researchers at the University of Central Florida have proven that taking a short break from work to play a video game is far more effective in relieving stress than inactivity with total gadget avoidance and even meditation. Video games can be educational and informative. A popular stereotype is that games are bad for you. They overload the brain or are just a waste of time. Nonsense, there are plenty of benefits to be gained from gameplay if you know the limits.

Play is a way of making the brain stimulated. Games contribute to the socialization of people. Multiplayer games teach social interaction, trust, dialogue, group work, leadership, and management skills. It turns out that those who spend a lot of leisure on a PC or console solve difficult tasks easier. Attention to detail and the speed of brain and eye reactions, accelerated interaction between them, muscle response – all these things are trained to the highest degree. To do this kind of training in real life without threatening your health, you have to try very hard.

Researchers at the Open University of Catalonia have found that video games can positively affect memory, solve difficult issues, build algorithms, and improve attention span and other cognitive abilities of the brain. They stated that video game enthusiasts have an increase in the right side of the hippocampus, which is responsible for memory, over time. Studies have also shown their effectiveness in second language acquisition, learning math, and science. This is potentially good news for pupils, students, and the millions of people who love to play.

In addition, video games have changed significantly in recent years; they have become more complex, realistic, and socially oriented. Although video games have a pure entertainment status, their popularity has been deployed in the service of medicine with the aim of increasing patient health motivation.

Are all computer games completely harmless, and are they a great form of leisure? When it comes to the harms of computer games, they are mainly associated with excessive use. Taking a break will reduce the negative effects. To label them as “bad”, “violent”, and “aggressive” is to overlook many aspects inherent in modern games. People choose games with their advantages and disadvantages depending on their own inner motivation.

Don’t underestimate the importance of computer games as a stress reliever after a stressful day. It’s important to be able to distract yourself and just relax. And joining a virtual world is one of the easiest and most effective ways to escape from external problems for a while.

Most people who have experienced gaming either perceive the activity in a negative or a positive way. The indifferent ones, by and large, are few.

Related posts:

  • How To Write A Good Compare And Contrast Essay: Topics, Examples And Step-by-step Guide

How to Write a Scholarship Essay

  • The Best Online AP Courses For High School Students [Full Guide]
  • Explaining Appeal to Ignorance Fallacy with Demonstrative Examples

Improve your writing with our guides

How to Write a Scholarship Essay

Definition Essay: The Complete Guide with Essay Topics and Examples

Critical Essay: The Complete Guide. Essay Topics, Examples and Outlines

Critical Essay: The Complete Guide. Essay Topics, Examples and Outlines

Get 15% off your first order with edusson.

Connect with a professional writer within minutes by placing your first order. No matter the subject, difficulty, academic level or document type, our writers have the skills to complete it.

100% privacy. No spam ever.

argumentative essay toulmin model

PrepScholar

Choose Your Test

Sat / act prep online guides and tips, 3 strong argumentative essay examples, analyzed.

author image

General Education

feature_argumentativeessay

Need to defend your opinion on an issue? Argumentative essays are one of the most popular types of essays you’ll write in school. They combine persuasive arguments with fact-based research, and, when done well, can be powerful tools for making someone agree with your point of view. If you’re struggling to write an argumentative essay or just want to learn more about them, seeing examples can be a big help.

After giving an overview of this type of essay, we provide three argumentative essay examples. After each essay, we explain in-depth how the essay was structured, what worked, and where the essay could be improved. We end with tips for making your own argumentative essay as strong as possible.

What Is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is an essay that uses evidence and facts to support the claim it’s making. Its purpose is to persuade the reader to agree with the argument being made.

A good argumentative essay will use facts and evidence to support the argument, rather than just the author’s thoughts and opinions. For example, say you wanted to write an argumentative essay stating that Charleston, SC is a great destination for families. You couldn’t just say that it’s a great place because you took your family there and enjoyed it. For it to be an argumentative essay, you need to have facts and data to support your argument, such as the number of child-friendly attractions in Charleston, special deals you can get with kids, and surveys of people who visited Charleston as a family and enjoyed it. The first argument is based entirely on feelings, whereas the second is based on evidence that can be proven.

The standard five paragraph format is common, but not required, for argumentative essays. These essays typically follow one of two formats: the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model.

  • The Toulmin model is the most common. It begins with an introduction, follows with a thesis/claim, and gives data and evidence to support that claim. This style of essay also includes rebuttals of counterarguments.
  • The Rogerian model analyzes two sides of an argument and reaches a conclusion after weighing the strengths and weaknesses of each.

3 Good Argumentative Essay Examples + Analysis

Below are three examples of argumentative essays, written by yours truly in my school days, as well as analysis of what each did well and where it could be improved.

Argumentative Essay Example 1

Proponents of this idea state that it will save local cities and towns money because libraries are expensive to maintain. They also believe it will encourage more people to read because they won’t have to travel to a library to get a book; they can simply click on what they want to read and read it from wherever they are. They could also access more materials because libraries won’t have to buy physical copies of books; they can simply rent out as many digital copies as they need.

However, it would be a serious mistake to replace libraries with tablets. First, digital books and resources are associated with less learning and more problems than print resources. A study done on tablet vs book reading found that people read 20-30% slower on tablets, retain 20% less information, and understand 10% less of what they read compared to people who read the same information in print. Additionally, staring too long at a screen has been shown to cause numerous health problems, including blurred vision, dizziness, dry eyes, headaches, and eye strain, at much higher instances than reading print does. People who use tablets and mobile devices excessively also have a higher incidence of more serious health issues such as fibromyalgia, shoulder and back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and muscle strain. I know that whenever I read from my e-reader for too long, my eyes begin to feel tired and my neck hurts. We should not add to these problems by giving people, especially young people, more reasons to look at screens.

Second, it is incredibly narrow-minded to assume that the only service libraries offer is book lending. Libraries have a multitude of benefits, and many are only available if the library has a physical location. Some of these benefits include acting as a quiet study space, giving people a way to converse with their neighbors, holding classes on a variety of topics, providing jobs, answering patron questions, and keeping the community connected. One neighborhood found that, after a local library instituted community events such as play times for toddlers and parents, job fairs for teenagers, and meeting spaces for senior citizens, over a third of residents reported feeling more connected to their community. Similarly, a Pew survey conducted in 2015 found that nearly two-thirds of American adults feel that closing their local library would have a major impact on their community. People see libraries as a way to connect with others and get their questions answered, benefits tablets can’t offer nearly as well or as easily.

While replacing libraries with tablets may seem like a simple solution, it would encourage people to spend even more time looking at digital screens, despite the myriad issues surrounding them. It would also end access to many of the benefits of libraries that people have come to rely on. In many areas, libraries are such an important part of the community network that they could never be replaced by a simple object.

The author begins by giving an overview of the counter-argument, then the thesis appears as the first sentence in the third paragraph. The essay then spends the rest of the paper dismantling the counter argument and showing why readers should believe the other side.

What this essay does well:

  • Although it’s a bit unusual to have the thesis appear fairly far into the essay, it works because, once the thesis is stated, the rest of the essay focuses on supporting it since the counter-argument has already been discussed earlier in the paper.
  • This essay includes numerous facts and cites studies to support its case. By having specific data to rely on, the author’s argument is stronger and readers will be more inclined to agree with it.
  • For every argument the other side makes, the author makes sure to refute it and follow up with why her opinion is the stronger one. In order to make a strong argument, it’s important to dismantle the other side, which this essay does this by making the author's view appear stronger.
  • This is a shorter paper, and if it needed to be expanded to meet length requirements, it could include more examples and go more into depth with them, such as by explaining specific cases where people benefited from local libraries.
  • Additionally, while the paper uses lots of data, the author also mentions their own experience with using tablets. This should be removed since argumentative essays focus on facts and data to support an argument, not the author’s own opinion or experiences. Replacing that with more data on health issues associated with screen time would strengthen the essay.
  • Some of the points made aren't completely accurate , particularly the one about digital books being cheaper. It actually often costs a library more money to rent out numerous digital copies of a book compared to buying a single physical copy. Make sure in your own essay you thoroughly research each of the points and rebuttals you make, otherwise you'll look like you don't know the issue that well.

body_argue

Argumentative Essay Example 2

There are multiple drugs available to treat malaria, and many of them work well and save lives, but malaria eradication programs that focus too much on them and not enough on prevention haven’t seen long-term success in Sub-Saharan Africa. A major program to combat malaria was WHO’s Global Malaria Eradication Programme. Started in 1955, it had a goal of eliminating malaria in Africa within the next ten years. Based upon previously successful programs in Brazil and the United States, the program focused mainly on vector control. This included widely distributing chloroquine and spraying large amounts of DDT. More than one billion dollars was spent trying to abolish malaria. However, the program suffered from many problems and in 1969, WHO was forced to admit that the program had not succeeded in eradicating malaria. The number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa who contracted malaria as well as the number of malaria deaths had actually increased over 10% during the time the program was active.

One of the major reasons for the failure of the project was that it set uniform strategies and policies. By failing to consider variations between governments, geography, and infrastructure, the program was not nearly as successful as it could have been. Sub-Saharan Africa has neither the money nor the infrastructure to support such an elaborate program, and it couldn’t be run the way it was meant to. Most African countries don't have the resources to send all their people to doctors and get shots, nor can they afford to clear wetlands or other malaria prone areas. The continent’s spending per person for eradicating malaria was just a quarter of what Brazil spent. Sub-Saharan Africa simply can’t rely on a plan that requires more money, infrastructure, and expertise than they have to spare.

Additionally, the widespread use of chloroquine has created drug resistant parasites which are now plaguing Sub-Saharan Africa. Because chloroquine was used widely but inconsistently, mosquitoes developed resistance, and chloroquine is now nearly completely ineffective in Sub-Saharan Africa, with over 95% of mosquitoes resistant to it. As a result, newer, more expensive drugs need to be used to prevent and treat malaria, which further drives up the cost of malaria treatment for a region that can ill afford it.

Instead of developing plans to treat malaria after the infection has incurred, programs should focus on preventing infection from occurring in the first place. Not only is this plan cheaper and more effective, reducing the number of people who contract malaria also reduces loss of work/school days which can further bring down the productivity of the region.

One of the cheapest and most effective ways of preventing malaria is to implement insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs).  These nets provide a protective barrier around the person or people using them. While untreated bed nets are still helpful, those treated with insecticides are much more useful because they stop mosquitoes from biting people through the nets, and they help reduce mosquito populations in a community, thus helping people who don’t even own bed nets.  Bed nets are also very effective because most mosquito bites occur while the person is sleeping, so bed nets would be able to drastically reduce the number of transmissions during the night. In fact, transmission of malaria can be reduced by as much as 90% in areas where the use of ITNs is widespread. Because money is so scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa, the low cost is a great benefit and a major reason why the program is so successful. Bed nets cost roughly 2 USD to make, last several years, and can protect two adults. Studies have shown that, for every 100-1000 more nets are being used, one less child dies of malaria. With an estimated 300 million people in Africa not being protected by mosquito nets, there’s the potential to save three million lives by spending just a few dollars per person.

Reducing the number of people who contract malaria would also reduce poverty levels in Africa significantly, thus improving other aspects of society like education levels and the economy. Vector control is more effective than treatment strategies because it means fewer people are getting sick. When fewer people get sick, the working population is stronger as a whole because people are not put out of work from malaria, nor are they caring for sick relatives. Malaria-afflicted families can typically only harvest 40% of the crops that healthy families can harvest. Additionally, a family with members who have malaria spends roughly a quarter of its income treatment, not including the loss of work they also must deal with due to the illness. It’s estimated that malaria costs Africa 12 billion USD in lost income every year. A strong working population creates a stronger economy, which Sub-Saharan Africa is in desperate need of.  

This essay begins with an introduction, which ends with the thesis (that malaria eradication plans in Sub-Saharan Africa should focus on prevention rather than treatment). The first part of the essay lays out why the counter argument (treatment rather than prevention) is not as effective, and the second part of the essay focuses on why prevention of malaria is the better path to take.

  • The thesis appears early, is stated clearly, and is supported throughout the rest of the essay. This makes the argument clear for readers to understand and follow throughout the essay.
  • There’s lots of solid research in this essay, including specific programs that were conducted and how successful they were, as well as specific data mentioned throughout. This evidence helps strengthen the author’s argument.
  • The author makes a case for using expanding bed net use over waiting until malaria occurs and beginning treatment, but not much of a plan is given for how the bed nets would be distributed or how to ensure they’re being used properly. By going more into detail of what she believes should be done, the author would be making a stronger argument.
  • The introduction of the essay does a good job of laying out the seriousness of the problem, but the conclusion is short and abrupt. Expanding it into its own paragraph would give the author a final way to convince readers of her side of the argument.

body_basketball-3

Argumentative Essay Example 3

There are many ways payments could work. They could be in the form of a free-market approach, where athletes are able to earn whatever the market is willing to pay them, it could be a set amount of money per athlete, or student athletes could earn income from endorsements, autographs, and control of their likeness, similar to the way top Olympians earn money.

Proponents of the idea believe that, because college athletes are the ones who are training, participating in games, and bringing in audiences, they should receive some sort of compensation for their work. If there were no college athletes, the NCAA wouldn’t exist, college coaches wouldn’t receive there (sometimes very high) salaries, and brands like Nike couldn’t profit from college sports. In fact, the NCAA brings in roughly $1 billion in revenue a year, but college athletes don’t receive any of that money in the form of a paycheck. Additionally, people who believe college athletes should be paid state that paying college athletes will actually encourage them to remain in college longer and not turn pro as quickly, either by giving them a way to begin earning money in college or requiring them to sign a contract stating they’ll stay at the university for a certain number of years while making an agreed-upon salary.  

Supporters of this idea point to Zion Williamson, the Duke basketball superstar, who, during his freshman year, sustained a serious knee injury. Many argued that, even if he enjoyed playing for Duke, it wasn’t worth risking another injury and ending his professional career before it even began for a program that wasn’t paying him. Williamson seems to have agreed with them and declared his eligibility for the NCAA draft later that year. If he was being paid, he may have stayed at Duke longer. In fact, roughly a third of student athletes surveyed stated that receiving a salary while in college would make them “strongly consider” remaining collegiate athletes longer before turning pro.

Paying athletes could also stop the recruitment scandals that have plagued the NCAA. In 2018, the NCAA stripped the University of Louisville's men's basketball team of its 2013 national championship title because it was discovered coaches were using sex workers to entice recruits to join the team. There have been dozens of other recruitment scandals where college athletes and recruits have been bribed with anything from having their grades changed, to getting free cars, to being straight out bribed. By paying college athletes and putting their salaries out in the open, the NCAA could end the illegal and underhanded ways some schools and coaches try to entice athletes to join.

People who argue against the idea of paying college athletes believe the practice could be disastrous for college sports. By paying athletes, they argue, they’d turn college sports into a bidding war, where only the richest schools could afford top athletes, and the majority of schools would be shut out from developing a talented team (though some argue this already happens because the best players often go to the most established college sports programs, who typically pay their coaches millions of dollars per year). It could also ruin the tight camaraderie of many college teams if players become jealous that certain teammates are making more money than they are.

They also argue that paying college athletes actually means only a small fraction would make significant money. Out of the 350 Division I athletic departments, fewer than a dozen earn any money. Nearly all the money the NCAA makes comes from men’s football and basketball, so paying college athletes would make a small group of men--who likely will be signed to pro teams and begin making millions immediately out of college--rich at the expense of other players.

Those against paying college athletes also believe that the athletes are receiving enough benefits already. The top athletes already receive scholarships that are worth tens of thousands per year, they receive free food/housing/textbooks, have access to top medical care if they are injured, receive top coaching, get travel perks and free gear, and can use their time in college as a way to capture the attention of professional recruiters. No other college students receive anywhere near as much from their schools.

People on this side also point out that, while the NCAA brings in a massive amount of money each year, it is still a non-profit organization. How? Because over 95% of those profits are redistributed to its members’ institutions in the form of scholarships, grants, conferences, support for Division II and Division III teams, and educational programs. Taking away a significant part of that revenue would hurt smaller programs that rely on that money to keep running.

While both sides have good points, it’s clear that the negatives of paying college athletes far outweigh the positives. College athletes spend a significant amount of time and energy playing for their school, but they are compensated for it by the scholarships and perks they receive. Adding a salary to that would result in a college athletic system where only a small handful of athletes (those likely to become millionaires in the professional leagues) are paid by a handful of schools who enter bidding wars to recruit them, while the majority of student athletics and college athletic programs suffer or even shut down for lack of money. Continuing to offer the current level of benefits to student athletes makes it possible for as many people to benefit from and enjoy college sports as possible.

This argumentative essay follows the Rogerian model. It discusses each side, first laying out multiple reasons people believe student athletes should be paid, then discussing reasons why the athletes shouldn’t be paid. It ends by stating that college athletes shouldn’t be paid by arguing that paying them would destroy college athletics programs and cause them to have many of the issues professional sports leagues have.

  • Both sides of the argument are well developed, with multiple reasons why people agree with each side. It allows readers to get a full view of the argument and its nuances.
  • Certain statements on both sides are directly rebuffed in order to show where the strengths and weaknesses of each side lie and give a more complete and sophisticated look at the argument.
  • Using the Rogerian model can be tricky because oftentimes you don’t explicitly state your argument until the end of the paper. Here, the thesis doesn’t appear until the first sentence of the final paragraph. That doesn’t give readers a lot of time to be convinced that your argument is the right one, compared to a paper where the thesis is stated in the beginning and then supported throughout the paper. This paper could be strengthened if the final paragraph was expanded to more fully explain why the author supports the view, or if the paper had made it clearer that paying athletes was the weaker argument throughout.

body_birdfight

3 Tips for Writing a Good Argumentative Essay

Now that you’ve seen examples of what good argumentative essay samples look like, follow these three tips when crafting your own essay.

#1: Make Your Thesis Crystal Clear

The thesis is the key to your argumentative essay; if it isn’t clear or readers can’t find it easily, your entire essay will be weak as a result. Always make sure that your thesis statement is easy to find. The typical spot for it is the final sentence of the introduction paragraph, but if it doesn’t fit in that spot for your essay, try to at least put it as the first or last sentence of a different paragraph so it stands out more.

Also make sure that your thesis makes clear what side of the argument you’re on. After you’ve written it, it’s a great idea to show your thesis to a couple different people--classmates are great for this. Just by reading your thesis they should be able to understand what point you’ll be trying to make with the rest of your essay.

#2: Show Why the Other Side Is Weak

When writing your essay, you may be tempted to ignore the other side of the argument and just focus on your side, but don’t do this. The best argumentative essays really tear apart the other side to show why readers shouldn’t believe it. Before you begin writing your essay, research what the other side believes, and what their strongest points are. Then, in your essay, be sure to mention each of these and use evidence to explain why they’re incorrect/weak arguments. That’ll make your essay much more effective than if you only focused on your side of the argument.

#3: Use Evidence to Support Your Side

Remember, an essay can’t be an argumentative essay if it doesn’t support its argument with evidence. For every point you make, make sure you have facts to back it up. Some examples are previous studies done on the topic, surveys of large groups of people, data points, etc. There should be lots of numbers in your argumentative essay that support your side of the argument. This will make your essay much stronger compared to only relying on your own opinions to support your argument.

Summary: Argumentative Essay Sample

Argumentative essays are persuasive essays that use facts and evidence to support their side of the argument. Most argumentative essays follow either the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model. By reading good argumentative essay examples, you can learn how to develop your essay and provide enough support to make readers agree with your opinion. When writing your essay, remember to always make your thesis clear, show where the other side is weak, and back up your opinion with data and evidence.

What's Next?

Do you need to write an argumentative essay as well?  Check out our guide on the best argumentative essay topics for ideas!

You'll probably also need to write research papers for school.  We've got you covered with 113 potential topics for research papers.

Your college admissions essay may end up being one of the most important essays you write. Follow our step-by-step guide on writing a personal statement to have an essay that'll impress colleges.

Need more help with this topic? Check out Tutorbase!

Our vetted tutor database includes a range of experienced educators who can help you polish an essay for English or explain how derivatives work for Calculus. You can use dozens of filters and search criteria to find the perfect person for your needs.

Connect With a Tutor Now

Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.

Student and Parent Forum

Our new student and parent forum, at ExpertHub.PrepScholar.com , allow you to interact with your peers and the PrepScholar staff. See how other students and parents are navigating high school, college, and the college admissions process. Ask questions; get answers.

Join the Conversation

Ask a Question Below

Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Improve With Our Famous Guides

  • For All Students

The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 160+ SAT Points

How to Get a Perfect 1600, by a Perfect Scorer

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

Score 800 on SAT Math

Score 800 on SAT Reading

Score 800 on SAT Writing

Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section:

Score 600 on SAT Math

Score 600 on SAT Reading

Score 600 on SAT Writing

Free Complete Official SAT Practice Tests

What SAT Target Score Should You Be Aiming For?

15 Strategies to Improve Your SAT Essay

The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 4+ ACT Points

How to Get a Perfect 36 ACT, by a Perfect Scorer

Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:

36 on ACT English

36 on ACT Math

36 on ACT Reading

36 on ACT Science

Series: How to Get to 24 on Each ACT Section:

24 on ACT English

24 on ACT Math

24 on ACT Reading

24 on ACT Science

What ACT target score should you be aiming for?

ACT Vocabulary You Must Know

ACT Writing: 15 Tips to Raise Your Essay Score

How to Get Into Harvard and the Ivy League

How to Get a Perfect 4.0 GPA

How to Write an Amazing College Essay

What Exactly Are Colleges Looking For?

Is the ACT easier than the SAT? A Comprehensive Guide

Should you retake your SAT or ACT?

When should you take the SAT or ACT?

Stay Informed

argumentative essay toulmin model

Get the latest articles and test prep tips!

Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here:

GRE Online Prep Blog

GMAT Online Prep Blog

TOEFL Online Prep Blog

Holly R. "I am absolutely overjoyed and cannot thank you enough for helping me!”

Book cover

International Conference on AI Logic and Applications

AILA 2022 2022: Artificial Intelligence Logic and Applications pp 211–224 Cite as

New Modification to Toulmin Model as an Analytical Framework for Argumentative Essays

  • Donghong Liu   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-7529-2253 7  
  • Conference paper
  • First Online: 10 December 2022

260 Accesses

Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS,volume 1657)

The Toulmin model has provided a clear and flexible set of categories for conducting research on both oral and written argumentation. All kinds of modifications of the model contribute much to the application of Toulmin model to various genres. However, there is still a lack of an appropriate Toulmin framework for argumentative essays because of the deficiencies in those modified models. In this paper a synthesis of modifications to Toulmin model is proposed for analyzing argumentative essays not only to update the Toulmin model, but also to broaden the scope of its application. It reveals justification depth by displaying the hierarchical relationship in arguments, merges Backing into Warrant considering the nature of actual writing. The new model takes in the merits of the previous modified models, clarifies the vagueness of Warrant and avoid the deficiencies of the previous models so that it can explain argumentative essays more efficiently.

  • Argumentation

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution .

Buying options

  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Liao, B.: On the cross over study of the new generation of artificial intelligence and logic. Soc. Sci. China 205 (3), 37–54 (2022)

Google Scholar  

Toulmin, S.: The Uses of Argument, Updated Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2003)

Book   Google Scholar  

Crammond, J.G.: The uses and complexity of argument structures in expert and student persuasive writing. Writ. Commun. 15 , 230–268 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088398015002004

Article   Google Scholar  

Qin, J., Karabacak, E.: The analysis of Toulmin elements in Chinese EFL university argumentative writing. System 38 , 444–456 (2010)

Voss, J.F.: Toulmin’s model and the solving of ill-structured problems. Argumentation 19 , 321–329 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-005-4419-6

Jackson, S., Schneider, J.: Cochrane review as a “warranting device” for reasoning about health. Argumentation 32 (2), 241–272 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-017-9440-z

Liu, D., Lloyd, K.: Rhetoric and Composition Studies. Central China Normal University, Wuhan (2020)

Ramage, J.: Argument in Composition. Anderson. Parlor Press and the WAC Clearinghouse, New York (2007)

Abdollahzadeh, E., Amini Farsani, M., Beikmohammadi, M.: Argumentative writing behavior of graduate EFL learners. Argumentation 31 (4), 641–661 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-016-9415-5

Liu, D., Wan, F.: What makes proficient writers’ essays more persuasive?—a toulmin perspective. Int. J. TESOL Stud. 1 , 1–13 (2020). https://doi.org/10.46451/ijts.2020.06.01

Cheng, F., Chen, Y.: Taiwanese argumentation skills: contrastive rhetoric perspective. Taiwan Int. ESP J. 1 (1), 23–50 (2009)

Whithaus, C.: Claim-Evidence structures in environmental science writing: modifying Toulmin’s model to account for multimodal arguments. Tech. Commun. Q. 21 , 105–128 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1080/10572252.2012.641431

Demicheli, V., Rivetti, A., Debalini, M.G., Pietrantonj, D.P.: Vaccines for measles mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2 , CD004407 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub3

Warren, J.E.: Taming the warrant in Toulmin’s model of argument. Engl. J. 99 (6), 41–46 (2010)

Deng, J.: Does logic matter in assessment arguments?—On the rational logic of arguments and the building of a progressive argument. Foreign Lang. 35 (4), 70–79 (2012)

Jin, L., Zhao, J.: Logical analysis of the analogy based on Toulmin model. Fujian Forum (Humanity Soc. Sci. version) 1 , 81–86 (2016)

Freeman, J.B.: Systemizing Toulmin’s warrants: an epistemic approach. Argumentation 19 , 331–346 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-005-4420-0

Hitchcock, D.: Good reasoning on the Toulmin model. Argumentation 19 , 373–391 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-005-4422-y

Jin, R.: The theory of Tuilei and the justification for the characteristics of ancient Chinese logic. Soc. Sci. 4 , 127–136 (2014)

Liu, D.: Studies on Rhetoricity of Chinese and English Argumentative Genre. Guangming Daily Press, Beijing (2021)

Connor, U.: Linguistic/rhetorical measures for international persuasive student writing. Res. Teach. Engl. 24 (1), 67–87 (1990)

Ferris, D.R.: Rhetorical strategies in student persuasive writing: differences between native and non-native English speakers. Res. Teach. Engl. 28 , 45–62 (1994)

Ju, S., He, Y.: A study of ancient Chinese logic based on universal argumentation: anthems and poems in Spring and Autumn period. Philos. Study 1 , 103–110 (2014)

Asher, N.: Reference to Abstract Objects in Discourse. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1993)

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study is supported by the National Social Science Funds (Grant No. 21FYYB016) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2242022R10038).

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China

Donghong Liu

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Donghong Liu .

Editor information

Editors and affiliations.

East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

Yixiang Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Songmao Zhang

The Dark Side of the InternetThe Internet has brought sweeping changes since the time when it was used (Counterargument-claim) : Information is more accessible; people from different countries communicate with each other; e-commerce becomes the new engine of the economy (Counterargument-data1) . From politics to economy, education to entertainment, and eating to shopping, to some degree, the Internet has penetrated every area of our life (Counterargument-data 2) . There is no doubt that the influence the Internet has exerted on us can be both advantageous and disastrous. However, the bright side of the Internet is so frequently stressed that the dark side tend to be neglected. From my perspective, it’s necessary to disclose its dark side so as to make better use of it (Claim) .

First and foremost, the Internet unites its users but at the same time alienates them (Subclaim1) . On one hand, the Internet facilitates the exchange of different ideas and the communication on a global scale (Counterargument-data 3) . On the other hand, those who are burying themselves in a virtual world often ignore people around them (Rebuttal) . Nowadays, it is a common phenomenon that some participants in a gathering, no matter what kind of gathering it is, always look down at their cellphones. The precious time that is supposed to be spent in talking with loved ones is wasted in surfing the Internet (Data1.1) . Consequently, conflicts between lovers and even between family members gradually arise, and it’s no longer easy for one to maintain a harmonious relationship. Obviously, the Internet shortens the physical distance from one user to another, but it lengthens the psychological distance from one heart to another. (Warrant 1.1B) .

Secondly, the Internet, extolled as “information superhighway”, has caused a series of problems due to its huge and patchy information (Subclaim2) . From one side, too much information can weaken our capability of thinking and solving problems (Subclaim 2.1) . When netizens look through the information online, they are inclined to get a general idea without meditation (Data 2.1.1) . Besides, when more and more people rely on the Internet to find answers, their ability of solving problems declines (Data2.2) . From another, improper information will mislead teenagers and corrupt their mind (Data2.3) . Although the Internet is a powerful tool of spreading knowledge, it is also the hotbed of inappropriate information and false ideas. As few teenagers possess the ability of judging what is good and evil, they are very likely to become the victims of the wrong information (Warrant 2.3B) .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this paper

Cite this paper.

Liu, D. (2022). New Modification to Toulmin Model as an Analytical Framework for Argumentative Essays. In: Chen, Y., Zhang, S. (eds) Artificial Intelligence Logic and Applications. AILA 2022 2022. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1657. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-7510-3_16

Download citation

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-7510-3_16

Published : 10 December 2022

Publisher Name : Springer, Singapore

Print ISBN : 978-981-19-7509-7

Online ISBN : 978-981-19-7510-3

eBook Packages : Computer Science Computer Science (R0)

Share this paper

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Publish with us

Policies and ethics

  • Find a journal
  • Track your research

We use cookies to enhance our website for you. Proceed if you agree to this policy or learn more about it.

  • Essay Database >
  • Essay Examples >
  • Essays Topics >
  • Essay on Global Warming

Argumentative Essay On Toulmin Model Global Warming

Type of paper: Argumentative Essay

Topic: Global Warming , Pollution , World , Evidence , Nature , Development , Environmental Issues , Environment

Words: 2750

Published: 12/12/2019

ORDER PAPER LIKE THIS

Outline This essay will look at the issue of global warming using the Toulmin model (Toulmin, 1; Fullerton.edu, 1). As such, the following sections will be discussed in the essay in line with the model: Claim: Looking at the issue of global warming, it is clear that there are many causes culminating into the pollution of the environment, and the degradation of the ozone layer. There are various factors that can lead to this. The end result is global warming which threatens life on the planet. As such, it is the responsibility of the inhabitants of earth to stop this catastrophe. This essay therefore claims that man has contributed to global warming and holds the key to stopping it. Grounds: This is where the essay will seek to prove that man has actually participated in propelling global warming. It will therefore provide evidence and facts that prove that man’s activities have in one way or another led to the disruption in the cause of nature. As such, his activities lead to global warming and climate change. It will also seek to give evidence that if man changed his ways and put in place some measures, he could as well help in controlling this catastrophe. The grounds will be based on two major arguments and the evidence for them: that man’s activities have greatly contributed to global warming and two, that a change in the order that man does things would go a long way in saving the environment from total degradation. Warrants: in this section, the essay will seek to prove or show the actual relationship between man’s activities and the degradation of the environment. In other words, this is where a correlation will be drawn between the role of man and global warming. Once the link is established, the essay will then prove that if man reversed the order in which he carried out his activities, then the same would be reflected on the environment, thus reducing the pollution rates. Backing: this is where hard evidence will be given for the argument. In this section, the essay will seek to provide some facts through statistical and scientific evidence to show how man has contributed to environmental degradation. For instance, it will provide statistics on the emission rates of carbon dioxide and how these contribute to global warming. It will also give evidence on the various effects of global warming on life in the planet. This is expected to give a strong founding for the essay. Modal Qualifiers: Toulmin (340) observes that in this section, the essay should give evidence that the proposed action would be universally accepted and would not have any negative impacts on the people or the environment. As such, this essay will seek to show that the proposed mitigation measures could go a long way in saving the whole world from the dangers of environmental change. Rebuttal: This is the essay section that will deal with a counter argument on the issue of man’s contribution to causing and preventing environmental degradation. In this section, the essay will seek to prove that there are various causes that lead to global warming, some of which are natural. Since man has no control over the natural events, this argument will be used to prove that man can do nothing to cause or control the process of environmental degradation and global warming. It will seek to show that man is an observer who does nothing but cope with all the environmental challenges that Mother Nature brings along his way.

Claim The issue of global warming is a global concern that has put the leaders of the world in a tight position to find a solution for the climate change issue that is threatening the life on earth. According to the National Geographic (1), these worries are justified. This is mainly because the temperatures on the earth’s surface seem to be rising day in day out. As a result, the levels of the seas are rising and the glaciers in the high peaks on earth as well as the Polar Regions are gradually melting. This poses the threat of an even greater rise in the sea levels. On overall assessment, it emerges quite clearly that man has a great significance to the environmental issues. He has the ability to cause a total disruption of the environment just as he has the ability to control it. As such, it is upon man to decide on what he wants to do with his environment.

There is sufficient evidence to show that man has contributed to the course of environmental pollution which has ultimately led to global warming. There are some activities that man engage in that lead to increased emission. For instance, there is the use of motor vehicles. The car exhaust system leads to emission of carbon dioxide which leads to accumulation of the gas into the atmosphere (Strasburg, 1). Similarly, man, as he seeks comfort, ends up using some home devices that contribute to the release of green house gases. These are appliances such as the air conditioners. However, the greatest contribution that man has to the problem is the through industrial processes. Man engages in various processes that lead to the accumulation of these gases into the atmosphere (Citidata.com, 1; Dick, 1).

Of course, there are adverse effects of these activities to the life of plants and animals on the planet such as change in the weather patterns which affects productivity of the land, poses a threat to the animal habitat such as the polar bears and also poses health threats to man himself (nrdc.org, 1; Time for Change, 1). Due to these effects, man has to derive a way to solve the problem.

There are various ways in which man can achieve this. For instance, he can reduce engagement in activities that increase the pollution. For instance, he can use cars that have good engines, leading to proper utilization of fuel hence reduce the emission rates. Similarly, he can reform his industries so become more environmental friendly. For instance, he can find ways to detoxify gases released from the industrial chimneys before they are released into the atmosphere. Other changes can be made in the manner in which the processing industries go about their work so that they can reduce the emission rates (Global warming Facts, 1; Sierra Club, 1). Use of renewable energy could also go a long way in ensuring that the emission is reduced.

So far, the essay has shown that there are various activities that man can be engaged in to prevent the pollution of the environment. However, this does not specifically mean that if man observes the recommendations so far the issue of global warming would be solved. As such, there is need for sufficient evidence to prove that his activities can actually lead to the end of the problem.

This is the rational for this argument: the natural balance has been in existence for quite a long time. Man’s activities led to the disruption in the balance. As such, since man is the problem, he can as well be the solution by putting in place measures to restore the balance that he contributed in distorting. These are the measures indicated by Sierra Club (1) which include processes such as reducing waste materials, reusing some of the materials and recycling others. This would go a long way in ensuring that the ecological balance is maintained.

Other man’s activities lead to over-exploitation of the available resources, which again leads to the degradation of the environment. As such, if man put into place measures to control such effects, then there is a possibility that he could lead to a stop to the environmental threat. In conclusion, this section has sought to show the exact relation between man’s activities and global warming. It has emerged that there is a very strong correlation between the two. As such, if man controlled his activities, there is every possibility that this would be an efficient way of controlling the global warming process.

In this section, the main aim is to prove that there are various changes that ma can put in place to ensure that global warming is brought to a slow. First of all, it is important to look at the current trend in global warming. The national Geographic (1) indicates that the average temperatures on the earth’s surface have gone up by 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit, which is about 0.8 degrees Celsius. If this is not brought to check, then the levels could continue rising which could lead to serious repercussions on the earth’s surface. The arctic regions are quickly wearing away and if the trend continues, then they could totally disappear by the summer of 2040, which is of course a threat to the life of animals living in these regions (nrdc.org, 1).

On a similar note, the coral reefs are suffering bleaching effect due to the change in water temperatures, where some have recorded bleaching rates of as high as 70%. Glaciers and mountain snows are also receiving the blunt end of the global warming effects where, for instance, the Glacier National Park has observed a reduction in the number of glaciers from 150 glaciers in 1910 to only 27 glaciers at the present. These statistics send a shocking wave to the environmentalists in the world. It is clear that unless something is done, then the world is doomed to suffer from the wrath of nature.

It is not the animals who have contributed to this disruption. Rather, it is the creature that is supposed to be the custodian of nature: man. However, since man knows the exact causes of the problem, he can as well contribute to ending the saga. All he has to do is reverse his manner of doing things so that they are more environmental friendly. He has the ability and means; all he needs is the will and the motivation to do it.

Modal Qualifiers

According to NASA (1), it comes out quite clearly that more often than not, man’s activities are concerned with the emission of green house gases which lead to the issue of global warming. For instance, man usually drives to and from work. It is very common to find that in one homestead there are more than one automobile. The meaning of this is that every time that the different members of the family go out, they usually lead to more emission. If the number of automobile per household was reduced, this could go a long way in curbing the issue of emission.

Sierra Club (1) observes that manufacturing industries are always releasing gases into the atmosphere. Of course, this goes a long way into polluting the environment and increasing the concentration of the GHG gases. Suppose these emission rates were cut down or controlled so that there is reduced accumulation of GHG gases into the atmosphere. The results would be gratifying for the whole world. There is also the issue of deforestation. Most of the time, man is involved in activities that lead to destruction of the forest cover in the world. Activities such as charcoal burning, clearing land for farming and overstocking contribute to making the land bare. This has serious repercussions on the environment since the trees contribute to the cleaning of air. As such, if man reduced the frequency at which he cuts down trees, then the gross effect would be conservation of the environment.

All along, this argument has held the position that man contribute to the environmental degradation that leads to global warming. Furthermore, it has stressed on the fact that if man changed the manner in which he interacted with his environment, there is a possibility that he could curb the global warming menace. This argument could be logical to some extent. However, there is another argument that shows that man has no control over global warming at all.

First of all, there is the scientific argument which claims that the green house gases are not the only pre-cursors to global warming. As such, in as much as man contributes to the release of these gases into the atmosphere, this has little or no effect on the rate of global warming (Dick, 1).

However, the strongest argument against man’s contribution towards the control of environmental pollution and global warming is the argument that most of the significant causes of global warming are natural (Strasburg, 1). For instance, there are the volcanic eruptions that lead to the rise in the temperature levels. As a matter of fact, there is no way that man has control over these volcanic activities. Therefore, he is left in a helpless situation where he just observes as the environmental and natural forces work to his disadvantage.

There are also other factors such as the water vapors. Day in day out, water from the water bodies around the world vaporizes into vapor which accumulates in the atmosphere and contributes to the global warming. There is no way that man has control over this and as such, he has no means to control it. The same case applies to the solar cycles and the cosmic rays which work together to bring an overall effect of global warming. The mechanism by which these forces work is far beyond the control of man (Sarsburg, 1).

This essay has looked at the Toulmin model and how it can be used in finding a solution for a problem. It has given the claim, grounds, warrant, backing, modal qualifiers as well as the rebuttal. The issue that has been addressed by the essay is global warming, where the essay sough to prove as to whether or not man has the ability to control the problem. The Toulmin model was followed all through the essay.

Works Cited

City-Data.com. ‘Man’s Contribution to Global Warming.’ 2012. Web, 26th March 2012, http://www.city-data.com/forum/green-living/605770-man-s-contribution-global-warming.html Dick, Phillip K. ‘Is Man Caused Global Warming a Scientific Fact?’ 2011. Web, 26th March 2012, http://lrak.net/globalwarming.htm Fullertion.edu. ‘Toulmin Model of Argument.’ N.d. Web, 26th March 2012, https://mail.google.com/mail/?shva=1#inbox/13647e25076a8d62 Global Warming Facts. ‘Global Warming.’ 2010. Web, 26th March 2012, http://globalwarming-facts.info/50-tips.html Nasa.gov. ‘Global Climate Change.’ 2012. Web, 26th March 2012, http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/ National Geographic News. ‘Global Warming Fast Facts.’ 1996. Web, 26th March 2012, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/12/1206_041206_global_warming.html NRDC. ‘Consequences of Global Warming.’ 2012. Web, 26th March 2012, http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/fcons.asp Sierra Club. ‘Clean Energy Solutions: Ten Things You Can Do to Help Curb Global Warming.’ 2012. Web, 26th March 2012, http://www.sierraclub.org/energy/tenthings/default.aspx Strasburg, McIntire Jeff. ‘Top Global Warming Causes – Natural or Human?’ 2009. Web, 26th March 2012, http://blog.sustainablog.org/2009/06/the-top-causes-of-global-warming-natural-or-human/ Time for Change. ‘Cause and Effect for Global Warming.’ N.d. Web. 26th March 2012, http://timeforchange.org/cause-and-effect-for-global-warming Toulmin, S. ‘The Uses of Argument.’ 1969. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Think Quest. ‘Global Warming.’ 2012. Web, 26th March 2012, http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215471/global_warming.htm

double-banner

Cite this page

Share with friends using:

Removal Request

Removal Request

Finished papers: 1530

This paper is created by writer with

If you want your paper to be:

Well-researched, fact-checked, and accurate

Original, fresh, based on current data

Eloquently written and immaculately formatted

275 words = 1 page double-spaced

submit your paper

Get your papers done by pros!

Other Pages

Meter research papers, john deere case studies, vietnam war course work, iraq course work, starbucks course work, parenting course work, industrialization course work, sculpture course work, award course work, athletes course work, telephone no literature review examples, racism in us essay sample, htc corporation report examples, individual cultural diversity issue and its relevance to workplace dynamics essay sample, kant case study example, koppen climate classification system essay examples, free book review about steve jobs, chief characteristics of postmodernism as described by lyotard and jameson essay samples, essay on following are the influences on business buyers, example of research paper on consumer models and and understanding of the manager 039 s problems, good example of research paper on effect of communication on interpersonal relations, good research paper on leadership interview project, berkleys position essay, good essay about decision analysis, good example of healthcare ethics essay, creative writing on social justice leader, marketing essays examples, laminar and turbulent pipe flow report, article review on chinese art and literature, quot essays, almon essays, scholars essays, air quality essays, proposals essays, new kind essays, third world countries essays, tourism sector essays, hacking essays, higher learning essays, institutions of higher learning essays, pertaining essays, headaches essays, rights movement essays.

Password recovery email has been sent to [email protected]

Use your new password to log in

You are not register!

By clicking Register, you agree to our Terms of Service and that you have read our Privacy Policy .

Now you can download documents directly to your device!

Check your email! An email with your password has already been sent to you! Now you can download documents directly to your device.

or Use the QR code to Save this Paper to Your Phone

The sample is NOT original!

Short on a deadline?

Don't waste time. Get help with 11% off using code - GETWOWED

No, thanks! I'm fine with missing my deadline

IMAGES

  1. How to Use Toulmin Analysis

    argumentative essay toulmin model

  2. The Toulmin Argument Model

    argumentative essay toulmin model

  3. How to Build Strong Argumentation by Using the Toulmin Method

    argumentative essay toulmin model

  4. How to Use Toulmin Analysis

    argumentative essay toulmin model

  5. Toulmin Argument Structure: Argumentative Essay Example Explained

    argumentative essay toulmin model

  6. The Toulmin Model of Argument

    argumentative essay toulmin model

VIDEO

  1. Planning a Q3 using Toulmin Model Sentences, part 3

  2. Toulmin Model

  3. English toulmin project

  4. EZ-Argue (Body Paragraph 1 & 2) Tutorial Video

  5. Developing argumentative skills under a critical literacy approach in ELT students

  6. Livestream: Composing an Argumentative Essay

COMMENTS

  1. Toulmin Argument Model

    The Toulmin Model of Argumentation, a diagram containing six interrelated components, was considered Toulmin's most influential work, particularly in the fields of rhetoric, communication, and computer science. His components continue to provide useful means for analyzing arguments.

  2. Sample Toulmin Argument

    an Excelsior University site Argument & Critical Thinking » Organizing Your Argument » Sample Toulmin Argument Sample Toulmin Argument Now that you have had the chance to learn about Toulmin, it's time to see what a Toulmin argument might look like.

  3. Toulmin Argument

    Developed by philosopher Stephen E. Toulmin, the Toulmin method is a style of argumentation that breaks arguments down into six component parts: claim, grounds, warrant, qualifier, rebuttal, and backing. In Toulmin's method, every argument begins with three fundamental parts: the claim, the grounds, and the warrant.

  4. Guide: Using the Toulmin Method

    The Toulmin Method is a way of doing very detailed analysis, in which we break an argument into its various parts and decide how effectively those parts participate in the overall whole. When we use this method, we identify the argument's claim, reasons, and evidence, and evaluate the effectiveness of each.

  5. Toulmin Argument Model: Benefits, Parts and Example

    The Toulmin model is a process for evaluating or creating an argument named after English philosopher Stephen E. Toulmin. Toulmin came up with this model for examining arguments during the 20th century. Also called the Toulmin method, the Toulmin model is a structured way to analyze or construct logical and thorough arguments.

  6. Toulmin Argument Model

    Stephen Edelston Toulmin (born March 25, 1922) was a British philosopher, author, and educator. Toulmin devoted his works to analyzing moral reasoning. He sought to develop practical ways to evaluate ethical arguments effectively. The Toulmin Model of Argumentation, a diagram containing six interrelated components, was considered Toulmin's ...

  7. Guide to Toulmin Argument

    Toulmin argumentation can be diagrammed as a conclusion established, more or less, on the basis of a fact supported by a warrant (with backing), and a possible rebuttal.Toulmin Model. Chiswick Chap, CC BY-SA 3.0. Stephen Toulmin's (1958) model of argument conceptualizes argument as a series of six rhetorical moves: Claim. Data, Evidence. Warrant.

  8. How to Write a Great Essay Using the Toulmin Method

    The Toulmin method uses six elements to build a proper argument. These elements consist of the claim, grounds, warrant, backing, qualifier, and rebuttal. Claim First, the claim is the central idea or affirmation that an argument wants to prove. Grounds

  9. Arguing on the Toulmin Model: New Essays in Argument Analysis and

    Arguing on the Toulmin Model Home Book Editors: David Hitchcock, Bart Verheij The only book-length comprehensive study of Stephen Toulmin's influential model for the layout of arguments

  10. The Toulmin model of essay & argument

    This lecture explains Stephen Toulmin's model of argument structure. It's a great tool to use when writing your own essays or analyzing the rhetoric of other...

  11. Toulmin's Model of Argumentation

    The British-American philosopher Stephen E. Toulmin (1922-2009) gained an impressive reputation in the field of argumentation theory with The Uses of Argument, first published in 1958, in which he introduces a new model for the "layout of arguments" (Toulmin 2003). Footnote 1 Although in this monograph Toulmin uses consistently the term argument and never uses the term argumentation, the ...

  12. Organizing Your Argument

    The Toulmin Method is a formula that allows writers to build a sturdy logical foundation for their arguments. First proposed by author Stephen Toulmin in The Uses of Argument (1958), the Toulmin Method emphasizes building a thorough support structure for each of an argument's key claims. The basic format for the Toulmin Method is as follows:

  13. Toulmin Method: Guide to Writing a Successful Essay

    In The Uses of Argument (1958), Stephen Toulmin proposed a set containing six interrelated components for analyzing arguments, and these are what we will talk about today. Toulmin considered that a good argument could be successful in credibility and resistance to additional criticism. We shall therefore take a look at how it is done.

  14. 3 Strong Argumentative Essay Examples, Analyzed

    The standard five paragraph format is common, but not required, for argumentative essays. These essays typically follow one of two formats: the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model. The Toulmin model is the most common. It begins with an introduction, follows with a thesis/claim, and gives data and evidence to support that claim.

  15. PDF "Telephone" Toulmin Framework for an Argument Essay

    Step 2: Enthymeme-Style Theses [2-5 minutes] The students will read a prompt which draws on their previous reading and will write down a thesis constructed in the form of an enthymeme (as if they were about to answer the prompt with a complete essay). It needs to have a statement and a "because" clause.

  16. New Modification to Toulmin Model as an Analytical Framework for

    The Toulmin model has provided a clear and flexible set of categories for conducting research on both oral and written argumentation. All kinds of modifications of the model contribute much to the application of Toulmin model to various genres.

  17. An Analysis of Argument of Students' Argumentative Essay by Using

    An Analysis of Argument of Students' Argumentative Essay by Using Toulmin Model CC BY-NC 4.0 Conference: Eighth International Conference on English Language and Teaching (ICOELT-8 2020)...

  18. Toulmin Argument

    The Toulmin method, developed by philosopher Stephen Toulmin , is essentially a structure for analyzing arguments. But the elements for analysis are so clear and structured that many professors now have students write argumentative essays with the elements of the Toulmin method in mind.

  19. Whole-to-Part Argumentation Instruction: An Action Research Study Aimed

    Students showed greater interest in learning that the argumentative essay could be framed according to a new kind of diagram. I broke down the argumentative elements in the model essay and clearly listed each argumentative element next to the corresponding Toulmin argumentative model to deepen students' understanding of that argumentative ...

  20. Analysing ESL Persuasive Essay Writing Using Toulmin's Model of Argument

    The researchers employed Stephen Toulmin's Model of argument (1969) as the tool of analysis in identifying the rhetorical and linguistic structures realised in the students' essays.

  21. PDF Analysing ESL Persuasive Essay Writing Using Toulmin's Model of Argument

    1.2 Toulmin Model of Argument Stephen Toulmin, a British philosopher, proposed an argument structure in 1958, which is now known as Toulmin model of argument. Toulmin's original work focused on law discourse but has now been used widely in other discourse, including written discourse. Toulmin model has been used in many writing modules.

  22. PDF Using the Toulmin Method

    The Toulmin Method is a way of doing very detailed analysis, in which we break an argument into its various parts and decide how effectively those parts participate in the overall whole. When we use this method, we identify the argument's claim , reasons , and evidence , and evaluate the effectiveness of each.

  23. Argumentative Essay On Toulmin Model Global Warming

    Published: 12/12/2019 ORDER PAPER LIKE THIS Outline This essay will look at the issue of global warming using the Toulmin model (Toulmin, 1; Fullerton.edu, 1). As such, the following sections will be discussed in the essay in line with the model: