Study Guide: A Raisin in the Sun


  • Death of a Salesman
  • Julius Caesar
  • The Book Thief
  • The Handmaid's Tale
  • Twelfth Night

Please wait while we process your payment

Reset Password

Your password reset email should arrive shortly..

If you don't see it, please check your spam folder. Sometimes it can end up there.

Something went wrong

Log in or create account.

  •   Be between 8-15 characters.
  •   Contain at least one capital letter.
  •   Contain at least one number.
  •   Be different from your email address.

By signing up you agree to our terms and privacy policy .

Don’t have an account? Subscribe now

Create Your Account

Sign up for your FREE 7-day trial

  • Ad-free experience
  • Note-taking
  • Flashcards & Quizzes
  • AP® English Test Prep
  • Plus much more

Already have an account? Log in

Choose Your Plan

Group Discount

$4.99 /month + tax

$24.99 /year + tax

Save over 50% with a SparkNotes PLUS Annual Plan!

Purchasing SparkNotes PLUS for a group?

Get Annual Plans at a discount when you buy 2 or more!

$24.99 $18.74   / subscription + tax

Subtotal $37.48 + tax

Save 25% on 2-49 accounts

Save 30% on 50-99 accounts

Want 100 or more? Contact us for a customized plan.

Payment Details

Payment Summary

SparkNotes Plus


You'll be billed after your free trial ends.

7-Day Free Trial

Not Applicable

Renews February 22, 2024 February 15, 2024

Discounts (applied to next billing)

SNPLUSROCKS20  |  20% Discount

This is not a valid promo code.

Discount Code (one code per order)

SparkNotes PLUS Annual Plan - Group Discount

SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. TO CANCEL YOUR SUBSCRIPTION AND AVOID BEING CHARGED, YOU MUST CANCEL BEFORE THE END OF THE FREE TRIAL PERIOD. You may cancel your subscription on your Subscription and Billing page or contact Customer Support at [email protected] . Your subscription will continue automatically once the free trial period is over. Free trial is available to new customers only.

For the next 7 days, you'll have access to awesome PLUS stuff like AP English test prep, No Fear Shakespeare translations and audio, a note-taking tool, personalized dashboard, & much more!

You’ve successfully purchased a group discount. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. You'll also receive an email with the link.

Members will be prompted to log in or create an account to redeem their group membership.

Thanks for creating a SparkNotes account! Continue to start your free trial.

Your PLUS subscription has expired

  • We’d love to have you back! Renew your subscription to regain access to all of our exclusive, ad-free study tools.
  • Go ad-free AND get instant access to grade-boosting study tools!
  • Start the school year strong with SparkNotes PLUS!
  • Start the school year strong with PLUS!
  • Study Guide
  • Mastery Quizzes
  • Infographic

George Orwell

Unlock your free sparknotes plus trial, unlock your free trial.

  • Ad-Free experience
  • Easy-to-access study notes
  • AP® English test prep

A+ Student Essay: Is Technology or Psychology More Effective in 1984?

Of the many iconic phrases and ideas to emerge from Orwell’s 1984 , perhaps the most famous is the frightening political slogan “Big Brother is watching.” Many readers think of 1984 as a dystopia about a populace constantly monitored by technologically advanced rulers. Yet in truth, the technological tools pale in comparison to the psychological methods the Party wields, which not only control the citizens but also teach them to control themselves.

To be sure, the Party uses technology in disturbing and effective ways. Its most notable technological weapon is the telescreen, a kind of two-way television that watches you as you watch it. Telescreens literalize the idea that Big Brother, the mysterious figure who represents the Party’s power and authority, is always watching the people of Airstrip One. Even the citizens’ most mundane actions are monitored by the telescreens, which must remain turned on at all times. When Winston performs his Physical Jerks exercises, for example, a voice from the telescreen criticizes his poor effort. When he is arrested, a voice from the telescreen tells him what’s coming. Another terrifying technology used by the Party is vaporizing, the means by which the government executes those who displease it.

Yet despite the power of the omnipresent telescreens and the terror of vaporizing, they are just two among countless methods of control. And the most powerful methods turn out to be non-technological in nature. Posters announce the watchfulness of Big Brother; mandatory daily meetings called Two Minutes of Hate rile up the citizenry, allow them to vent their emotions and solidify their xenophobia; public hangings make examples out of traitors; physical torture awaits those who commit thoughtcrimes; and Junior Spies turn in any adults they feel are not sufficiently loyal to the party, even if those adults are their own parents. None of these methods involve technology. Instead, they rely on psychological manipulation. Together, these methods produce a complex mixture of terror, paranoia, groupthink, and suspicion that keeps the citizens cowed and obedient.

In addition to, and as a result of, these government tactics, the citizens of Oceania are constantly policing themselves. In order to avoid being jailed or vaporized they closely monitor their own actions, second by second. Most citizens would find it unthinkable, for example, to demonstrate such blatant misbehavior as enjoying a torrid love affair, as Winston does. But the citizens go even further than simply regulating their outward behavior: they also monitor their private thoughts. They have been manipulated into believing that any independent cognition is grounds for arrest by the Thought Police, so they try to keep their inward selves as loyal and unthinking as their outward actions. Because they have been conditioned since birth to accept whatever the Party identifies as truth, they are also able to use doublethink, a method of believing absurd contradictions such as “war is peace.” Again, self-policing and doublethink involve no technology beyond the human brain, but they are perhaps the most effective means of control available to the Party.

The Party maintains power primarily through the use of psychology, not technology. We get the sense that if no technology existed, the Party would find equally effective ways of controlling the populace. Orwell wants to warn us against more than the power of technology; he wants to suggest that the human mind is the most dangerous and advanced weapon of all, and that we should never underestimate the ability of people to control each other—and themselves.

1984 SparkNotes Literature Guide

Ace your assignments with our guide to 1984 ! 

Popular pages: 1984

Full book analysis summary, character list characters, winston smith characters, themes literary devices, manipulation of history quotes, full book quick quizzes, take a study break.

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

QUIZ: Is This a Taylor Swift Lyric or a Quote by Edgar Allan Poe?

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

The 7 Most Embarrassing Proposals in Literature

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

The 6 Best and Worst TV Show Adaptations of Books

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

QUIZ: Which Greek God Are You?

Home — Essay Samples — Literature — Books — 1984

one px

Essays on 1984

Hook examples for "1984" essays, the dystopian warning hook.

Open your essay by discussing George Orwell's "1984" as a prophetic warning against totalitarianism and government surveillance. Explore how the novel's themes are eerily relevant in today's world.

The Orwellian Language Hook

Delve into the concept of Newspeak in "1984" and its parallels to modern language manipulation. Discuss how the novel's portrayal of controlled language reflects real-world instances of propaganda and censorship.

Big Brother is Watching Hook

Begin with a focus on surveillance and privacy concerns. Analyze the omnipresent surveillance in the novel and draw connections to contemporary debates over surveillance technologies, data privacy, and civil liberties.

The Power of Doublethink Hook

Explore the psychological manipulation in "1984" through the concept of doublethink. Discuss how individuals in the novel are coerced into accepting contradictory beliefs, and examine instances of cognitive dissonance in society today.

The Character of Winston Smith Hook

Introduce your readers to the protagonist, Winston Smith, and his journey of rebellion against the Party. Analyze his character development and the universal theme of resistance against oppressive regimes.

Technology and Control Hook

Discuss the role of technology in "1984" and its implications for control. Explore how advancements in surveillance technology, social media, and artificial intelligence resonate with the novel's themes of control and manipulation.

The Ministry of Truth Hook

Examine the Ministry of Truth in the novel, responsible for rewriting history. Compare this to the manipulation of information and historical revisionism in contemporary politics and media.

Media Manipulation and Fake News Hook

Draw parallels between the Party's manipulation of information in "1984" and the spread of misinformation and fake news in today's media landscape. Discuss the consequences of a distorted reality.

Relevance of Thoughtcrime Hook

Explore the concept of thoughtcrime and its impact on individual freedom in the novel. Discuss how society today grapples with issues related to freedom of thought, expression, and censorship.

Effects of "Utopia-esque" Societies on People

George orwell’s representation of authority as illustrated in his book, 1984, made-to-order essay as fast as you need it.

Each essay is customized to cater to your unique preferences

+ experts online

Orwell's Use of Literary Devices to Portray The Theme of Totalitarianism in 1984

The culture of fear in 1984, a novel by george orwell, 1984 by george orwell: literary devices to portray government controlling its citizens, the use of language to control people in 1984, let us write you an essay from scratch.

  • 450+ experts on 30 subjects ready to help
  • Custom essay delivered in as few as 3 hours

Dictatorship of The People: Orwell's 1984 as an Allegory for The Early Soviet Union

Searching for truth in 1984, a world without love: the ramifications of an affectionless society in 1984, on double-think and newspeak: orwell's language, get a personalized essay in under 3 hours.

Expert-written essays crafted with your exact needs in mind

The Theme of Survival and Selfishness in The Handmaid's Tale in 1984

Government surveillance in 1984 by george orwell: bogus security, george orwell's 1984 as a historical allegory, exploitation of language in george orwell's 1984, how orwell's 1984 is relevant to today's audience, the relation of orwel’s 1984 to the uighur conflict in china, symbolism in 1984: the soviet union as representation of the fears people, parallels to today in 1984 by george orwell, the relationship between power and emotions in 1984, proletariat vs protagonist: winston smith's class conflict in 1984, a review of george orwell’s book, 1984, o'brien as a dehumanizing villain in 1984, family in 1984 and persepolis, the philosophy of determinism in 1984, orwell's use of rhetorical strategies in 1984, control the citizens in the orwell's novel 1984, dangers of totalitarianism as depicted in 1984, dystopian life in '1984' was a real-life in china, dystopian world in the novel '1984' awaits us in the future, the internal conflict of the protagonist of the dystopia '1984'.

8 June 1949, George Orwell

Novel; Dystopia, Political Fiction, Social Science Fiction Novel

Winston Smith, Julia, O'Brien, Aaronson, Jones, and Rutherford, Ampleforth, Charrington, Tom Parsons, Syme, Mrs. Parsons, Katharine Smith

Since Orwell has been a democratic socialist, he has modelled his book and motives after the Stalinist Russia

Power, Repressive Behaviors, Totalitarianism, Mass Surveillance, Human Behaviors

The novel has brought up the "Orwellian" term, which stands for "Big Brother" "Thoughtcrime" and many other terms that we know well. It has been the reflection of totalitarianism

1984 represents a dystopian writing that has followed the life of Winston Smith who belongs to the "Party",which stands for the total control, which is also known as the Big Brother. It controls every aspect of people's lives. Is it ever possible to go against the system or will it take even more control. It constantly follows the fear and oppression with the surveillance being the main part of 1984. There is Party’s official O’Brien who is following the resistance movement, which represents an alternative, which is the symbol of hope.

Before George Orwell wrote his famous book, he worked for the BBC as the propagandist during World War II. The novel has been named 1980, then 1982 before finally settling on its name. Orwell fought tuberculosis while writing the novel. He died seven months after 1984 was published. Orwell almost died during the boating trip while he was writing the novel. Orwell himself has been under government surveillance. It was because of his socialist opinions. The slogan that the book uses "2 + 2 = 5" originally came from Communist Russia and stood for the five-year plan that had to be achieved during only four years. Orwell also used various Japanese propaganda when writing his novel, precisely his "Thought Police" idea.

“Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.” “But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought.” “Being in a minority, even in a minority of one, did not make you mad. There was truth and there was untruth, and if you clung to the truth even against the whole world, you were not mad.” “Confession is not betrayal. What you say or do doesn't matter; only feelings matter. If they could make me stop loving you-that would be the real betrayal.” “Power is in tearing human minds to pieces and putting them together again in new shapes of your own choosing.” "But you could not have pure love or pure lust nowadays. No emotion was pure, because everything was mixed up with fear and hatred."

The most important aspect of 1984 is Thought Police, which controls every thought. It has been featured in numerous books, plays, music pieces, poetry, and anything that has been created when one had to deal with Social Science and Politics. Another factor that represents culmination is thinking about overthrowing the system or trying to organize a resistance movement. It has numerous reflections of the post WW2 world. Although the novella is graphic and quite intense, it portrays dictatorship and is driven by fear through the lens of its characters.

This essay topic is often used when writing about “The Big Brother” or totalitarian regimes, which makes 1984 a flexible topic that can be taken as the foundation. Even if you have to write about the use of fear by the political regimes, knowing the facts about this novel will help you to provide an example.

1. Enteen, G. M. (1984). George Orwell And the Theory of Totalitarianism: A 1984 Retrospective. The Journal of General Education, 36(3), 206-215. ( 2. Hughes, I. (2021). 1984. Literary Cultures, 4(2). ( 3. Patai, D. (1982). Gamesmanship and Androcentrism in Orwell's 1984. PMLA, 97(5), 856-870. ( 4. Paden, R. (1984). Surveillance and Torture: Foucault and Orwell on the Methods of Discipline. Social Theory and Practice, 10(3), 261-271. ( 5. Tyner, J. A. (2004). Self and space, resistance and discipline: a Foucauldian reading of George Orwell's 1984. Social & Cultural Geography, 5(1), 129-149. ( 6. Kellner, D. (1990). From 1984 to one-dimensional man: Critical reflections on Orwell and Marcuse. Current Perspectives in Social Theory, 10, 223-52. ( 7. Samuelson, P. (1984). Good legal writing: of Orwell and window panes. U. Pitt. L. Rev., 46, 149. ( 8. Fadaee, E. (2011). Translation techniques of figures of speech: A case study of George Orwell's" 1984 and Animal Farm. Journal of English and Literature, 2(8), 174-181. ( 9. Patai, D. (1984, January). Orwell's despair, Burdekin's hope: Gender and power in dystopia. In Women's Studies International Forum (Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 85-95). Pergamon. ( 10. Cole, M. B. (2022). The Desperate Radicalism of Orwell’s 1984: Power, Socialism, and Utopia in Dystopian Times. Political Research Quarterly, 10659129221083286. (

Relevant topics

  • Frankenstein
  • The Alchemist
  • Bartleby The Scrivener
  • Of Mice and Men
  • Law of Life
  • A Modest Proposal
  • The Outsiders
  • The Story of An Hour
  • The Tell Tale Heart

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy . We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

No need to pay just yet!


We use cookies to personalyze your web-site experience. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy .

  • Instructions Followed To The Letter
  • Deadlines Met At Every Stage
  • Unique And Plagiarism Free

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

Hamburger menu

  • Free Essays
  • Citation Generator


A Succesful Conclusion to 1984

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

The paradox of hope as an unlikely hero in 1984 by george orwell.

Winston is a fatalistic character, making comments such as “we are the dead” (135), but his willingness to rebel, despite his knowledge that capture is inevitable, adds optimism to his situation. He follows this statement by saying “our only true life is in the future,” illustrating that the degree of oppression in their society makes it so that they are not truly living, providing a source of motivation for Winston to rebel. For him, death becomes a welcome idea as long as he has the opportunity to truly live as himself, if only for a short period of time. Orwell chose the last name “Smith” for his protagonist to portray Winston as an “everyman” because it is the most common English surname, meaning there is nothing extraordinarily special about him. Therefore, having thoughts that differ from the Party does not make him special and others must have similar beliefs. Orwell proves this once again when he reveals that Julia has been with men “scores of times...always with Party members” (125). This offers hope as others are willing to act on their dissent towards the Party, or simply have no misgivings when it comes to not abiding by their laws. Winston and Julia are both broken by the Party, suggesting that there is a lack of hope in the society. However, hope simply must come from others who have yet to express their dissent of Party ideals. Also, perhaps Winston, deep-down, has not succumb to the Party’s indoctrination, but simply cannot forgive himself for betraying Julia and has lost his motivation for rebellion. Winston rebels so that he can live, but in the final chapters he expresses a desire to die. This sentiment is driven by his regret and complete loss of self-esteem which prevent him from being able to continue fighting, but it cannot be assumed that he has lost his belief that rebellion is necessary. Hints of his own individuality…

1984 Summer Reading

In the beginning Winston goes against the law and secretly buys a journal to write in, even though if he is caught he will be taken away forever. He would have to face Big Brother, but Winston was willing to take the chance. Many times he reads throughout the novel “ War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength”. Which is the official saying of the Party. While attempting to write in the journal Winston found himself only being able to write “Down with Big Brother” repeatedly. He always found himself confused on what to do but always believed that he would never conform into one of them!…

1984 - Bleak Essay

As the main narration is based upon Winston’s thoughts of his surroundings, it is inevitable readers to disregard all the bleak concepts in his life. The opening chapter, Orwell’s immediately launches into descriptions of gloom, giving the readers the understanding of how horrible it is living under these revolutionists. Winston’s residential building, ‘Victory Mansions’, is shabby and decayed with “…electric currents…cut during the daylight hours…”; if these conditions are considered as ‘victorious’, there cannot be another more perfect reflection of bleakness than the life in Oceania . The deprivation of privacy described in ‘1984’ is also a significant factor. The peoples’ lives revolve literally around interrogating telescreens and posters of the “face…with a heavy black moustache and ruggedly handsome feature”. With all these Party concepts dominating people’s lives, there is absolutely no chance to escape from the harsh bleakness.…

George Orwell 1984 Betrayal Analysis

In his novel 1984, George Orwell selects an act of betrayal to depict the most important part of the novel, showing the fall of Winston, the main character. Throughout the novel, Winston is ready to change the society’s rules and ideas but after one of the characters betrayed him, his role changed completely because his life turned around. This character was O’Brien and if it wasn’t for his acts, the novel would’ve had another path.From the beginning of the novel, Winston felt that he had a special connection with O’Brien, thinking that he might be feeling the same way as he did towards the society they were living in. Winston was constantly looking to have an encounter with him, hoping to make a revolution against Big Brother. Finally having…

1984 Essay Physical Mental Changes

People have changes that occur to them all the time whether they are physical or mental changes. These changes can be for better or worse. Changes are a result of an experience faced by one. 1984 is a book all about changes and that occur and how people react or transform from these changes. Winston is a different type of person from who he is after his pivotal experience. Winston changes from a rebel who is trying to find a way to destroy the government to a person who loves the government. This change is a direct effect of Winston’s pivotal experience.…

Analysis on 1984

Winston 's death is foreshadowed again later in the novel. Winston knows he will be caught and wiped off the face of the earth. Winston believes that the only possible way to prolong death is to…

The Ironies of Orwell's 1984

beginning of the book, it is shown how horrible his health is and is continually…

AntiHero 1984

Mr. Orwell created Winston as a simple and nearly background character. Nothing really stands out about him and which makes the mind wonder and be drawn towards him. He seems like a normal guy but is really hiding something grand. He is going against the government and Big Brother in one of the smallest ways but it will make a huge difference in the long run. I know it doesn’t seem so now, but Winston is going to change the world with what he is doing. As he sits in his indent writing secrets and his true feelings, something is building up inside of him that will be released very soon and send the world into a tumble.…

Examples Of Insanity In 1984

the end of the novel, Winston becomes an expert at doublethink by accepting the lies over truth…

Theme of Betrayal in the Novel “1984” by George Orwell

In part two it is shown how one’s unrest will lead to their eventual act of rebellion under totalitarian rule. It starts with just the writing in a journal, a thought crime punishable by death. It wasn’t long before Winston found someone just as himself, Julia. They found ways in which to meet and canoodle. They give each other hope, happiness, and something to look forward to everyday. This bounds them to each other, gives them something to hold onto, they make a promise to not give the other up. They seemed to be in love, and love makes people do foolish things and take foolish risks, risks such as renting out a space for them to meet at. But what they didn’t know was that this was what the party was planning on.…

1984: the Loss of Humanity

In 1984, Winston and Julia have individual thoughts and the reader is led to believe that these two people are a true rarity in this society. “She had become a physical necessity, something that he not only wanted but felt that he had a right to” (Orwell 139). The quote shows how Winston’s thoughts differed from the Party’s. Other citizens would not have felt they had the right to anything. The Party wants individualism to be extinct in the society of Oceania. By the end of the novel, Winston and Julia have become thoughtless beings as well. This is achieved through torture by the Party. Julia succumbs almost immediately and betrayed Winston with her words and her mind. It took Winston much longer, but he also loses his individualism willingly. The last words of the book, “He loved Big Brother,” show this fact (Orwell 297). Winston had no more desire to think unique thoughts. When Winston and Julia lost their ability to think for themselves, they lost their humanity.…

1984: Oppression of Truth

In the novel 1984, Orwell produced a social critique on totalitarianism and a future dystopia that made the world pause and think about our past, present and future. When reading this novel we all must take the time to think of the possibility that Orwell 's world could come to pass. Orwell presents the concepts of power, marginalization, and resistance through physical, psychological, sexual and political control of the people of Oceania. The reader experiences the emotional ride through the eyes of Winston Smith, who was born into the oppressive life under the rule of Ingsoc. Readers are encouraged through Winston to adopt a negative opinion on the idea of communist rule and the inherent dangers of totalitarianism. The psychological manipulation and physical control are explored through Winston 's journey, and with Winston 's resistance and ultimate downfall, the reader is able to fully appreciate O 'Briens reasoning, "Power is not a means, it is an end."…

1984 Rebellion Research Paper

When a person’s peace of mind is compromised, so is their sanity. The early parts of the novel display the thoughts of Winston as he commits the epitome of thoughtcrime, writing “DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER”, repeatedly. This series of events being placed in the beginning of the novel throws the reader right into the oppressive government that is The Party, and shows the reader what they are all about. Rebellions are started by those who feel oppressed by their superiors, people who feel like they have no way out unless they fight their way out, start a revolution. Winston’s feelings of oppression are transferred into intense desires to rebel against The Party, specifically wanting to break one of their cardinal rules, no sexual encounters with anyone. He meets a fellow member of The Party who feels an urge to rebel, it is a selfish urge however as she only enjoys the personal thrill. Her name is Julia, and she has an affair with Winston to rebel against The Party, the two fall in love. This proves how quickly rebellious thoughts can turn into life changing scenarios, with Winston and Julia both committing crimes that can change their lives…

1984 and Similarities to the Soviet Union

In the novel written by George Orwell, 1984, there are several similarities to the Soviet Union. One of the most important similarities is Adolph Hitler. Another very important point in 1984 is Big Brother. Big Brother is very similar to both of the leaders, Adolph Hitler and Stalin.…

Most Popular

International students in canada experiencing crisis as never before calling for government action.

10 days ago

Miley Cyrus, Taylor Swift, Billie Eilish – Who Else Snatched the Award at Grammy’s 2024 – Explore grammy’s Essay Topics

Department of education steps up to support colleges amid fafsa rollout issues, review: create ai videos.

11 days ago

Forbes Presents 3 Unconventional Ways of Using AI to Boost Educational Process

“1984” by george orwell essay sample, example.

Johannes Helmold

“ 1984 ” is a novel about totalitarianism and the fate of a single man who tried to escape from an overwhelming political regime. The book was written by the British writer and journalist George Orwell in 1948 and had the Soviet Union as a prototype of the social structure described in it.

Events in the book take place in London, a capital of Airstrip One, which is a province of the state of Oceania. The year is 1984, and the world is engaged in an endless omnipresent war. The political regime called Ingsoc (a misspelled abbreviation for English Socialism) constantly seeks out ways to control the minds and private lives of its citizens. The regime is run by the Party, headed by a half mythical Big Brother. The main protagonist of the novel is Winston Smith, an editor in the Ministry of Truth, which is responsible for propaganda. He has doubts about imposed dogmas that are shared by the majority, and at heart, he hates the Party and the Big Brother.

Winston buys a thick notebook where he writes down his thoughts about the reality that surrounds him. In his world, each step of the individual is controlled by the Thought Police, whose main function is to punish people who think differently from what is contained in the official propaganda. Everyone reports on each other, and even children are taught and encouraged to denounce their parents. Winston knows he commits a crime when he denies the Party’s slogan: “War is Peace. Slavery is Freedom. Ignorance is Strength,” but still he writes in his diary: “Down with the Big Brother.”

At work, Winston recalls recent “Two Minutes Hate” periods of time, when all Party members must gather in special rooms where they watch a short film about Emmanuel Goldstein, the former leader of the Party, who betrayed it and organized the underground movement called the Brotherhood. People are obliged to express hatred towards Goldstein’s image on the screen. During one of these periods, Winston fixates on O’Brien—a member of the most powerful Inner Party. For some reason, Winston imagines that O’Brien could be one of the leaders of the Brotherhood. He wants to talk to him, and he even has a dream in which O’Brien’s voice says: “We shall meet at the place where there is no darkness.”

After the Two Minutes Hate, he received a note from a girl named Julia that reads “I love you.” Julia is a member of the Anti-Sex League, so at first, Winston treats her with mistrust, and he even considers her to be a member of the Thought Police. However, she manages to prove to him that she hates the Party too and they start a love affair. It brings Winston to the thought that they are both doomed, because free romantic relationships between a man and a woman are prohibited. Julia is more optimistic about their situation, because she simply lives in the present moment and does not think about the future. They meet in an old second-hand shop in the Prols’ district—a place where people who have not yet joined the Party life. They seem to be more free and light-hearted than the rest of Airstrip’s One population.

Eventually, Winston and Julia get arrested. They are held separately, tortured, and interrogated. Winston is beaten by jailers and he is forced to confess to various crimes, legitimate and fictional. But still, the physical pain is nothing for him compared to the shock that he experiences when he meets O’Brien and finds that he is a loyal servant of the Big Brother. O’Brien uses a special device that causes incredible pain to “re-educate” Winston, make him love the Big Brother and adopt all the Party’s false dogmas. Winston resists and he declares that despite the fact that, under torture, he has betrayed everything he valued and believed in, there is one person that he is still devoted to: Julia. But here, Orwell depicts the Party’s endless possibilities to monitor the thoughts of each citizen in Oceania. The Party knows exactly what Winston fears most, though it is a secret for Winston himself. O’Brien puts a swarm of rats in front of his victim’s face and, driven to panic and horror, Winston finally cries: “Do it to Julia! Do it to Julia! Not me! Julia! I don’t care what you do to her. Tear her face off and strip her to the bones. Not me! Julia! Not me!”

The novel ends with a description of how Winston is sitting in a cafe, drinking gin. Sometimes he meets Julia occasionally, but they dislike each other now because they know that both of them are traitors. Winston looks at the screen, where an announcer gladly informs everyone that Oceania has won the recent war, and he understands that he now loves the Big Brother. The system managed to break and completely remake Winston.

Orwell, George. 1984 . London: Penguin Books Limited, 2005. Print.

Follow us on Reddit for more insights and updates.

Comments (0)

Welcome to A*Help comments!

We’re all about debate and discussion at A*Help.

We value the diverse opinions of users, so you may find points of view that you don’t agree with. And that’s cool. However, there are certain things we’re not OK with: attempts to manipulate our data in any way, for example, or the posting of discriminative, offensive, hateful, or disparaging material.

Comments are closed.

More from Summary Essay Examples and Samples

Feb 20 2019

Moana Plot Summary Essay Sample, Example

Nov 28 2018

Hacksaw Ridge Essay Sample, Example

Nov 26 2018

Gulliver’s Travels Essay Sample, Example

Related writing guides, how to write a good summary essay: best tips.

Remember Me

Is English your native language ? Yes No

What is your profession ? Student Teacher Writer Other

Forgotten Password?

Username or Email

NOW OPEN: 2024 Term One Enrolments 🎉

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

Common Module State-Rank Essay Showcase: Nineteen Eighty-Four

The following essay was written by Project Academy English Tutor, Marko Beocanin

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

The following essay was written by Project Academy English Teacher, Marko Beocanin.

Marko’s Achievements:

  • 8th in NSW for English Advanced (98/100)
  • Rank 1 in English Advanced, Extension 1 and Extension 2
  • School Captain of Normanhurst Boys High School

Marko kindly agreed to share his essay and thorough annotations to help demystify for HSC students what comprises an upper Band 6 response!

Common Module: Nineteen Eighty-Four Essay Question

Marko’s following essay was written in response to the question:

“The representation of human experiences makes us more aware of the intricate nature of humanity.” In your response, discuss this statement with detailed reference to George Orwell’s ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’.

State-Ranking Common Module Essay Response

George Orwell’s 1949 Swiftian satire Nineteen Eighty-Four invites us to appreciate the intricate nature of humanity by representing how the abuse of power by totalitarian governments degrades our individual and collective experiences. (Link to rubric through individual/collective experiences, and a clear cause and effect argument: totalitarian governance -> degraded human experience. Also, comments on the genre of Swiftian satire. Value!) Orwell explores how oppressive authorities suppress the intricate societal pillars of culture, expression and freedom to maintain power. He then reveals how this suppression brutalises individual human behaviour and motivations because it undermines emotion and intricate thought. (Link to rubric through ‘human behaviour and motivations’, and extended cause and effect in which the first paragraph explores the collective ‘cause’ and the second paragraph explores the individual ‘effect’. This is an easy way to structure your arguments whilst continuously engaging with the rubric!) Ultimately, he argues that we must resist the political apathy that enables oppressive governments to maintain power and crush human intricacy. Therefore, his representation of human experiences not only challenges us to consider the intricate nature of humanity, but exhorts us to greater political vigilance so we can preserve it. (Concluding sentence that broadens the scope of the question and reaffirms the purpose of the text).

Orwell makes us aware of the intricate nature of humanity by representing how totalitarian authorities suppress intricate collective experiences of culture, expression and freedom in order to assert control. (This is the ‘collective’ paragraph – a cause and effect argument that relates the question to the loss of human intricacy in the collective as a result of totalitarian rule). His bleak vision was informed by Stalin’s USSR: a regime built upon the fabrication of history in Stalin’s ‘cult of personality’, and ruthlessly enforced by the NKVD. (Specific context – an actual specific regime is named and some details about its enforcement are given). The symbolic colourlessness and propaganda-poster motif he uses to describe London reflects the loss of human intricacy and culture under such leadership: “there seemed to be no colour in anything, except the posters that were plastered everywhere.” (First example sets up the world of the text, and the degraded collective experience). Orwell uses the telescreens, dramatically capitalised “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU” posters and allusions to Stalin in Big Brother’s “black-moustachio’d face” as metonyms for how governmental surveillance dominates both physical and cultural collective experiences. Winston’s metatextual construction of the fictitious “Comrade Ogilvy” serves as a symbol for the vast, worthless masses of information produced by totalitarian governments to undermine the intricacy of real human history: “Comrade Ogilvy, who had never existed…would exist just as authentically, and upon the same evidence, as Charlemagne or Julius Caesar.” Similarly, Orwell’s satirical representation of Newspeak ignites the idea that political slovenliness causes self-expression to degrade, which in turn destroys our capacity for intricate thought and resistance: “we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it.” (The examples above prove that the government’s leadership style truly is totalitarian, and that it results in a loss of intricacy and ‘humanity’ in the collective. It’s good to cover a variety of examples that explore different facets of the collective – for example, the first example establishes the extreme surveillance, the second example establishes the loss of ‘truth’/history, and the third example establishes the loss of language). The political bitterness that marks Nineteen Eighty-Four as a Swiftian satire (This is a link to the ‘Swiftian’ term used in the thesis statement. It’s important to refer back to any descriptive terms you use in your thesis) ultimately culminates in O’Brien’s monologue, where Orwell juxtaposes the politicised verb “abolish” to symbols of human intricacy, “we shall abolish the orgasm…there will be no art, no literature, no science…when we are omnipotent”, to express how totalitarian rulers suppress collective experiences to gain metaphoric omnipotence. Thus, Orwell makes us aware of the intricate nature of humanity by representing a future in which totalitarian governments suppress it. (A linking sentence that ties it all back to the question and rephrases the point)

Orwell then argues that the effect of this suppression is a loss of human intricacy that brutalises society and devalues individual experiences. (Cause and effect argument that links collective suppression to a loss of human intricacy on an individual scale – continuous engagement with the question and the rubric!) Orwell’s exposure to the widespread hysteria of Hitler’s Nazi regime, caused by the Nuremberg Rallies and Joseph Goebbels’ virulent anti-semitic propaganda, informs his representation of Oceania’s dehumanised masses. (More specific context around the Nazis, and a specific link to how it informed his work) The burlesque Two Minute Hate reveals human inconsistency by representing how even introspective, intelligent characters can be stripped of their intricacy and compassion by the experience of collective hysteria: even Winston wishes to “flog [Julia] to death with a rubber truncheon…ravish her and cut her throat at the moment of climax”, and is only restored by compliance to the Christ-like totalitarian authority, “My-Saviour!”, Big Brother. (A link to the rubric with the ‘human inconsistency’ point) Orwell frequently juxtaposes dehumanising representations of the proles, “the proles are not human beings”, to political sloganism: “As the Party slogan put it: ‘Proles and animals are free’”, to argue that in such a collectively suppressed society, the upper class grow insensitive towards the intricate nature of those less privileged. (It’s important to link the proles into your argument – they’re often forgotten, but they’re a big part of the text!) He asserts that this loss of empathy degrades the authenticity and intricacy of human relationships, characterised by Winson’s paradoxically hyperbolic repulsion towards his wife: “[Katharine] had without exception the most stupid, vulgar, empty mind that he had every encountered”. (Continuous engagement with the question and rubric: make sure to recycle rubric terms – here, done with ‘paradoxically’ – and question terms – here, with ‘intricacy’)  Winston’s “betrayal” of Julia symbolises how totalitarianism ultimately brutalises individuals by replacing their compassion for intricate ideals such as love with selfish pragmatism: “Do it to Julia…Tear her face off, strip her to the bones. Not me!” Therefore, Orwell makes us more aware of the intricate nature of humanity by demonstrating how it can be robbed by suppressive governments and collective hysteria. (A linking sentence that sums up the paragraph).

By making us aware of how totalitarian governments suppress meaningful human experiences both individually and collectively, Orwell challenges us to resist so we can preserve our intricate nature. (This third paragraph discusses Orwell’s purpose as a composer. This can in general be a helpful way to structure paragraphs: Collective, Individual, Purpose) Orwell’s service in the 1930s Spanish Civil War as part of the Republican militia fighting against fascist-supported rebels positions him to satirise the political apathy of his audience. (Integration of personal context is useful here to justify Orwell’s motivations. It’s also a lot fresher than just including another totalitarian regime Orwell was exposed to) Orwell alludes to this through the metaphor of Winston’s diarising as an anomalous individual experience of resistance, ““[Winston] was a lonely ghost uttering a truth that nobody would ever hear,” which highlights how his intricate nature persists even in a suppressive society. Often, Orwell meta-fictively addresses his own context, as “a time when thought is free…when truth exists”, to establish an imperative to preserve our intricate human nature while we still can. The Julia romance trope (It’s good to include terms such as ‘trope’ which reflect your understanding of narrative structure and the overall form of the work.) represents how Winston’s gradual rejection of his political apathy empowered him to experience an authentic, intricately human relationship that subverts his totalitarian society: “the gesture with which [Julia] had thrown her clothes aside…[belonged] to an ancient time. Winston woke up with the word ‘Shakespeare’ on his lips.” Orwell juxtaposes Julia’s sexuality to Shakespeare, an immediately-recognisable metonym for culture and history, to argue that human intricacy can only be restored by actively resisting the dehumanising influence of the government. Orwell also represents Winston’s desensitised and immediate devotion to the Brotherhood to reflect how the preservation of human intricacy is a cause worth rebelling for, even by paradoxically unjust means: “[Winston was] prepared to commit murder…acts of sabotage which may cause the deaths of hundreds of innocent people…throw sulphuric acid in a child’s face.” (More chronological examples that show Winston’s transformation throughout the text. It’s useful to explore and contrast those who resist with those who don’t resist, and how just the act of resistance in some way restores our humanity! That’s why this paragraph comes after the ‘brutalised individual experience’ paragraph) However, Orwell ultimately asserts that it is too late for Winston to meaningfully restore humanity’s intricate nature, and concludes the text with his symbolic death and acceptance of the regime, “[Winston] had won the victory over himself. He loved Big Brother.” (It’s important to remember that Orwell ends the text so miserably so that he can motivate his audiences not to do the same thing). The futility of this ending ignites the idea that we must not only be aware of our intricate nature, but must actively resist oppressive governments while we still can in order to preserve it. (A linking sentence that ties the paragraph together and justifies the futility of the ending)

Therefore, Orwell’s representation of human experiences in Nineteen Eighty-Four encourages us to reflect personally on our own intricate human nature, and challenges us to fight to preserve it. (Engages with the question (through the reflection point), and includes Orwell’s purpose as a composer). His depiction of a totalitarian government’s unchecked assertion of power on human culture and freedom, and the brutalising impact this has on individual and collective experiences, ultimately galvanises us to reject political apathy. (Your argument summaries can often be combined into a sentence or two in the conclusion now that the marker knows what you’re talking about. This reinforces the cause and effect structure as well.) Thus, the role of storytelling for Orwell is not only to make us more aware of our intricate nature, but to prove that we must actively resist oppressive governments while we still can in order to preserve it. (The clincher! It’s often useful to add “not only” in your final sentence to reinforce the massive scope of the text)

If reading this essay has helped you, you may also enjoy reading Marko’s ultimate guide to writing 20/20 HSC English essays .

P.S If you have any questions about aceing HSC English , you are welcome to learn from Marko and join one of Project Academy’s HSC English classes on a 3 week trial .

Maximise Your Chances Of Coming First At School

Trial any Project Academy course for 3 weeks.

NSW's Top 1% Tutors

Unlimited Tutorials

NSW's Most Effective Courses

Access to Project's iPad

Access to Exclusive Resources

Access to Project's Study Space

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

How to Know When You’re Prepared for the HSC

How much working out you need to get muscular depends on if you're The Rock or..

Rishabh Jain

Rishabh Jain

Head of Product & Head of Chemistry

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

4U Maths Past Paper Strategies

People only tell you "do more past papers", but they rarely tell you HOW to...

Alec Zhang

99.85 ATAR & North Sydney Boys Alumni

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

How I achieved a 99.60 ATAR and a State Rank in Economics

Like every other Year 12 student, I struggled A LOT with procrastination...

Jasmine De Rosa

Jasmine De Rosa

99.60 ATAR, 6th in NSW for Economics

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

Complete Guide to HSC Economics – How to Ace HSC Economics

Taking HSC Economics? Then this one's for you!

Aatish Budhwani

Aatish Budhwani

99.75 ATAR and 97 in Economics


WAR IS PEACE                          FREEDOM IS SLAVERY                          IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH

WAR IS PEACE                           FREEDOM IS SLAVERY                           IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH

5 352 Full Text

5 348 Main Page



5 340 QUOTES

5 136 POETRY


5 1 HOME      E-MAIL


StudyDriver in your Smartphone!

Essays on 1984


Big Brother Essay

1984 Essay Physical Mental Changes

1984 Essay People have changes that occur to them all the time whether they are physical or mental changes. These changes can be for better or worse. Changes are a result of an experience faced by one. 1984 is a book all about changes and that occur and how people react or transform from these changes. Winston is a different type of person from who he is after his pivotal experience. Winston changes from a rebel who is trying to […]

Critical Lens Essay with 1984

Martin Luther King Junior stated that, “The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy. ” In other words you never really know a true person until they are put in an unwanted, hard situation. A person could state their values and opinions, but you can never really truly know how they feel until they are put in a hard “live or […]

A professional writer will make a clear, mistake-free paper for you!

1984 Comparison with the Soviet Union

1984 Comparison With The Soviet Union George Orwell, also known as Eric Arthur Blair, is the writer of 1984. Orwell wrote many other well-liked fictional and nonfiction books such as; Coming Up for Air,animal farm ,and many more. 1984 takes place in a dystopian society. According to a dystopian society is, “ imaginary society that is as dehumanizing and as unpleasant as possible”( The unpleasant world in 1984 is about how the people are controlled by their government. The […]

1984 Compared to Today

1984 by George Orwell, written in 1948, is one of the most influential political novels of our century. The novel is Orwell’s warning about what would happen if totalitarian government has too much power. The dystopia society in the novel shows us a horrible living environment where individualism and freedom of thought no longer exist. Compare it to our society today, you would be surprise that many of the things Orwell wrote in the novel actually existed and continue to […]

1984 Surveillance

When it comes to the topic of hate and deception in 1984 by George Orwell most of us will readily agree that is a totalitarian society run by the leader known as Big Brother. They monitor and control every aspect of its people from physical to emotional. Big Brother deceives its people through the use of surveillance cameras, Newspeak, and The Thought Police. With this technology, the people fear Big Brother. Where his agreement usually ends, however, is on the […]

1984 Totalitarianism

Do you ever feel like your privacy is being encroached upon? Almost everyone uses a cellphone or a computer. Some may not know that cellphones and computers are constantly being monitored. How do you personally value your privacy? In George Orwell’s 1984, the people live in a place where the Party inspect all human actions with the watchful eye, Big Brother. George Orwell arose political turmoil in 1984 through the lives of the characters Winston and Julia regarding the totalitarian […]

1984 Technology

Have you ever felt like your being spied on your phone, being watched through your camera or heared on your microphone on your phone? Privacy is a big issue in the United States of America today since mostly everyone has a mobile phone or any other electronic devices, hackers or even the government could assess our personal lives. When comparing the book 1984 by George Orwell to today, society face some of the same privacy issues as in Orwell book. […]

1984 Themes

Despotism is one of the significant subjects of the novel, 1984. It presents the kind of government where even the top of the public authority is obscure to people in general. This topic fills in as a notice to individuals on the grounds that such system releases purposeful publicity to cause individuals to trust in the falsehoods introduced by the public authority. All through the novel, there is no evidence of Big Brother’s presence in Oceania. The Party practices unlimited […]

1984 Biography of George Orwell

Written by George Orwell, 1984 is a classic literature novel that has been a phenomenon through the years. 1984 is a highly known book for its show on society with major political flaws. This fictional story takes place in Oceania. In 1984, Winston Smith lives in a dystopian society, where the Party shames the thought of individuality. With a totally new language, Newspeak, and an all-controlling leader, Big Brother, this society seems to lack all individual freedoms. Winston Smith defies […]

1984 by George Orwell Book Review 

It is set in a dystopian London where it is ruled by a tyrannical styled government that is known as “The Party”. The story takes place after a calamitous nuclear war that devastated the planet. The Party creates a chilling (to some) living environment for its inhibitors in which it is virtually impossible to have any privacy and enforces its will through the use of various forms of technology. In every home, office, bar and other locations there is a […]

Is 1984 Relevant Today

Books are often a way of communication from author to reader. The dystopian society portrayed in 1984 by George Orwell is one of the multifarious settings in many fictional and historical fictional pieces of literature. This genre uses a form of social order propagandized as utopian despite the extreme flaws beneath the surface of the attempts to make the perfect society. Although these plots are fabricated through the author’s imagination, they are often based off of historical events, composed of […]

Utopia in 1984 by George Orwell

Utopia is the act of having an imagining community which is in possession of highly desirable qualities when it comes to its citizens. Whereby, this is a perfectly designed place with totally no any problems arising from or even within it. Such type of places emphasizes on the equality in governance, the economy and justice and these are usually achieved by the proposal and implementation of variously based ideologies. (Orwell) But this seemed to be going all wrong and totally […]

Civilization in 1984

In the book 1984, Winston says, “It is impossible to found a civilization on fear and hatred and cruelty. It would never endure.” (page 45) These words spoke to me on such a deep level, as I continued reading 1984 I learned why. This book will completely change your perspective on civilization now and will open your mind to resilience. We are manipulated in many ways that we are not yet aware of. In the book they promoted, “ War […]

What is 1984 About?

Book 1984, before beginning with this incredible story, let’s talk about, what is the book 1984? Is most of the famous book ever in worldwide except in United States of America (USA), the world 1984 is one in which eternal warfare is the price of bleak prosperity, in which the Party keeps itself in power by complete control over man’s actions and his thoughts, As the lovers Winston Smith and Julia learn when they they try to evade the Thought […]

Totalitarianism in 1984

George Orwell’s novel 1984 inspires people to wonder how it would be if a totalitarian government took over the modern day society. In the novel, Orwell describes a world which totalitarianism has complete authority and in which freedom has been long forgotten. The government knows every detail of the citizen’s life whether they like it or not and even simple gestures can lead to death. He warns the future about how technology would play an immense role in manipulation and […]

Symbolism in 1984

Set in 1984, Winston Smith a citizen of Oceania, one of three totalitarian states. It is ruled by the inner party, behind the mask of Big Brother. The upper classes of society follow the ideology of The English Socialist Party, also known as Ingsoc in Newspeak. The Ministry of Love keep them under constant surveillance with help by the Thought Police as well as telescreens, a two-way television monitor. Winston works for the outer party, in the records department of […]

Manipulation in 1984

The totalitarian regime of Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler have left a mark of daunt and intimidation worldwide. George Orwell’s novel, 1984, depicts the futuristic world based on the events that arose in the past. Citizens are portrayed as thoughtless corpses detached from the past, their memories, and themselves. In the superstate, Oceania, Winston works as an Outer Party member, where the Inner Party oppresses the Outer Party officials by engrossing complete domination. Citizens are isolated upto a point where […]

Freedom in 1984 by George Orwell

Is there a message in the book, “1984” that we don’t know about? Could Orwell be trying to communicate with us through the book? Well know one know unless you actually try, which shall be me, anyway, it is true that there is a message in the book “1984” but it’s mostly a mixture of a message and A waning of various thing maybe but mostly on one topic (it seems) and by how it connects to the themes and […]

Censorship on 1984 by George Orwell

Ethan Hawkins Mrs. Feinauer English 2200 2 February 2019 1984 – History Analysis As we dive into the world of the totalitarian society of Oceania in George Orwell’s novel, 1984, there is a connection between Orwell’s grim prediction of the future and of the world he lived in. Events going on in the world and in his own life have had an influence on the creation of the plot and structure of the novel. Just a few of the major […]

A Dystopian Novel 1984

George Orwell, is a English novelist, essayist, and critic who is famous for his novels Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-four. The novel 1984 is a dystopian novel that tells the story of Winston Smith and how is tries to rebel against the totalitarian state in which he lives.A Dystopian novel is a society that is as dehumanizing and is uncomfortable to all that live in it.Orwell wrote 1984 to warn society about what would happen if we accept totalitarian governments […]

Power and Politics in 1984

George Orwell’s 1984 is a novel of social science fiction that was written in 1949. Notably, the book talks of a totalitarian super state known as Oceania that will come to control the world. The author describes Oceania as a state that was controlled by an arrogant government that concentrated more on manipulating the way of life of the citizens, affecting the people’s lives adversely. Additionally, Orwell states that the people in Oceania were strictly governed by influential leaders, who […]

Chaos and Struggle in 1984

Following the political chaos and struggle for power after World War 2, George Orwell’s novel 1984 brings attention to the dangers of oppression and shows the nightmarish world of the possible future. The book portrays a totalitarian dystopian world where citizens are restricted from having their own thoughts and are constantly being brainwashed. Citizens serve for the party like miners in a landslide, without any knowledge of the past or freedom. The politicians in 1984 suppress and eliminate their freedom […]

Picture of Government in 1984

As in 1984, surveillance and lack of privacy is the main topic and key theme. As human beings we are completely being monitored on our technology devices of any sort. By being monitored the Government can see exactly what we are doing. Unfortunately, some things are meant with good intent, some are not so good. For example, when you head to the airport and go to a different country they ask you questions until they get what they want. The […]

Role of Woman in 1984

Living in a world where as a woman, you are were used only to reproduce and populate the party would have been terrible, but that is what all the women in 1984 experienced. 1984 is set as a dystopian society where the Party sees all, and controls all. Winston Smith, the main character, often wonders what the point of him living is, because he does not believe in the Party and hopes to someday rebel against them. In this society […]

Famous George Orwell Novel 1984

Imagine a society where the thoughts, emotions, and actions of every human are supervised by the government, and there is absolutely no freedom. This is a common theme for a dystopian society, as represented in the famous George Orwell novel, 1984. The Party had the power to control all humanity inside of Oceania. Winston Smith and his beloved coworker, Julia, are against them in light of the fact that they feel discontent about the oppression and inflexible control of the […]

Are we Experiencing the 1984?

In today’s day in age, everything we do or say can be upload to the internet and seen by millions in minutes. The good and the bad is seen throughout the world once it is uploaded. Having many question their privacy in today’s world. In the novel titled, 1984 by George Orwell the main character, Winston Smith along with the rest of the nation of Oceania are being watched through telescreens in hopes of preventing political rebellious and gaining power. […]

Lack of Privacy in 1984

In George Orwell’s novel 1984, there was a device called telescreens watching everything the citizens did. The government of Oceania, or Big Brother, forced the citizens to do what they want or they will be tortured and one day killed. Today, all Americans experience similar privacy invasions. Like The Party surveillance in 1984, the United States government watches and listens to citizens through technology such as Amazon Alexa devices, cell phones, and some computer monitors and cameras. The American government […]

Manipulation of Language: Novel ‘1984’

The slogan “two plus two equals five” is a common phrase used in various systems of media especially in chapter seven of the novel 1984 of George Orwell. The slogan is used in the novel as a false dogma that people might be required to believe. From the novel, we learn that the party is so powerful such that if it says 2+2=5, the citizens believe. People do not perceive the contradictions to be enslavement but let the party tell […]

Consciousness & Language in George Orwell’s 1984

Newspeak is the official language of Oceania. It is the depletion of words. The Party wanted to make it impossible to commit thoughtcrimes by literally erasing all of the negative words that one would use. Oldspeak is what Winston and the proles spoke in. By 1984, most people had abandoned Oldspeak. The Party did not bother teaching the proles the new language because they didn’t care about them. The proles have a conscience but they are not conscience of their […]

Role of the Government in 1984

Many writers when writing a dystopia write about things that they would never want to happen, but many of these scary, predicted things have. Winston Smith is a lower party member in the capital of Oceania who has no privacy anywhere he goes because the thought police watches him. He also cannot go anywhere without seeing the party’s leader big brother. The Party also has rules against thought crime (committing thoughts against the party) and eventually creates a new language, […]

Essay Introduction

Research paper on 1984, thesis statement for 1984.

In today’s society, many would believe they have acquired the natural right of freedom; however, people can easily be subject to a totalitarian command which would allow a loss of independence. In George Orwell’s famous dystopia, 1984, he styles a world in which the Inner Party perpetuates absolute power in the nation of Oceania using tactics to assure authority over the Outer Party, like Winston Smith. By removing individual reasoning, disrupting the capacity to comprehend, and camouflaging the past, the Inner Party is guaranteed total control.

By physically controlling the Outer Party, The Inner Party extracts rational and independent thought from the citizens of Oceania to regulate absolute power. In a crucial scene, O’Brien threatens Winston with a cage full of rats–his worst fear–to indoctrinate the victim’s loyalty to Big Brother. When the rats are near Winston’s face, he screams, “Do it to Julia! Not me! Tear her face off [and] strip her to the bones!” (286). The interrogation highlights how torture is used as a device to force citizens to submit to the government’s authority because once Winston’s body was restrained and faced with terror, his mental capacity was blocked. Now, Winston’s interests are not to fashion a rebellion since the fear of rats dominates his extent to reason, and he becomes a servant to the state.

In addition, stigmatizing sex and redefining it as essential for reproduction constricts emotion because it eliminates loving another individual. In return, the Outer Party remains loyal to the Inner Party because each individual will only adore Big Brother, stripping logical thinking. Furthermore, nationalistic propaganda constantly reminds the citizens that the Inner Party surveys its surroundings: “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU, the caption said, while the dark eyes looked deep into Winston’s own” (2). Big Brother symbolizes how a dictator in a totalitarian government is superior by practicing absolute power through supervising citizens’ lives. Since the Outer Party is in a state of danger from the surveillance, the member’s human reasons are shadowed with anxiety and suspicion. Therefore, the Inner Party thrives off of vulnerability to gain authority because they can exploit individual minds to distract the people’s rational comprehension.

Argumentative Essay Examples on 1984

The Inner Party is able to maintain its authority by distracting individual thought. For instance, Oceania is part of an everlasting war with Eurasia or Eastasia to divert any ideas of rebellion by keeping the citizens in constant fear: “Suddenly the whole street was in commotion. There were yells of warning from all sides. People were shooting into the doorways like rabbits. A young woman leaped out of a doorway…grabbed…a tiny child…whipped her apron round it, and leaped back again” (83).

The Inner Party uses warfare as an essential mechanism because the citizens will submit to the dominant power by instilling terror. Also, this terror would prevent rebellious thought by establishing an enemy. Additionally, Newspeak–the official language of Oceania–limits ideas and expression to effectively have influence over individuals’ minds. Furthermore, The Inner Party disapproves of solitude because isolation can breed independent thought. When Winston was alone, he thought of planning a rebellion with O’Brien to stop the Inner Party’s oppression; however, no other individual paralleled his reasoning because “In principle, a Party member had no spare time, and was never alone except in bed” (81). Moreover, the Inner Party distracts the Outer Party’s minds by simulating paranoia and keeping everyone in a social environment.

By altering warfare and social conditions, the Inner Party prevaricates the truth and conceals the past to sustain supremacy. The totalitarian state of Oceania rations necessities and goods to its inhabitants and publicizes that the food quantities are substantial: “The Ministry Of Plenty [said] that there would be no reduction of the chocolate ration during 1984…Actually, the chocolate ration was to be reduced from thirty grams to twenty by the end of the present week” (34). As the Inner Party becomes a powerful government, the citizens of Oceania adapt to the limitations of daily commodities, like coffee or sugar. This aids in the reduction of memory because the Outer Party Members will normalize their circumstances, unwilling to rebel from the apparent oppression.

Ideas: The Inner Party’s tactics to maintain power

In addition, Winton’s occupation at the Ministry of Truth is to rectify historical documents and revise articles to initiate and prolong the Party’s principles. In doing so, Winston must embrace doublethink–accepting that two contradictory beliefs both obtain the truth. In one scene, the Party proclaims Oceania has always been at war with Eurasia and not Eastasia, making the past changeable and not definite. Winston reassured, “Oceania was at war with Eastasia: Oceania had always been at war with Eastasia. A large part of the political literature of five years was now completely obsolete” (182). Now, any history confronting the latest Party ideals has to be redefined. In return, the Inner Party benefits because if the government can mandate the past, they have the capacity to compose a fitting future. Overall, the Inner Party disguises the truth to perpetuate its interests.

The Inner Party’s tactics to maintain its position as a high power reflected totalitarian methods through implementing fear or stripping away any perspective. They use the citizen’s emotions to withdraw logical thinking. In addition, the Inner Party disconcerts thought by limiting private communication. Lastly, the government conceals legitimate truths and recreates its goals. Without these methods, the Outer Party would be able to be the masters of their minds and creates a mass revolt against the Inner Party.

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • How to conclude an essay | Interactive example

How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example

Published on January 24, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 23, 2023.

The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay . A strong conclusion aims to:

  • Tie together the essay’s main points
  • Show why your argument matters
  • Leave the reader with a strong impression

Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.

This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example , which discusses the history of the Braille system. Hover over each part to see why it’s effective.

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Be assured that you'll submit flawless writing. Upload your document to correct all your mistakes.


Table of contents

Step 1: return to your thesis, step 2: review your main points, step 3: show why it matters, what shouldn’t go in the conclusion, more examples of essay conclusions, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay conclusion.

To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument.

Don’t just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Next, remind the reader of the main points that you used to support your argument.

Avoid simply summarizing each paragraph or repeating each point in order; try to bring your points together in a way that makes the connections between them clear. The conclusion is your final chance to show how all the paragraphs of your essay add up to a coherent whole.

To wrap up your conclusion, zoom out to a broader view of the topic and consider the implications of your argument. For example:

  • Does it contribute a new understanding of your topic?
  • Does it raise new questions for future study?
  • Does it lead to practical suggestions or predictions?
  • Can it be applied to different contexts?
  • Can it be connected to a broader debate or theme?

Whatever your essay is about, the conclusion should aim to emphasize the significance of your argument, whether that’s within your academic subject or in the wider world.

Try to end with a strong, decisive sentence, leaving the reader with a lingering sense of interest in your topic.

The easiest way to improve your conclusion is to eliminate these common mistakes.

Don’t include new evidence

Any evidence or analysis that is essential to supporting your thesis statement should appear in the main body of the essay.

The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that nicely summarizes your central point. But it shouldn’t introduce any major new sources or ideas that need further explanation to understand.

Don’t use “concluding phrases”

Avoid using obvious stock phrases to tell the reader what you’re doing:

  • “In conclusion…”
  • “To sum up…”

These phrases aren’t forbidden, but they can make your writing sound weak. By returning to your main argument, it will quickly become clear that you are concluding the essay—you shouldn’t have to spell it out.

Don’t undermine your argument

Avoid using apologetic phrases that sound uncertain or confused:

  • “This is just one approach among many.”
  • “There are good arguments on both sides of this issue.”
  • “There is no clear answer to this problem.”

Even if your essay has explored different points of view, your own position should be clear. There may be many possible approaches to the topic, but you want to leave the reader convinced that yours is the best one!

Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services

Discover proofreading & editing

  • Argumentative
  • Literary analysis

This conclusion is taken from an argumentative essay about the internet’s impact on education. It acknowledges the opposing arguments while taking a clear, decisive position.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

This conclusion is taken from a short expository essay that explains the invention of the printing press and its effects on European society. It focuses on giving a clear, concise overview of what was covered in the essay.

The invention of the printing press was important not only in terms of its immediate cultural and economic effects, but also in terms of its major impact on politics and religion across Europe. In the century following the invention of the printing press, the relatively stationary intellectual atmosphere of the Middle Ages gave way to the social upheavals of the Reformation and the Renaissance. A single technological innovation had contributed to the total reshaping of the continent.

This conclusion is taken from a literary analysis essay about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . It summarizes what the essay’s analysis achieved and emphasizes its originality.

By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

  • Ad hominem fallacy
  • Post hoc fallacy
  • Appeal to authority fallacy
  • False cause fallacy
  • Sunk cost fallacy

College essays

  • Choosing Essay Topic
  • Write a College Essay
  • Write a Diversity Essay
  • College Essay Format & Structure
  • Comparing and Contrasting in an Essay

 (AI) Tools

  • Grammar Checker
  • Paraphrasing Tool
  • Text Summarizer
  • AI Detector
  • Plagiarism Checker
  • Citation Generator

Your essay’s conclusion should contain:

  • A rephrased version of your overall thesis
  • A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
  • An indication of why your argument matters

The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.

For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:

  • Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, July 23). How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example. Scribbr. Retrieved February 15, 2024, from

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, how to write an essay introduction | 4 steps & examples, how to write a thesis statement | 4 steps & examples, example of a great essay | explanations, tips & tricks, what is your plagiarism score.

  • Introduction
  • Predictions
  • Bibliography

In conclusion

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

  • Our Process

Get The Best Help For Your Nursing Essay & Assignment In The UK

Looking for expert help from the best nursing writers online? This is the right place for you. EssaysUK is a premier nursing essay writing service with hundreds of professional writers, proofreaders, and editors who collectively work to make sure that you get the best nursing essay possible.

From essays to assignments, coursework, and papers, our exceptional nursing essay help will help you get the grades you desire in an affordable way.

Flynn Mccaffrey

Aras Harding

Jenson Stanton

Shiv Salazar

Elsa Pearson

Dainton David

Luther Little

Natasha Hubbard

Sinead Beltran

Manpreet Hickman

Gavin James

Arsalan Penn

Fabien Boyer

Kaleem Mcmanus

Ursula Duke

Emilie Cantu

Malik Harwood

Oakley Wallis

Kylan Wilkes

Tamika Driscoll

Kelly Flynn

Samad Storey

Hakeem Stuart

Kevin Stephenson

Research Areas Of Our Professional Writers

  • Medical-Surgical Nursing

Pediatric Nursing

Critical care nursing.

  • Psychiatric Nursing
  • Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing
  • Community Health Nursing

Providing Trusted Support Since 2011

EssaysUK has been a premier provider of nursing essays for more than several years. We have helped thousands of students studying nursing throughout these years. Whether you are a Ph.D., master’s, or undergraduate student, our experts can help you with all.

Why Take Help From EssaysUK

Free revisions.

Customer satisfaction is our number one priority. For this, we offer free revisions to our clients to make sure that they are completely content with the assignments they are delivered.

High-Quality Work

Our professional nursing essayists make sure that you only get the highest quality of work. They perform thorough research and provide a plagiarism report with the delivery.

Nursing Writing Experts

We have the top industry expert writers working under our company name. They go through an extensive recruitment process to ensure the best and adept quality and timely delivery.

Cheap Nursing Help

EssaysUK understands the complexities of the students studying nursing in the United Kingdom. We try to keep our prices at a rate that is affordable to a maximum of students.

Customised To Your Needs

When you place an order for an essay with EssaysUK, we make sure that our expert writers prepare the essay adhering to the guidelines provided by our customers in the order form.

24/7 Customer Service

Our 24/7 customer service is available to listen to all of your queries. No issue is big or small. We hear and solve every problem with the utmost patience for customer retention.

How To Order Our Writing Services

Place an order.

Using our easy order form , fill out the details about the nursing coursework help that you require. Make sure to add every requirement and get a quote.

Writers Is Assigned

Once you accept the quote, make the payment, and an experienced nursing essay writer will be assigned to your project. They start working.

Order Delivered

When the writer is done with the nursing assignments, we deliver it to you. Download it from the portal or get it delivered through email.

Trusted By Over 1000,000 students

Thousands of students have used EssaysUK academic support services to improve their grades. Why are you waiting?


I cannot express how grateful I am for the exceptional nursing essay writing services provided by this company. The writers are highly knowledgeable and experienced in nursing, ensuring that every essay is well-researched and reflects a deep understanding of the subject matter.

View All Reviews

As a nursing student juggling clinicals and coursework, I turned to this company for assistance with my essays, and they exceeded my expectations.

The customer service is friendly and responsive, constantly updating the order’s progress. I appreciate the reliability and quality of nursing assignments this company consistently delivers.

FAQs About Getting Nursing Writing Help

How does your pricing structure work for nursing essay help.

Our pricing is transparent and depends on factors such as the academic level, deadline, and complexity of the essay. You can get a quote using our order form.

Can I request revisions for my nursing essay, and is there any extra cost involved?

Yes, we offer a revision policy to ensure your satisfaction. Revisions are free of charge within a specified timeframe after the completion of the essay.

What payment methods do you accept for your nursing essay writing services?

We accept a variety of payment methods, including credit/debit cards and online payment platforms. You can find the complete list on our Payment page.

How do I know my payment information is secure when using your nursing paper writing service?

We prioritise the security of your personal and payment information. Our website uses secure encryption protocols to safeguard your data, and we do not store any payment details on our servers.

Can I get a refund if I am not satisfied with the nursing essay provided?

Yes, we have a refund policy in place. If you are dissatisfied with the delivered essay, you can refer to our Refund Policy for eligibility criteria and the refund process.

How do you ensure the originality and authenticity of the nursing essays you provide?

We have a strict policy against plagiarism. Our writers craft each essay from scratch, and we use plagiarism-detection tools to ensure the content is original and meets academic standards.

Diverse Research Areas Catered to Excellence

Clinical nursing research.

Innovative approaches to patient care are always being investigated in the nursing industry. This involves implementing evidence-based procedures in medical environments.

Public Health Nursing

Nursing looks at ways to boost local health. It studie­s how actions taken by nurses change the­ big picture for public health.

Nursing Education

Get into effective teaching methodologies and technology integration to enhance nursing education and training programs.

Healthcare Management

To enhance healthcare transport structures, it’s miles essential to observe the top techniques for company management and what the main healthcare structures are.

Nursing Informatics

Investigate the combination of information science, computer science, and nursing science to improve decision-making, data management, and patient outcomes.

Mental Health Nursing

Examine mental health conditions, methods of treatment, and the contribution of nursing interventions to the promotion of mental health and healing.

Pay attention to the particular healthcare requirements of kids and investigate developments in family-centred care and pediatric nursing.

Gerontological Nursing

Examine the healthcare obstacles that the senior population faces, such as those about end-of-life care, chronic illness management, and encouraging healthy ageing.

Nursing Ethics

Discuss moral conundrums, professionalism, and the responsibility of nurses in promoting patient rights and maintaining moral principles.

Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing

Investigate the integration of research findings, clinical expertise, and patient preferences to inform nursing practice and improve patient outcomes.

Nursing and Technology Integration

Explore the impact of technological advancements on nursing practice, including the use of telehealth, health apps, and virtual care in patient management.

Examine best practices in critical care, including interventions for acutely ill patients, resuscitation techniques, and strategies for optimising outcomes in emergencies.

Global Health Nursing

Investigate nursing interventions on a global scale, addressing healthcare disparities, infectious diseases, and the role of nurses in international health initiatives.

Holistic Nursing Care

Focus on holistic approaches to patient care, considering physical, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions to enhance overall well-being.

Nursing and Cultural Competence

Explore the impact of cultural diversity on healthcare delivery, emphasising culturally competent nursing care and strategies for improving cross-cultural communication.

These research areas provide a comprehensive foundation for nursing scholars and professionals to contribute to the advancement of healthcare and nursing practice.

Our Range of Nursing Writing Services

📝 nursing essays.

From reflective to argumentative essays, our expert writers are adept at delivering well-structured, high-quality and insightful content.

📚 Nursing Assignments

Completing nursing assignments can be difficult, but you can succeed in them all with our dedicated support. Because our skilled nursing assignment writers are familiar with the complexities of nursing assignments, they can guarantee that every assignment is painstakingly created to the greatest standards.

🎓 Nursing Thesis Writing

To reach the highest level of academic success, a well-written thesis is essential. Our skilled writers will help you create an extensive and persuasive nursing thesis.

🔍 Nursing Research Papers and Report

Need assistance with research papers or case studies? Our experts are well-equipped to handle various types of nursing papers, ensuring excellence in every submission.

📑 Nursing Proposal Writing

A strong proposal is necessary before you begin any investigation. Our professionals will help you ensure the significance and viability of your nursing research by helping you develop a solid basis.

📘 Nursing Homework and Coursework

Excelling in daily assignments and coursework is easier with our specialised support. Trust us to provide you with solutions that showcase your commitment to studying nursing.

📄 Nursing Term Paper Writing

Our Writers are your trustworthy buddy when deadlines are approaching and term papers need to be completed. Get nursing term papers that are well-written, elegantly researched, and sure to make an impression in the classroom.

📖 Nursing Dissertations

Tackling a nursing dissertation? Our skilled writers guide you through the process, delivering comprehensive and expertly written dissertations to contribute to your academic success.

Invest in your academic future with our Nursing Essay Writing Service. Achieve good grades, excel in your studies, and confidently submit high-quality assignments. Trust our expert nursing writers to assist you every step of the way. Place your order now for a seamless, stress-free academic experience!

Why Opt for Our Nursing Writing Services?

Students may seek help from expert nursing essay services for various reasons. Here are some common motivations:

Expert Nursing Writers

Entrust your academic success to our skilled and experienced nursing essay writers, who are experts in the field and dedicated to delivering top-notch content.

Comprehensive Services

From nursing essays to papers, homework, coursework, and dissertations, our range of services covers all aspects of nursing academia, ensuring holistic support for your studies.

High-Quality Content

We guarantee high-quality, original content written from scratch, reflecting a deep understanding of nursing concepts and contributing to your academic excellence.

On-Time Delivery

Punctuality is our commitment. Benefit from timely submissions, allowing you ample time for review and ensuring you never miss a deadline.

Customer Support

Our dedicated customer support team is available to address your queries promptly, providing a seamless and supportive experience throughout your academic journey.

Customised Solutions

Every nursing assignment is unique. Our writers tailor each piece to meet your specific requirements, ensuring that your work stands out and aligns with nursing student’s academic goals.

Plagiarism-Free Guarantee

Maintaining intellectual integrity cannot be compromised. You can rely on us to deliver unique, well-researched work that is devoid of plagiarism. Our work will accurately reflect your commitment to your studies.


We adhere to strict privacy protocols. Therefore, we prioritise your privacy. Rest assured that your personal information and academic details are kept confidential and secure.

Variety of Writing Services

Our specialised services cover the whole range of topics in the nursing field, whether you need help with essays, papers, assignments, coursework, or dissertations.

Time Management

Our commitment to on-time delivery ensures that you have the necessary time for review and submission This facilitates effective time management in your academic life.

Buy Nursing Assignments with Confidence

Looking for professional nursing essay writers to help you? You can rely on our services to succeed academically and turn in well-written projects.

Invest in your academic future with the assurance of our key features. Place your order now for a seamless, stress-free academic experience and achieve the academic success you deserve!

Academic Subjects Covered by EssaysUK

Ready to Place an Order?




essays logo

  • How It Works

The Washington Post

Can ChatGPT get into Harvard? We tested its admissions essay.

ChatGPT’s release a year ago triggered a wave of panic among educators. Now, universities are in the midst of college application season, concerned that students might use the artificial intelligence tool to forge admissions essays.

But is a chatbot-created essay good enough to fool college admissions counselors?

To find out, The Washington Post asked a prompt engineer — an expert at directing AI chatbots — to create college essays using ChatGPT. The chatbot produced two essays: one responding to a question from the Common Application, which thousands of colleges use for admissions, and one answering a prompt used solely for applicants to Harvard University.

We presented these essays to a former Ivy League college admissions counselor, Adam Nguyen, who previously advised students at Harvard University and read admissions essays at Columbia University. We presented Nguyen with a control: a set of real college admissions essays penned by Jasmine Green, a Post intern who used them to get into Harvard University, where she is currently a senior.

We asked Nguyen to read the essays and spot which ones were produced by AI. The results were illuminating.

Can you figure out which one was written by a human?

Computer science and college admissions experts say that AI created essays have some easy tells — helpful for admissions offers who are prepping for an uptick in ChatGPT-written essays.

Responses written by ChatGPT often lack specific details, leading to essays that lack supporting evidence for their points. The writing is trite and uses platitudes to explain situations, rather than delving into the emotional experience of the author. The essays are often repetitive and predictable, leaving readers without surprise or a sense of the writer’s journey. If chatbots produce content on issues of race, sex or socioeconomic status, they often employ stereotypes.

At first, Nguyen was impressed by the AI-generated essays: They were readable and mostly free of grammatical errors. But if he was reviewing the essay as part of an application package, he would’ve stopped reading.

“The essay is such a mediocre essay that it would not help the candidate’s application or chances,” he said in an interview. “In fact, it would probably diminish it.”

Here is how Nguyen evaluated ChatGPT’s essay.

Nguyen said that while AI may be sufficient to use for everyday writing, it is particularly unhelpful in creating college admissions essays. To start, he said, admissions offices are using AI screening tools to filter out computer-generated essays. (This technology can be inaccurate and falsely implicate students, a Post analysis found .)

But more importantly, admissions essays are a unique type of writing, he said. They require students to reflect on their life and craft their experiences into a compelling narrative that quickly provides college admissions counselors with a sense of why that person is unique.

“ChatGPT is not there,” he said.

Nguyen understands why AI might be appealing. College application deadlines often fall around the busiest time of the year, near winter holidays and end-of-semester exams. “Students are overwhelmed,” Nguyen said.

But Nguyen isn’t entirely opposed to using AI in the application process. In his current business, Ivy Link, he helps students craft college applications. For those who are weak in writing, he sometimes suggests they use AI chatbots to start the brainstorming process, he said.

For those who can’t resist the urge to use AI for more than just inspiration, there may be consequences.

“Their essays will be terrible,” he said, “and might not even reflect who they are.”

About this story

Jasmine Green contributed to this report.

The Washington Post worked with Benjamin Breen, an associate professor of history at the University of California in Santa Cruz who studies the impact of technological change, to create the AI-generated essays.

Editing by Karly Domb Sadof, Betty Chavarria and Alexis Sobel Fitts.

by George Orwell

1984 themes, totalitarianism.

In writing 1984 , Orwell's main goal was to warn of the serious danger totalitarianism poses to society. He goes to great lengths to demonstrate the terrifying degree of power and control a totalitarian regime can acquire and maintain. In such regimes, notions of personal rights and freedoms and individual thought are pulverized under the all-powerful hand of the government. Orwell was a Socialist and believed strongly in the potential for rebellion to advance society, yet too often he witnessed such rebellions go wrong and develop into totalitarian rule. Specifically, Orwell saw such developments during his time in Spain and in Russia, where he witnessed the rise of communism and the accompanying destruction of civil liberties, honest government, and economic strength.

During a time when much of the Western world was lauding communism as a step towards human progress in the development of equality in government, Orwell clearly and definitively spoke out against the practice. In 1984 , Orwell presents a dystopia, or in other words, the perfect totalitarian state. In composing this novel, Orwell gave the world a glimpse of what the embrace of communism might lead to if allowed to proceed unchecked. The Party is unflawed in its universal control over society, as evidenced by its ability to break even an independent thinker such as Winston, and has mastered every aspect of psychological control, largely through utilizing technological developments (allowing for inventions such as the telescreen) to their advantage. In ending the novel with Winston defeated in every sense of the term, Orwell clearly suggests that there is no hope for quelling the expansion or growth of such a perfectly established regime. And, more importantly, Orwell warns that at the time, this outcome was within the realm of possibility as long as the world supported and embraced communism.

A major factor in the Party's rule over Oceania lies in its extremely well organized and effective propaganda machine. The Ministry of Truth, which is ironically where Winston works, is responsible for disseminating all Party publications and information. All figures and facts come from the Ministry of Truth, and all are dictated by the Party. In other words, the Party chooses exactly what to tell the public, regardless of what is accurate. The effectiveness of this propaganda machine, which constantly corrects old material to reflect the Party's current position on any subject ranging from chocolate rations to the loyalty of a specific individual, allows the Party to completely dominate the range of information disseminated to the public. Therefore, as O'Brien notes, the machine determines what constitutes reality.

In addition to the massive amounts of doctored information the Party disseminates to the public, there are also basic forms of propaganda, such as the Two Minutes Hate, Hate Week, posters of Big Brother , and required daily participation in the Physical Jerks. The Party uses literally every waking opportunity to instill its ideals into its citizens, and is strikingly successful in achieving its goal of total loyalty. In 1984 we see the vigor and loyalty such propaganda inspires in the citizens. The citizens of Oceania are filled with hatred for the country's stated enemies, but this hatred is easily re-directed if the enemy happens to change. This efficiency is quite disturbing. Orwell's presentation of the power of propaganda significantly supports his warning against totalitarianism. If propaganda rules all information, it is impossible to have any grasp on reality. The world is as the Party defines it.


The Party works to quell all physical sensations of love, and depersonalizes sex to the point where it is referred to as a "duty to the Party" (for the purposes of procreation). Some Party organizations even advocate complete abstinence and procreation only through artificial insemination. Winston suffers the Party's removal of personal fulfillment or enjoyment in relationships in his failed marriage with Katharine . Later, when he finds Julia , Winston relishes the freedom of being able to love someone in a physical and emotional way. So much of Winston's seeming rebellion turns out to be guided and influenced by the Party ( Mr. Charrington , O'Brien, the Brotherhood), but his relationship with Julia is not. Winston is only able to rebel against the Party through his affair with Julia, even though this love is destroyed in the end.

Orwell's discussion of love is not only relegated to romantic love. Through Winston's memories of his mother and the contrast between how she cared for him and his sister and the average Party family is striking. Winston's mother deeply loved her children and did all she could to protect them during the aftermath of the Revolution and the Party's rise to power. In Winston's time, the Party has removed such interfamilial loyalty, demanding that all love and loyalty be reserved for Big Brother and the Party. In this way, the bonds between parents and children are broken. Even worse, children commonly report their parents to the Thought Police, placing the Party above the lives of their mother and father. The Party's eventual goal is to destroy the family unit entirely and have all children raised in Party facilities. The Party has no room for love, unless that love is directed with full force at Big Brother and Oceania.


Through its effective psychological manipulation tactics, the Party destroys all sense of independence and individuality. Everyone wears the same clothes, eats the same food, and lives in the same grungy apartments. Life is uniform and orderly. No one can stand out, and no one can be unique. To have an independent thought borders on the criminal. For this reason, writing such as Winston does in his diary has been outlawed. People are only permitted to think what the Party tells them to think, which leads to what Syme refers to as "duckspeak." Independent thought can be dangerous, as it might lead to rebellion.

This theme comes to a head during Winston's torture, when Winston argues that he is a man, and because he is a man O'Brien cannot tell him what he thinks. O'Brien counters that if Winston is a man, he is the last man on earth. Moreover, O'Brien suggests that this independence is evidence of insanity. O'Brien's view represents the purity of a totalitarian regime, in that independent thought must be destroyed to promote the needs and goals of the Party. Winston and Julia's downfall occurs because they believe they are special. Their arrest and torture, however, breaks this spirit. Once again, through this ultimate loss of individual thought, we witness Orwell's warning against embracing any version of totalitarian rule.

Songs appear throughout the novel, most often when Winston is reflecting on the state of the world. Music appears to inspire Winston and allows him to see beauty and simplicity in an otherwise violent, ugly, and frightening world. He sees a powerful sense of tragedy in "Under the spreading Chestnut Tree," hope for a brighter future in the beautiful thrush song, respect for the true, untouchable past in the "St. Clement's Dane" rhyme, and freedom and hope in the passion with which the prole woman sings while hanging her laundry. Below, listed in chronological order are the musical events that occur in the novel.

Winston describes sitting in the Chestnut Tree Cafe, observing the clearly beaten, defeated, and tragically sad Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford , while the song "Under the spreading Chestnut Tree, I sold you and you sold me" plays over the telescreen. The song seems to reflect the broken spirits of these three men, who were once Inner Party members and now have lost everything.

Mr. Charrington teaches Winston the rhyme that begins "Oranges and lemons say the bells of St. Clement's," which is a vestige of the past. Throughout the novel, Winston holds on to this rhyme and tries to discover its entirety. He succeeds, with the help of Julia, who remembers a few more lines than Mr. Charrington, and O'Brien, who finishes the poem for Winston.

Julia and Winston are in the Golden Country, beginning their affair. As they stand next to each other surveying the landscape, a small thrush begins to sing next to them. Winston is taken in by the bird's boundless freedom and wonders what makes him sing so beautifully. To Winston, the bird's song represents all he longs for in life. It is the exact opposite of the Party.

Winston hears the prole woman in the yard behind Mr. Charrington's house sing while she works. She belts out the tune without any hesitation, throwing herself into the simple music with a passion Winston reveres.

Winston tells Julia of the poem Mr. Charrington taught him, and she adds two verses. Her grandfather taught her the rhyme when she was young, and Winston is elated to learn the next few lines of the piece. This cooperation reveals a strong bond between Winston and Julia.

Winston discusses the Hate Song the Party created solely for the Hate Week celebration. This is the only time we hear of a song created purely for negative means. Winston notes that the Hate Song is not as popular among the proles as some of the more simple tunes the Ministry of Truth has produced for them.

O'Brien completes Mr. Charrington's rhyme, and Winston is immensely satisfied to finally know the complete piece. He feels that gaining the last puzzle piece from O'Brien symbolically represents their bond in rebelling against the Party and pursuing a future steeped in freedom.

Winston again hears the prole woman singing passionately while doing her wash and reflects on the primitivism in song. Winston thinks about the millions of people around the world, just like this woman, who find such pleasure, power and freedom in music and are able to embrace it in their lives. He is arrested immediately after this brief scene, which fulfills the last line of the "St. Clement's Dane" song, "Here comes a chopper to chop off your head!"

Winston sits in the Chestnut Tree Cafe, just as Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford once did. He hears the same song he heard when watching those three men, "Under the spreading Chestnut Tree, I sold you and you sold me." Here, the song speaks to the destruction of Winston's independence, and his newly discovered love for Big Brother.

The Party is fueled by loyalty, and thus demands that its citizens support any and all actions it takes in pursuing a greater Oceania. For the Party, loyalty means accepting without question or hesitation. Ironically, when Winston pledges his loyalty to the Brotherhood, he also agrees to accept the goals and requirements of the Brotherhood without question or hesitation. Winston agrees to do anything the Brotherhood requires, even if that means murdering innocents. However, Winston is also loyal to Julia, and refuses to be separated from her forever. This split loyalty is what separates Winston from the other Party members. Party members are loyal to the Party, Big Brother, and Oceania alone. Personal relationships are of no importance.

While in the Ministry of Love, O'Brien notes this weakness in Winston's mind and effectively removes it. Through painful physical torture, O'Brien first teaches Winston that the Party's perspective is the accurate perspective. Next, by threatening him with carnivorous rats, O'Brien breaks Winston's loyalty to Julia. In the last scene of the novel, Winston finally comes to love Big Brother, and his transition from split loyalties to a greater single loyalty to the Party is complete.

Poverty vs. Wealth

Oceanian society presents a clear dichotomy in living conditions. The small Inner Party lives luxuriously, with servants and lush, well-furnished apartments. Party members, on the other hand, live in run-down single-room apartments with no amenities and low-quality, tasteless food. The proles live in absolute poverty. The chasm between poverty and wealth in the novel is striking, and is most noticeable during Winston's forays into prole society. The buildings the proles live in are decaying, and the city of London is filled with bombed-out ruins. While the Inner Party comforts itself with luxury, the citizens of Oceania suffer, getting by with the bare minimum in a dying city.

Orwell presents this dichotomy to demonstrate how totalitarian societies promote the wealth of the ruling regime while decreasing the quality of life for all other members of society. Such governments often tout their hopes for establishing an equal society when in reality the separation between their living conditions and those of the citizens is vast. Winston looks out on the city of London and sees a dying world. Meanwhile, O'Brien looks out on the city of London and sees a society trapped in a single moment in time, defined and controlled by the Party.

As previously noted, technology is an extremely important tool that the Party uses to maintain control over its citizens. Without telescreens, the Thought Police would not be nearly as effective, and propaganda would not be so widespread. The constant supervision of the telescreen effectively imprisons citizens of Oceania in their daily lives: they are always under observation.

Ironically, other areas of technological development are strikingly stagnant. For example, the printing machines in the Ministry of Truth are still quite basic, and each superstate continues to build the same bombs that were used decades before. Scientific progress has halted, except where it serves the Party's goals (such as in artificial insemination or new methods for psychological manipulation). In the world of Oceania there is no such as thing as progress for the sake of progress; there is only power for the sake of power. When technological developments serve this power, they are encouraged. When they do not, they are stopped.

Newspeak plays an extremely important role in Oceanian society and in the Party's control over its population. As Syme says, Newspeak reduces and limits the number of words in the English language, and removes words used to describe rebellion or independence (with the ultimate goal being to remove citizens' ability to think anti-Party thoughts). Interestingly, the Party works to form a language around itself rather than naturally accepting and assuming the language of the people that make up the country. In this way, language is used as yet another mechanism of mind control.

Removing a nation's original language serves to reduce the importance of a nation's past. Languages develop over centuries, and are deeply intertwined with culture and history. Redefining and forcing a language on a population, as was often done in the postcolonial era, denies that society its individuality. The Party meets this goal with great efficiency.

GradeSaver will pay $15 for your literature essays

1984 Questions and Answers

The Question and Answer section for 1984 is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

What was the result of Washington exam

Sorry, I'm not sure what you are asking here.

how is one put into the inner or outer party in the book 1984

The Outer Party is a huge government bureaucracy. They hold positions of trust but are largely responsible for keeping the totalitarian structure of Big Brother functional. The Outer Party numbers around 18 to 19 percent of the population and the...

"Parasite" (2019) by Bong Joon-ho

This is only a short answer space. Check this out below: second paragraph:,on%20issues%20of%20gender%20and

Study Guide for 1984

1984 study guide contains a biography of George Orwell, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

  • 1984 Summary
  • Character List

Essays for 1984

1984 essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of 1984 by George Orwell.

  • The Reflection of George Orwell
  • Totalitarian Collectivism in 1984, or, Big Brother Loves You
  • Sex as Rebellion
  • Class Ties: The Dealings of Human Nature Depicted through Social Classes in 1984
  • 1984: The Ultimate Parody of the Utopian World

Lesson Plan for 1984

  • About the Author
  • Study Objectives
  • Common Core Standards
  • Introduction to 1984
  • Relationship to Other Books
  • Bringing in Technology
  • Notes to the Teacher
  • Related Links
  • 1984 Bibliography

Wikipedia Entries for 1984

  • Introduction
  • Writing and publication

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

  • Search Menu
  • Advance articles
  • The ALH Review
  • Author Guidelines
  • Submission Site
  • Open Access
  • Why Submit?
  • About American Literary History
  • Editorial Board
  • Advertising and Corporate Services
  • Journals Career Network
  • Self-Archiving Policy
  • Dispatch Dates
  • Terms and Conditions
  • Journals on Oxford Academic
  • Books on Oxford Academic

Issue Cover

Article Contents

  • < Previous

The American Sonnet: An Anthology of Poems and Essays , eds. Dora Malech and Laura T. Smith, eds

  • Article contents
  • Figures & tables
  • Supplementary Data

John Hay, The American Sonnet: An Anthology of Poems and Essays , eds. Dora Malech and Laura T. Smith, eds, American Literary History , Volume 36, Issue 1, Summer 2024, Pages 270–273,

  • Permissions Icon Permissions

Article PDF first page preview

Email alerts, citing articles via.

  • Recommend to your Library


  • Online ISSN 1468-4365
  • Print ISSN 0896-7148
  • Copyright © 2024 Oxford University Press
  • About Oxford Academic
  • Publish journals with us
  • University press partners
  • What we publish
  • New features  
  • Open access
  • Institutional account management
  • Rights and permissions
  • Get help with access
  • Accessibility
  • Advertising
  • Media enquiries
  • Oxford University Press
  • Oxford Languages
  • University of Oxford

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide

  • Copyright © 2024 Oxford University Press
  • Cookie settings
  • Cookie policy
  • Privacy policy
  • Legal notice

This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.

  • Manage Account
  • Voter Guide
  • Solar Eclipse
  • Bleeding Out
  • Things to Do
  • Public Notices
  • Help Center

news Education

How are computers scoring STAAR essays? Texas superintendents, lawmaker want answers

Educators and legislators are concerned about transparency and a spike in high schoolers scoring zero points on written answers..

Texas superintendents want answers from the state education commissioner Mike Morath about...

By Talia Richman

11:10 AM on Feb 15, 2024 CST

Texas superintendents – and at least one lawmaker – want answers from the state education commissioner about how computers are scoring STAAR essays.

The Texas Education Agency quietly debuted a new system for examining student answers on the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness, or STAAR, in December . Roughly three-quarters of written responses are scored by a computer rather than a person.

“This is surprising news to me as a member of the House Public Education Committee, as I do not recall ever receiving notice of this novel and experimental method for grading high-stakes, STAAR tests,” Rep. Gina Hinojosa, D-Austin, wrote in a recent letter to Commissioner Mike Morath, which was also shared with The Dallas Morning News .

Superintendents across the state were also caught off guard until recently. Many school districts already are suing the state over changes to the academic accountability system that’s largely based on STAAR performance.

Receive our in-depth coverage of education issues and stories that affect North Texans.

By signing up you agree to our  Terms of Service  and  Privacy Policy

Related: Computers scoring Texas students’ STAAR essay answers, state officials say

The News reported on the rollout of computer scoring Wednesday.

The use of computers to score essays “was never communicated to school districts; yet this seems to be an unprecedented change that a ‘heads up’ would be reasonably warranted,” HD Chambers, director of the Texas School Alliance, wrote to Morath in a letter shared with The News .

TEA spokesman Jake Kobersky said in a statement that the agency is developing a comprehensive presentation for educators, explaining the changes in detail and addressing outstanding questions.

He added that the agency alerted the House public education committee in August 2022 that it was pursuing automated scoring.

The final bulletpoint on an 18-page slideshow read: “TEA is pursuing automation for scoring where appropriate to reduce costs while ensuring reliability. Full human scoring is not possible under item-level computer-adaptive (B), and full human scoring with no automation under the current system would require at least $15-20M more per year.”

The new scoring method rolled out amid a broader STAAR redesign. The revamped test – which launched last year – has a cap on multiple choice questions and essays at every grade level. State officials say it would cost millions more to only have humans score the test.

The “automated scoring engines” are programmed to emulate how humans would assess an essay, and they don’t learn beyond a single question. The computer determines how to score written answers after analyzing thousands of students’ responses that were previously scored by people.

Among the district leaders’ biggest concerns is a huge spike in low scores among high schoolers under the new system.

Roughly eight in 10 written responses on the most recent English II End of Course exam received zero points this fall.

In the spring – the first iteration of the redesigned test, but scored only by humans – roughly a quarter of responses scored zero points in the same subject.

Members of the Texas School Alliance , which represents 46 districts, “examined their individual district results and found shockingly consistent scoring differences.”

Chris Rozunick, the director of the state’s assessment development division, previously told The News that she understands why people connect the spike in zeroes to the rollout of automated scoring based on the timing. But she insists that the two are unrelated.

Many students who take STAAR in the fall are “re-testers” who did not meet grade level on a previous test attempt. Spring testers tend to perform better, according to agency officials who were asked to explain the spike in low scores in the fall.

“It really is the population of testers much more than anything else,” Rozunick said.

Kobersky added that, under the previous STAAR design, a score of zero was reserved for “unscorable responses,” meaning the question was left blank or written in a nonsensical way. The redesigned test rubric allows for a zero both if a response is unscorable or if it’s the value of the response as determined by the scorer, he said.

Some district leaders requested the state education agency provide them images of students’ responses so that they could “better understand what led to the significant increase in the number of zeroes, and most importantly how to help students write their responses” to receive better scores.

“Each request has been denied,” Chambers wrote in his letter to Morath.

Kobersky said fall questions are not released because they can be reused for other tests.

TEA officials say a technical report, with a detailed overview of the system, will be available later this year.

STAAR scores are of tremendous importance to district leaders, families and communities. Schools are graded on the state’s academic accountability system largely based on how students perform on these standardized tests.

Related: What are Texas’ A-F school grades, and why do they matter?

“As with all aspects of the STAAR test and the A-F accountability system, it is important that there is transparency, accuracy and fairness in these high-stakes results,” Hinojosa wrote.

The DMN Education Lab deepens the coverage and conversation about urgent education issues critical to the future of North Texas.

The DMN Education Lab is a community-funded journalism initiative, with support from Bobby and Lottye Lyle, Communities Foundation of Texas, The Dallas Foundation, Dallas Regional Chamber, Deedie Rose, Garrett and Cecilia Boone, The Meadows Foundation, The Murrell Foundation, Solutions Journalism Network, Southern Methodist University, Sydney Smith Hicks and the University of Texas at Dallas. The Dallas Morning News retains full editorial control of the Education Lab’s journalism.

Talia Richman

Talia Richman , Staff writer . Talia is a reporter for The Dallas Morning News Education Lab. A Dallas native, she attended Richardson High School and graduated from the University of Maryland. She previously covered schools and City Hall for The Baltimore Sun.

Hidden cameras aim to expose DEI efforts in Texas colleges despite ban

Dallas mayor eric johnson says he regrets other people being ‘dragged’ into divorce, 5 things to know about the dallas megachurch seeking injunction against developer, fight on southwest airlines flight draws attention to unruly passengers and consequences, woman sentenced to 12 years for possessing gun, selling drugs out of dallas motel room.

Marilynne Robinson Makes the Book of Genesis New

In her hands, scripture becomes a precursor to the novel.

illustration of green tree casting long shadows

Marilynne Robinson’s novels always leave me with a visceral impression of celestial light. Heavenly bulbs seem to switch on at climactic moments, showing a world as undimmed as it was at Creation. “I love the prairie! So often I have seen the dawn come and the light flood over the land and everything turn radiant at once,” writes John Ames, the narrator of Gilead , an elderly preacher approaching death as if returning to the birth of being. “And God saw the light, that it was good,” the Bible says, and Ames sees that it’s good, too: “that word ‘good’ so profoundly affirmed in my soul that I am amazed I should be allowed to witness such a thing.”

Magazine Cover image

Explore the March 2024 Issue

Check out more from this issue and find your next story to read.

A primordial sun also shines upon Jack Boughton, the prodigal son of Robinson’s Gilead quartet ( Gilead , Home , Lila , and Jack ). In Home , Jack restores the broken-down family car, an old DeSoto, buffing its chrome detailing to its former resplendence. It’s the only time we ever see the shame-riddled Jack truly at ease. He proudly slides the DeSoto out of the barn and “[floats] away, gentling the gleaming dirigible through the shadows of arching elm trees, light dropping on it through their leaves like confetti.” He’s bathed in grace, and when he takes his sister and father for a ride in the countryside, the drab Iowa fields have become an Eden, bright and fertile: “The terraced hills glittered with new corn.”

From the October 2020 issue: Marilynne Robinson’s prodigal son

Robinson is one of the greatest living Christian novelists, by which I don’t just mean that she’s a Christian—though she is an active one—but that her great novels (five so far) and her versatile, morally stringent essays (four collections and a book of lectures , on subjects including Darwinism and the Puritans as well as her own childhood) reflect a deep knowledge and love of Christianity . Robinson, who has taught Bible classes and preached at her church in Iowa City, Iowa, is a learned lay theologian of the Calvinist variety. In many of her essays and particularly in Gilead , she makes us aware of a John Calvin who does not at all conform to his reputation as a dour ascetic.

Robinson’s Calvin revels in creaturely delights. This Calvin says that we discover God’s goodness through the pleasures of the senses: “We see, indeed, the world with our eyes, we tread the earth with our feet, we touch innumerable kinds of God’s works with our hands, we inhale a sweet and pleasant fragrance from herbs and flowers,” he writes in his Commentary on Genesis . Calvin says that Moses—traditionally understood to be the author of the Bible’s first five books—makes a good artistic choice when he begins his narrative by conjuring up God’s dazzling cosmos ex nihilo, rendering him “visible to us in his works.” Calvin’s Moses, like Robinson, knows how to light God.

Now Robinson has written her own exegesis of the first book of the Bible, called Reading Genesis . It follows Calvin’s in treating scripture as art . She knows that such literary analysis may offend modern-day literalists: “To suggest craft in the making of sacred text disturbs some people, as if the Holy Spirit would never descend to the strategies of nuance and emphasis that heighten the intelligibility of a story.” But an aesthetic appreciation of the Bible doesn’t diminish its holiness, she says; on the contrary, artistry is divine. Robinson derives this lesson from Genesis 2:9, finding it in the second story of Creation. God, designing Eden, puts in trees. The first thing the verse tells us is that they’re “pleasant to the sight.” Only after that are we told that they provide good things to eat. Robinson notes that God gave us the gift of enjoyment—which was “nothing less than a sharing of His mind with us.”

This is the stuff of sermons—the kind I’d willingly sit through. But Robinson is also up to something that should interest her secular readers. She’s working out a poetics. In her deft hands, Genesis becomes a precursor to the novel—the domestic novel, as it happens, which is the kind she writes. Perhaps I’m making her sound self-glorifying. She’s not. She makes her case.

Robinson’s main claim is that Genesis invented a kind of realism—this-worldly, nonmythological—remarkably akin to our understanding of the term. This is outrageous, impossible to defend—if you’re a literary historian. But she’s not doing history. She’s writing an essay about biblical style and its implications. She wants us to see how radical scripture is compared with its sources. For one thing, it’s human-centered. The Babylonian epics that the Bible recasts—the Enuma Elish, the Epic of Gilgamesh —tell the origin myths of a passel of quarrelsome gods. The Enuma Elish’s gods created people so that they would serve their Creators—build their temples, grow their food. “There is nothing exalted in this, no thought of enchanting these nameless drudges with the beauty of the world,” Robinson writes. In Genesis, by contrast, humankind is made in God’s image; all the sublimity of biblical Creation seems to be meant for its benefit. We move from gods indifferent to our well-being to a God obsessively focused on us.

Why that happens is not immediately clear. The protagonists of Genesis are unlikely candidates for God’s solicitude. One innovation of the Western novel is to shift the emphasis from great men and women to ordinary people in ordinary circumstances. But the biblical author is also interested in unexceptional folk. The founding fathers and mothers of Israel aren’t kings or warriors or, like Moses, a former prince who rescues an enslaved nation. The patriarchs raise sheep. Indeed, God seems to pick his covenantal partner, Abraham, at random. Why bind himself to a son of idolaters “drifting through the countryside, looking for grazing for his herds,” in Robinson’s words? Why not the next guy?

Apologists wave away that theological conundrum—the apparent contingency of election—by claiming that Abraham is unusually righteous, Kierkegaard’s exemplary “knight of faith.” But if Abraham is indeed thoroughly good, he’s the exception. Every other major character in Genesis has an unsavory side. God made a covenant with Noah, too, for instance, and although he is chosen to survive the flood because he is a righteous man, he isn’t afterward. He gets dead drunk, and his son Ham sees him naked in his tent. Ham tells his brothers; they enter the tent backwards, averting their eyes, and cover him with a blanket. Noah wakes up, feels humiliated, blames Ham, and lays a curse—not on Ham but on Ham’s son Canaan, who is condemned to be a slave to Ham’s brothers. The Bible offers no excuse for Noah’s cruelty, or for many other misdeeds committed by its chosen people. “There is nothing for which the Hebrew writers are more remarkable than their willingness to record and to ponder the most painful passages in their history,” Robinson writes.

Read: Marilynne Robinson on democracy, reading, and religion in America

That history, with its providential arc, works itself out through family dramas of this kind, more than it does through cosmic events like the flood. At first, both share the stage: The glorious tale of Creation segues to Adam and Eve nervously fobbing off responsibility for eating the apple. Their son Cain commits fratricide, and his descendants bequeath lyres, pipes, and metallurgy to humankind. The genealogies culminate in Abraham, the first patriarch, whose household is made turbulent by rivalry among wives and among siblings.

Then the tone grows hushed. Everything in the background fades, leaving only God, Abraham, Sarah, their household, and their occasional journeys. “As soon as the terms are set for our existence on earth,” Robinson writes, “the gaze of the text falls on one small family, people who move through the world of need and sufficiency, birth and death, more or less as we all do.” Of course, unlike us, they speak with God, but that, Robinson adds, in a sneaky homiletic twist, is “a difference less absolute than we might expect.” Robinson thus redefines realism to encompass the encounter with the divine. Furthermore, if she can bring us to acknowledge that biblical characters are realistic, that they portray us, then we should probably admit that we may, like them, be God’s interlocutors, whether we know it or not.

The genius of Reading Genesis lies in its collapse of the space between the holy and the mundane, the metaphysical and the physical. God resides in commonplace things; his sublime purposes course through the small-bore tragedies of unremarkable people, to be revealed in the fullness of time. God is himself and the world is itself—we are not speaking of pantheism here—but they are also one. This is a very Christian mystery that Robinson’s ushering us into, and the proper response is awe at the hallowed world she shows us, at the loveliness—and shrewdness—of the idea of divine indwelling. She does a lot with it. For one thing, it allows her to dismiss scientific skepticism of religion as not only reductive but unimaginative. How can “sacredness in existence” be disproved? Sanctity is immanent, not quantifiable.

Above all, Robinson’s God-infused theory of reality is also a theology of realistic fiction—of her brand of realistic fiction, in which the physical may suddenly be revealed as numinous and the spirit inheres in the flesh. I want to be clear: At no point in this book does Robinson talk about herself, her novels, or the novel as a form. That’s not the sort of thing she’d do. This is me reading her reading. I see Robinson in her depiction of the biblical author, who in turn sometimes seems to merge with God. What she has in common with both the writer or writers of the Bible and God, as she depicts them, is a deep tenderness toward the subjects of their concern. “The remarkable realism of the Bible,” she writes, “the voices it captures, the characterization it achieves, are products of an interest in the human that has no parallel in ancient literature.” Nor, I would add, in a great deal of modern literature. This boundless and merciful interest in the human is what distinguishes her.

Two characters seem to inspire the most pity and love in Robinson: the patriarch Jacob and her own creation, Jack Boughton. Both sin greatly and suffer greatly. As a young man, Jacob tricks his older brother, Esau, into selling him his birthright (the right to lead the family, and a double portion of the estate), and then straight-up cheats Esau out of their father’s blessing. A lifetime of exile and intermittent misfortune follows. Jacob matures into a more thoughtful, mostly penitent man, but his punishment does not end there. Ten of his 12 sons turn out to be worse than he ever was. At one point, they collude in slaughtering the men of a village and carrying off its women. Jacob commits the offense of favoring one son, Joseph, over the others, and in retribution, they throw the boy into a pit, from which he is kidnapped and sold into slavery in Egypt. The brothers present their father with Joseph’s bloodied coat, the implication being that he’d been killed by a wild beast. Jacob never recovers from the blow.

From the October 2014 issue: Marilynne Robinson, Lila , and the power of grace

Jack, like Jacob, is born into a family rich in blessings. His father is a minister who truly tries to do right by him, and Jack’s seven siblings—good, kind people—love and worry about him. Nonetheless, as a child and young man, he commits senseless crimes—mostly petty thefts—seemingly “for the sheer meanness of it,” the Reverend John Ames says in Gilead . Then Jack impregnates a very young girl, which tests his all-forgiving father to his limits, and he leaves town, staying away for 20 years. In Jack , we learn of his bitter life as a vagrant, and in Home , he tries to go home, with mixed success. His presence makes his father anxious, and Jack can’t bear the feeling that everyone mistrusts him. Insofar as forgiveness is on offer, he seems unable to accept it. At one point in Gilead , he asks his father and Ames, “Are there people who are simply born evil, live evil lives, and then go to hell?”

The Bible, Robinson declares in the first line of Reading Genesis , is “a theodicy, a meditation on the problem of evil.” So are the stories of Jacob and Jack. Why do they do what they do? Were they predestined to hurt others? We know how Jacob’s story ends: Joseph becomes the most powerful man in Egypt after Pharaoh and is in a position to rescue his family from starvation. This is why you did what you did , Joseph tells his brothers: God sent me ahead of you to ensure your survival .

Robinson, however, is more interested in what happens afterward, when Joseph brings Jacob to meet Pharaoh. His father is curiously querulous. “The great man asks him,” she writes, “How old art thou? Jacob answers that he will not live as long as his fathers did.” Robinson comments:

He has grown very old in fewer years, enduring a life of poverty and sorrow. He is the third patriarch, the eponymous ancestor of the nation Israel, which at that time will not exist for centuries. He has received the great promises of the covenant, including possession of the land he will only return to as an embalmed corpse.

This is the patriarch at his most self-pitying. God’s pact is with Jacob’s children’s children more than it is with him; it doesn’t compensate for his sorrows. Jacob cannot reconcile the double perspective that may be the Bible’s greatest literary achievement: the view from heaven, “with an eye toward unrealized history,” as Robinson puts it, and the view from “a nearer proximity” of the human agent of that history. He has been told the future, but that hasn’t blunted his grief, hasn’t reached “the level of ‘innermost’ feeling.”

Jack, too, struggles with the meaning of his affliction, less certain of vindication than Jacob. In Home , he waits for a letter from his estranged wife, whom we sense he sees as his salvation. Robinson torques the suspense: Jack has earned our sympathy—more, to be honest, than Jacob has—and on Jack’s behalf we want answers to his questions. Will the evils he has inflicted, and his terrible loneliness, be shown to have a larger purpose? Will the ways of God be known to men—to this poor man?

We get answers, up to a point. It’s not clear that he does. Maybe he has missed his chance; maybe he’ll get another one. Not knowing breaks the heart, but knowing would be cheating. Besides, as Jacob comes to show, knowing doesn’t necessarily help. “The Lord stands back,” Robinson writes in Reading Genesis  ; his “divine tact” lets his characters achieve their “full pathos and dignity.” Robinson does the same. The Bible was not given to man to simplify complexity, she says, but to speak of it with “a respect and restraint that resists conclusion.” Therein lies its beauty, and that of the literature it has inspired. The realism of Genesis, as she says, is “by itself a sort of miracle.”

This article appears in the March 2024 print edition with the headline “How Marilynne Robinson Reads Scripture.”

conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

​When you buy a book using a link on this page, we receive a commission. Thank you for supporting The Atlantic.

Suffolk County is failing its most vulnerable residents who face a crisis of hunger

Ashley Torres, 19, of Blue Point with her 1-year-old daughter,...

Ashley Torres, 19, of Blue Point with her 1-year-old daughter, Annmarie Cimmino, shops using food stamps, known as SNAP, in April 2018 at the King Kullen in Blue Point. Credit: Randee Daddona

In Suffolk County, a stark divide confronts us: Amid pockets of extreme wealth, the most impoverished among us are being failed by our government.

This truth, highlighted by a recent Newsday expose, sheds light on the struggle of Suffolk residents facing dire challenges without the support of federal programs intended to address their emergency needs. In short, by failing to process applications for emergency assistance in a timely way, Suffolk County has been failing to help our most vulnerable residents access programs meant to help them meet their nutritional needs in times of crisis.

Hunger, far from a mere absence of food, represents a pervasive trauma, made worse by a series of factors including inflation and a profound mental health crisis. The county’s failure to assist our most vulnerable residents not only exacerbates these crises but also highlights a concerning demographic trend: Suffolk boasts more adults 65 and older than 59 of the 62 counties in New York State, with the number of seniors living in poverty here increasing by a staggering 64% between 2011 and 2021. This reality demands immediate action; we must do better.

Our most vulnerable residents — including veterans, the elderly, working-poor families and children — rely on programs like the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program as an emergency measure to meet their basic needs in times of crisis. SNAP, as an effective anti-poverty tool, not only addresses immediate food insecurity but also has far-reaching benefits, improving high school graduation rates and health outcomes. SNAP also increases local economic investment when recipients spend those funds at local businesses.

Denying our neighbors access to food, whether due to policy choices, inadequate resourcing, or a lack of emergency planning, is a profound failure of governance that demands our urgent attention and rectification. It also puts downward pressure on nonprofit food pantries already struggling to meet the expanding and emerging needs of Suffolk residents as food prices have risen dramatically and families new to asking for assistance are desperate and showing up at their doors.

From our Editorial Board, get inside the local, city and state political scenes.

By clicking Sign up, you agree to our privacy policy .

The origins of Suffolk’s crisis are multifaceted, including workforce shortages, increased pandemic-related caseloads, a cyberattack, and low starting salaries for essential workers. While Suffolk possesses the tools to plan for and mitigate the impacts of disasters, it is clear that more must be done.

Suffolk County must respond to the immediate emergency and develop robust emergency planning protocols to ensure that Department of Social Services workers have the capacity to assess qualifications promptly and efficiently when the next disaster arrives — whether a pandemic, a weather-related disaster, or unforeseen calamity. The county must cross-train, build capacity to deploy, prioritize, and process applications to ensure the safety of our neighbors.

As the former head of Long Island’s primary health and human services umbrella agency, I understand the challenges facing DSS. I have witnessed the struggles endured during past crises such as Hurricane Irene, Superstorm Sandy, and the economic downturn of 2008. Our most vulnerable neighbors often endure the longest recoveries in the aftermath of disasters, and it is incumbent upon government to serve them with compassion and efficiency.

An emergency plan for the deployment of essential social services is not just urgent — it is imperative, timely, and crucial. We cannot afford to delay action any longer. Let us come together to ensure that Suffolk County’s most vulnerable residents receive the support and assistance they need to weather the storms ahead.

This guest essay reflects the views of Rebecca Sanin, a Suffolk County legislator who represents the 16th District and is the former president of the Health and Welfare Council of Long Island.



  1. 1984 Final Essay

    conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

  2. Essay on 1984

    conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

  3. 1984 Essay

    conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

  4. Conclusion Paragraph

    conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

  5. 1984 George Orwell Essay

    conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay

  6. 1984 Essay

    conclusion paragraph for 1984 essay


  1. Conclusion Paragraph Tutorial

  2. Advantages and Disadvantages Essay, Conclusion Paragraph

  3. Conclusion Paragraph Writing the Enduring Issues Essay

  4. Tutorial: Writing Conclusions

  5. Conclusion Paragraph

  6. PERSUASIVE ESSAY Part2 Breakdown


  1. 1984: A+ Student Essay: Is Technology or Psychology More ...

    Of the many iconic phrases and ideas to emerge from Orwell's 1984, perhaps the most famous is the frightening political slogan "Big Brother is watching.". Many readers think of 1984 as a dystopia about a populace constantly monitored by technologically advanced rulers. Yet in truth, the technological tools pale in comparison to the ...

  2. Orwell's 1984: A+ Student Essay Examples

    Looking for 1984 essay tips? Use our free samples as guidelines. If you need rush essays, simply place an order and your papers will be delivered before the deadline. Hook Examples for "1984" Essays. The Dystopian Warning Hook. Open your essay by discussing George Orwell's "1984" as a prophetic warning against totalitarianism and government ...

  3. 1984 Essays

    Humanity's Fear: A Comparison of 1984 and Metropolis Anonymous 12th Grade. 1984. The fear of a dystopian future that is explored in both Fritz Lang's film Metropolis and George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty Four is reflective of the values of the societies at the time and the context of the authors.

  4. Orwell's 1984 Essay Example with Writing Tips and Topic Ideas

    For example: "In '1984', George Orwell uses the motif of Big Brother, the concept of doublethink, and the character arc of Winston Smith to critique the totalitarian government's manipulative control over individuals' thoughts and actions.". Finally, position your thesis statement at the end of your introduction.

  5. 1984 Summary

    Essays for 1984. 1984 essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of 1984 by George Orwell. The Reflection of George Orwell; Totalitarian Collectivism in 1984, or, Big Brother Loves You; Sex as Rebellion; Class Ties: The Dealings of Human Nature Depicted through Social ...

  6. 1984 Essay Questions

    Essays for 1984. 1984 essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of 1984 by George Orwell. The Reflection of George Orwell; Totalitarian Collectivism in 1984, or, Big Brother Loves You; Sex as Rebellion; Class Ties: The Dealings of Human Nature Depicted through Social ...

  7. 1984

    We can help you master your essay analysis of 1984 by taking you through the summary, context, key characters and themes. We'll also help you ace your upcoming English assessments with personalised lessons conducted one-on-one in your home or online! We've supported over 8,000 students over the last 11 years, and on average our students ...

  8. 1984, by George Orwell: On Its Enduring Relevance

    In my 20s, I discovered Orwell's essays and nonfiction books and reread them so many times that my copies started to disintegrate, but I didn't go back to 1984. Since high school, I'd lived ...

  9. HSC Task 1

    In conclusion, 1984 is an exploration of how human experience is complex in nature. Despite the innate craving for connection the will of survival triumphs in a world of oppression and fear. ... Crucible Practice Essay; 1984 sample paragraphs; Plath and Hughes g; Module A - John Donne; 1984 (Essay for advanced english year 12 on 1984) Mod B - A ...

  10. A Succesful Conclusion to 1984

    1984: Oppression of Truth. In the novel 1984, Orwell produced a social critique on totalitarianism and a future dystopia that made the world pause and think about our past, present and future. When reading this novel we all must take the time to think of the possibility that Orwell 's world could come to pass.

  11. George Orwell's "1984": Free Summary Essay Samples and Examples

    Academic Writing Examples and Samples Summary Essay Examples and Samples "1984" by George Orwell Essay Sample, Example. The book was written by the British writer and journalist George Orwell in 1948 and had the Soviet Union as a prototype of the social structure described in it. AI Essay Writer AI Detector Plagiarism checker Paraphraser.

  12. Common Module State-Rank Essay Showcase: Nineteen Eighty-Four

    Common Module: Nineteen Eighty-Four Essay Question. Marko's following essay was written in response to the question: "The representation of human experiences makes us more aware of the intricate nature of humanity.". In your response, discuss this statement with detailed reference to George Orwell's 'Nineteen Eighty-Four'.

  13. george orwell 1984 Critical commentary

    1984. Critical Commentary. There are relatively few good essays concerning 1984 specifically, and to date there has, at least in the opinion of the author of the present study, been no definitive critical biography or critical study of George Orwell. The material on the relation of James Burnham's The Managerial Revolution to 1984 is of major ...

  14. 1984 Essay Topics & Prompts

    1984 Essay Topics & Prompts. Instructor: Wendy A. Garland. Wendy has a Ph.D. in Adult Education and a Master's Degree in Business Management. She has 10 years experience working in higher ...

  15. An Essay on George Orwell's 1984: The Role of the Past in Examining

    Photo by Viktor Forgacs on Unsplash. G eorge Orwell's novel, 1984, is a dystopian novel which takes place in a time where the government, otherwise known as The Party, controls everything. In the novel, a certain interpretation of truth can be perceived from the Party's view of the past. This interpretation is different from the one we look to when we examine truth through history.

  16. 1984 Essay Examples

    1984 Essay Physical Mental Changes . 1984 Essay People have changes that occur to them all the time whether they are physical or mental changes. These changes can be for better or worse. Changes are a result of an experience faced by one. 1984 is a book all about changes and that occur and how people react or transform from these changes.

  17. 1984 Study Guide

    These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of 1984 by George Orwell. The Reflection of George Orwell. Totalitarian Collectivism in 1984, or, Big Brother Loves You. Sex as Rebellion. 1984: The Ultimate Parody of the Utopian World. View our essays for 1984….

  18. How to Conclude an Essay

    Step 1: Return to your thesis. To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument. Don't just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction. Example: Returning to the thesis.

  19. Conclusion

    In conclusion. George Orwell was a futurist thinker who wrote about issues ahead of his own lifetime. 1984 presents thought-provoking concepts concerning the use of technology and how it could influence the relationship between a country and its government. Although some people may think that his predictions for our future were too far-fetched ...

  20. Hire Pro Nursing Essay and Assignments Writers

    This is the right place for you. EssaysUK is a premier nursing essay writing service with hundreds of professional writers, proofreaders, and editors who collectively work to make sure that you get the best nursing essay possible. From essays to assignments, coursework, and papers, our exceptional nursing essay help will help you get the grades ...

  21. Computers scoring Texas students' STAAR essay answers, state ...

    The Texas Education Agency quietly rolled out a new model for evaluating student answers on the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness, or STAAR, in December. Roughly three-quarters of ...

  22. Can ChatGPT get into Harvard? We tested its admissions essay.

    The essays are often repetitive and predictable, leaving readers without surprise or a sense of the writer's journey. If chatbots produce content on issues of race, sex or socioeconomic status ...

  23. 1984 Themes

    Essays for 1984. 1984 essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of 1984 by George Orwell. The Reflection of George Orwell; Totalitarian Collectivism in 1984, or, Big Brother Loves You; Sex as Rebellion; Class Ties: The Dealings of Human Nature Depicted through Social ...

  24. The American Sonnet: An Anthology of Poems and Essays , eds. Dora

    John Hay; The American Sonnet: An Anthology of Poems and Essays, eds. Dora Malech and Laura T. Smith, eds, American Literary History, Volume 36, Issue 1, 15 Feb

  25. How are computers scoring STAAR essays? Texas superintendents, lawmaker

    11:10 AM on Feb 15, 2024 CST. LISTEN. Texas superintendents - and at least one lawmaker - want answers from the state education commissioner about how computers are scoring STAAR essays. The ...

  26. Marilynne Robinson Makes the Book of Genesis New

    In her hands, the Book of Genesis becomes a precursor to the novel. By Judith Shulevitz. Elizabeth Hart. February 10, 2024, 7 AM ET. Marilynne Robinson's novels always leave me with a visceral ...

  27. Suffolk County is failing its most vulnerable residents who face a

    By Rebecca SaninGuest essay Updated February 14, 2024 2:42 pm Share In Suffolk County, a stark divide confronts us: Amid pockets of extreme wealth, the most impoverished among us are being failed ...