Department of History

Cultural history.

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American Cultural History: A Very Short Introduction

American Cultural History: A Very Short Introduction

Associate Professor of Chicano Studies, Urban Planning, and History

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American Cultural History: A Very Short Introduction provides a chronological look at American culture—the values, attitudes, beliefs, and myths of a particular society and the objects through which they are organized—addressing literature, music, art, architecture, theater, film, television, and the Internet. In doing so, it emphasizes culture’s role in the shaping of national identity and how previous generations of Americans have imagined themselves, their nation, and their relationship to rest of the world. Across the lines of race, class, gender, sexuality, religion, ethnicity, generation, and geography, diverse Americans have forged a national culture with a global reach, inventing stories to underscore the problems and possibilities of an American way of life.

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Exploring Cultural History: Essays in Honour of Peter Burke

Profile image of Melissa Calaresu

Related Papers

Rebeka Vidrih

This contribution will attempt to show that Aby Warburg was basically still a formalist art historian, a representative of Stilgeschichte, who did strive to extend the narrow art historical question of style into a wider, cultural topic of the influence of Antiquity on subsequent historical periods, but he could hardly be labelled an iconographer in the usual sense, that is, as an art historian occupied primarily with the content of a work of art, as opposed to its form. The contribution will also attempt to demonstrate that his art historical work was not as fragmented and particularized as is usually believed, but was, on the contrary, guided throughout by a quite consistent vision of the development of art and its role in the cultural evolution of humanity

cultural history essay

Eleanthi Marnelaki

A Conference paper. An attempt to understand the avoidance of interpretations in the late art historical works of the two authors. Question: What kind of an ideology is implicated in the demand for an art historical narrative, which would be laying claim to sensual experiences of images but dismissing all iconological practices? Presented in Image=Gesture: the 5th Nomadikon Meeting. Bergen 9.11.2011.

Art in Translation

Matthew Rampley

Jonathan Zilberg

György E Szönyi

Roberto Gilodi

Dimitrios Latsis

Francesco Leonelli

Zwei Fragen bilden den Ausgangspunkt: Ist es möglich, eine allgemeine und 'wirksame' Methode zur Kunstgeschichte zu finden? Welche sind die geisteswissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, die besonders herangezogen werden können, um die Forschungsarbeit eines Kunsthistorikers zu unterstützen und zu bereichern? In diesem Beitrag wird eine kurze Analyse der Praxis der Kunstgeschichte vorangestellt – und 'versucht', indem sowohl Berührungspunkte mit als auch Unterscheidungen zu anderen wissenschaftlichen Forschungsmethoden diskutiert werden. Kann man etwa, da Kunstgeschichte normalerweise in Form von wörtlicher "Erzählung" erscheint, wirklich über eine Übereinstimmung zwischen der konkreten Präsenz des Kunstgegenstandes in der Realität und seiner Existenz im Text sprechen? Im Beitrag wird auch der Vorschlag gemacht, die Kunstgeschichte konsequent in einem ideengeschichtlichen Kontext zu betrachten, vornehmlich in der Richtung, die Arthur Lovejoy in seinem berühmten Essay The Great Chain of Being vorgeschlagen hat. Im Grunde schlägt die Ideengeschichte stets eine Brücke zwischen verschiedenen Disziplinen und kann immer neue Aspekte einer Epoche beleuchten, die ansonsten in fachspezifischen Forschungen verbannt oder sogar vernachlässigt bleiben würden. Die Ideengeschichte sollte so idealerweise die Kunstgeschichte immer begleiten und sie dabei unterstützen, etwa das Moment der "schöpferischen Intuition", im Sinne von Henri Bergson, der Prägung einer Theorie oder einer neuen Kunstepoche zu ergreifen, um darüber eine Art Osmose zwischen den Standpunkten von Gegenwart und Vergangenheit zu fördern.

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Cultural Identity Essay

27 August, 2020

12 minutes read

Author:  Elizabeth Brown

No matter where you study, composing essays of any type and complexity is a critical component in any studying program. Most likely, you have already been assigned the task to write a cultural identity essay, which is an essay that has to do a lot with your personality and cultural background. In essence, writing a cultural identity essay is fundamental for providing the reader with an understanding of who you are and which outlook you have. This may include the topics of religion, traditions, ethnicity, race, and so on. So, what shall you do to compose a winning cultural identity essay?

Cultural Identity

Cultural Identity Paper: Definitions, Goals & Topics 

cultural identity essay example

Before starting off with a cultural identity essay, it is fundamental to uncover what is particular about this type of paper. First and foremost, it will be rather logical to begin with giving a general and straightforward definition of a cultural identity essay. In essence, cultural identity essay implies outlining the role of the culture in defining your outlook, shaping your personality, points of view regarding a multitude of matters, and forming your qualities and beliefs. Given a simpler definition, a cultural identity essay requires you to write about how culture has influenced your personality and yourself in general. So in this kind of essay you as a narrator need to give an understanding of who you are, which strengths you have, and what your solid life position is.

Yet, the goal of a cultural identity essay is not strictly limited to describing who you are and merely outlining your biography. Instead, this type of essay pursues specific objectives, achieving which is a perfect indicator of how high-quality your essay is. Initially, the primary goal implies outlining your cultural focus and why it makes you peculiar. For instance, if you are a french adolescent living in Canada, you may describe what is so special about it: traditions of the community, beliefs, opinions, approaches. Basically, you may talk about the principles of the society as well as its beliefs that made you become the person you are today.

So far, cultural identity is a rather broad topic, so you will likely have a multitude of fascinating ideas for your paper. For instance, some of the most attention-grabbing topics for a personal cultural identity essay are:

  • Memorable traditions of your community
  • A cultural event that has influenced your personality 
  • Influential people in your community
  • Locations and places that tell a lot about your culture and identity

Cultural Identity Essay Structure

As you might have already guessed, composing an essay on cultural identity might turn out to be fascinating but somewhat challenging. Even though the spectrum of topics is rather broad, the question of how to create the most appropriate and appealing structure remains open.

Like any other kind of an academic essay, a cultural identity essay must compose of three parts: introduction, body, and concluding remarks. Let’s take a more detailed look at each of the components:

Introduction 

Starting to write an essay is most likely one of the most time-consuming and mind-challenging procedures. Therefore, you can postpone writing your introduction and approach it right after you finish body paragraphs. Nevertheless, you should think of a suitable topic as well as come up with an explicit thesis. At the beginning of the introduction section, give some hints regarding the matter you are going to discuss. You have to mention your thesis statement after you have briefly guided the reader through the topic. You can also think of indicating some vital information about yourself, which is, of course, relevant to the topic you selected.

Your main body should reveal your ideas and arguments. Most likely, it will consist of 3-5 paragraphs that are more or less equal in size. What you have to keep in mind to compose a sound ‘my cultural identity essay’ is the argumentation. In particular, always remember to reveal an argument and back it up with evidence in each body paragraph. And, of course, try to stick to the topic and make sure that you answer the overall question that you stated in your topic. Besides, always keep your thesis statement in mind: make sure that none of its components is left without your attention and argumentation.

Conclusion 

Finally, after you are all finished with body paragraphs and introduction, briefly summarize all the points in your final remarks section. Paraphrase what you have already revealed in the main body, and make sure you logically lead the reader to the overall argument. Indicate your cultural identity once again and draw a bottom line regarding how your culture has influenced your personality.

Best Tips For Writing Cultural Identity Essay

Writing a ‘cultural identity essay about myself’ might be somewhat challenging at first. However, you will no longer struggle if you take a couple of plain tips into consideration. Following the tips below will give you some sound and reasonable cultural identity essay ideas as well as make the writing process much more pleasant:

  • Start off by creating an outline. The reason why most students struggle with creating a cultural identity essay lies behind a weak structure. The best way to organize your ideas and let them flow logically is to come up with a helpful outline. Having a reference to build on is incredibly useful, and it allows your essay to look polished.
  • Remember to write about yourself. The task of a cultural identity essay implies not focusing on your culture per se, but to talk about how it shaped your personality. So, switch your focus to describing who you are and what your attitudes and positions are. 
  • Think of the most fundamental cultural aspects. Needless to say, you first need to come up with a couple of ideas to be based upon in your paper. So, brainstorm all the possible ideas and try to decide which of them deserve the most attention. In essence, try to determine which of the aspects affected your personality the most.
  • Edit and proofread before submitting your paper. Of course, the content and the coherence of your essay’s structure play a crucial role. But the grammatical correctness matters a lot too. Even if you are a native speaker, you may still make accidental errors in the text. To avoid the situation when unintentional mistakes spoil the impression from your essay, always double check your cultural identity essay. 

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Cultural history I: what's in a name?

Cultural history is not to be defined by a set of rules or a distinct subject matter. It is not just, what the German term Kulturgeschichte denotes, a study of the activities within the sphere of 'high culture'; nor is it exclusively to be seen as an exercise in interpretation of symbolic acts and rituals of people in the past. Some observers have been frustrated with cultural history that seems at times to be the 'history of everything', not without reason. There is more than a grain of truth in the view that cultural history can be exercised in every field of activity: politics, economics, kinship, gender, religion and all their interlocking and overlapping domains.

So, for example, alongside a demographic historian who calculates the historical movements of the size of family, or age at marriage, cultural historians probe the ideas about family, obligation, conjugality, with all the contradictions and points of pressure and conflict which they induced in people's lives. Or, alongside the study of doctrine, theology and ecclesiastical structures – areas long studied by historians of religion – cultural historians seek out the practices through which religion was disseminated, experienced, interpreted and applied. This has meant that cultural historians have often also been innovators in the search for sound and viable ways of approaching and identifying ways into the daily lives of people who did not generate a great deal of documentation. Yet, it is wrong to think of cultural history as a 'people's history' alone; its operations are as illuminating when applied to courts, politics and armies; to the art and clothing, literature, grammar and music of the few and privileged.

Before cultural history became so important to the work of historians, some time in the late 1980s, the 'new history' of the 1960s and 1970s had produced a great deal of pioneering and exciting information about social relations and structures. The lives of workers, working-class politics, peasant economies, demographics of plantations and slave-owning economies, levels of literacy, all these became visible, and often for the first time. The work was often inspired by acquaintance with Marx's theories of class conflict, and in France by an indigenous version of a history situated within a geographical, physical frame.

E. P. Thompson , Natalie Zemon Davis and Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie showed that peasants and artisans could be studied historically, and that historians could try to understand their ideas and aspirations, the words that comforted or excited them, the symbols they cherished or rejected. The Chartist movement, for example, was first studied as an expression of class aspirations in the plenitude of its mobilisation and political effect; but an analysis of its language revealed that its main concerns were not based on class solidarity but with inclusion and exclusion from the polity. The study of social relations led the most inspired historians to seek meaning beyond structure, and subjectivity beyond class formation and adherence.

The most formative impact in urging historians towards the 'cultural' – the domain of representation, the struggle over meaning – was the advent of interest in women and then gender, and this impact has not been sufficiently understood or appreciated by historians and those who observe them.

Although there are a few examples from earlier periods of history, and indeed a trickle of studies throughout the early 20th century, the field of women's history within academia emerged in the 1970s, in complex yet undeniable relation to the Women's Movements throughout the world. Many feminists expected – and in the UK many feminists were Marxists – that women would gain alongside workers, people of colour and colonised people. The history similarly tended to situate women within peasant households and working-class families, and elite women – in some sense the class 'enemy' – attracted little attention. The historical strategies which illuminated the lives of workers – hitherto hidden from history – were used to discover women: in factories, in bread riots, during religious wars and among the destitute poor.

Yet, it soon became clear to the historians of women that women operated not only under the systems of economics that made them poor peasants or poor factory workers – capitalism – but also under a set of assumptions and expectations and within roles – patriarchy – which structured their lives within the family and community too. Moreover, 'patriarchy' equally, through differently, structured the lives of women of different social locations: noblewoman, rich merchant's wife, privileged nun or academic. Social structure alone could not capture the lives of women, and once this was realised, many historians of women sought to develop concepts and practices – the field we now call gender – adequate to the task of understanding the complex realities of relations between and among men and women.

What began as a stage in the development of women's history became a veritable revolution in all areas of historical practice. Joan Wallach Scott's Gender and the Politics of History ( 2 ) is as much an essay on the history of gender as it is on cultural history, and history in general. The categories 'male' and 'female' are shown to be words freighted with meaning far beyond the mere biological difference that we all find easiest to identify. There are strings of assumptions and associations about them that far outstrip physical capacity and are deeply grounded in history and language: and so in the Middle Ages to the feminine was often aligned morbidity (a tendency to fall ill), weak moral judgement, dissimulation, credulity, lower life expectancy, weak powers of reasoning and more.

These were meanings beyond any observable reality, and they were disseminated powerfully through the constitutive language practices, rituals and representations that surrounded medieval people – not without variation or change – from cradle to grave. This is the domain of 'culture.'

Guided by the examples of excellent historians the 'cultural' turn began to affect a wide range of reinterpretations of historical moments as well as long-term processes. The German Reformation, for example, so long studied by historians and theologians deeply entrenched in confessional warfare, has produced a rigid map of 'confessions' in Europe, of regions each adhering to a set of theological tenets, and their related political and social practices. All this changed with the advent of R. W. Scribner's studies of the Reformation in the 1980s as a clash of attitudes to authority and the sacred, represented by the symbols and rhythms of daily life.( 3 ) Scribner identified change alongside long continuities, and this complicated matters considerably, as much cultural history does: for he found that Lutherans created a 'cult' around miraculous and incombustible 'images' of Luther.

Scholars inspired by Scribner have travelled new terrains, true pioneers. Lyndal Roper has shown the powerful convergence between the system of gender and Lutheran practices of family life;( 4 ) these came together in reinforcing the authority of fathers within the workshop-households of Protestant Augsburg. Philip Soergel has unearthed complex polemical interplay over Bavarian shrines,( 5 ) which continued to mean a great deal to Catholics and Protestants too. A third generation is now at work, like Bridget Heal, who shows strong trends towards continuity and adaptation in early modern Germany around the figure of the Virgin Mary,( 6 ) so powerful a symbol that few people were willing to reject outright.

Gender was a conduit of the cultural turn in medieval studies too. Through its operation in the influential work of Caroline Walker Bynum ( 7 ) practices which had been dismissed as 'neurotic' or simply bizarre – above all the devotional practices of religious women – are now much better understood, and moreover, are seen as central to mainstream religious practices. Theirs was a world aware of the visual and the visionary – to use Jeffrey Hamburger's apt phrase( 8 ) – and so a field rich with cross-disciplinary possibilities was identified and worked by art historians, historians of devotional literature and cultural historians.

Cross-disciplinary practice is indeed the hallmark of much cultural history. The desire to embrace the plenitude of interlocking experiences has meant that cultural historians work hard, often collaboratively, with experts in other fields of history and disciplines. A good example is Colin Jones's work on the European smile – first depicted in portraits around the mid 18th century – which brings together not only artistic practices, but notions of self, and very crucially, the history of dentistry, for to smile is to show one's teeth to the world!( 9 )

From incombustible images of Luther to the teeth of the French bourgeoisie cultural history continues to be a field of innovation. In my next section I shall discuss the rhetoric of cultural history and its global aspirations.

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Miri Rubin is Professor of Medieval and Early Modern History at Queen Mary, University of London.

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Wall painting from Teotihuacan, abstractly representing what may be a deity, in shades of red, green, orange, and blue.

Teotihuacan (ca. 100 BCE–800 CE)

A ceramic figure wears a headdress of a feathered, horned serpent against a gray background.

The Feathered Serpent Pyramid and Ciudadela of Teotihuacan (ca. 150–250 CE)

Stone mask carved into lapis lazuli, made by a Condorhuasi-Alamito artist.

Stone Masks and Figurines from Northwest Argentina (500 BCE–650 CE)

Three mannequins dressed in shoulder to floor purple gown and shawl.

Maria Monaci Gallenga (1880–1944)

cultural history essay

Ann Lowe (ca. 1898–1981)

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amateurs, the etching revival in nineteenth-century france, ethiopia’s enduring cultural heritage, ethiopian healing scrolls, etruscan art, etruscan language and inscriptions, eugène atget (1857–1927), europe and the age of exploration, europe and the islamic world, 1600–1800, european clocks in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, european exploration of the pacific, 1600–1800, european revivalism, european tapestry production and patronage, 1400–1600, european tapestry production and patronage, 1600–1800, exchange of art and ideas: the benin, owo, and ijebu kingdoms, exoticism in the decorative arts, extravagant monstrosities: gold- and silversmith designs in the auricular style, eynan/ain mallaha (12,500–10,000 b.c.), fabricating sixteenth-century netherlandish boxwood miniatures, the face in medieval sculpture, famous makers of arms and armors and european centers of production, fashion in european armor, fashion in european armor, 1000–1300, fashion in european armor, 1300–1400, fashion in european armor, 1400–1500, fashion in european armor, 1500–1600, fashion in european armor, 1600–1700, fashion in safavid iran, fatimid jewelry, fell’s cave (9000–8000 b.c.), fernand léger (1881–1955), feudalism and knights in medieval europe, figural representation in islamic art, filippino lippi (ca. 1457–1504), fire gilding of arms and armor, the five wares of south italian vase painting, the flavian dynasty (69–96 a.d.), flemish harpsichords and virginals, flood stories, folios from the great mongol shahnama (book of kings), folios from the jami‘ al-tavarikh (compendium of chronicles), fontainebleau, food and drink in european painting, 1400–1800, foundations of aksumite civilization and its christian legacy (1st–8th century), fra angelico (ca. 1395–1455), francisco de goya (1746–1828) and the spanish enlightenment, françois boucher (1703–1770), frank lloyd wright (1867–1959), frans hals (1582/83–1666), frederic edwin church (1826–1900), frederic remington (1861–1909), frederick william macmonnies (1863–1937), the french academy in rome, french art deco, french art pottery, french decorative arts during the reign of louis xiv (1654–1715), french faience, french furniture in the eighteenth century: case furniture, french furniture in the eighteenth century: seat furniture, french porcelain in the eighteenth century, french silver in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, frescoes and wall painting in late byzantine art, from geometric to informal gardens in the eighteenth century, from italy to france: gardens in the court of louis xiv and after, from model to monument: american public sculpture, 1865–1915, the fulani/fulbe people, the function of armor in medieval and renaissance europe, funerary vases in southern italy and sicily, furnishings during the reign of louis xiv (1654–1715), gabrielle “coco” chanel (1883–1971) and the house of chanel, gardens in the french renaissance, gardens of western europe, 1600–1800, genre painting in northern europe, geometric abstraction, geometric and archaic cyprus, geometric art in ancient greece, geometric patterns in islamic art, george inness (1825–1894), george washington: man, myth, monument, georges seurat (1859–1891) and neo-impressionism, georgia o’keeffe (1887–1986), gerard david (born about 1455, died 1523), german and austrian porcelain in the eighteenth century, the ghent altarpiece, gian lorenzo bernini (1598–1680), gilbert stuart (1755–1828), giovanni battista piranesi (1720–1778), giovanni battista tiepolo (1696–1770), gladiators: types and training, glass from islamic lands, glass ornaments in late antiquity and early islam (ca. 500–1000), glass with mold-blown decoration from islamic lands, the gods and goddesses of canaan, gold in ancient egypt, gold in asante courtly arts, gold in the ancient americas, gold of the indies, the golden age of french furniture in the eighteenth century, the golden harpsichord of michele todini (1616–1690), golden treasures: the royal tombs of silla, goryeo celadon, the grand tour, the graphic art of max klinger, great plains indians musical instruments, great serpent mound, great zimbabwe (11th–15th century), the greater ottoman empire, 1600–1800, greek art in the archaic period, greek gods and religious practices, greek hydriai (water jars) and their artistic decoration, the greek key and divine attributes in modern dress, greek terracotta figurines with articulated limbs, gustave courbet (1819–1877), gustave le gray (1820–1884), hagia sophia, 532–37, the halaf period (6500–5500 b.c.), han dynasty (206 b.c.–220 a.d.), hanae mori (1926–2022), hans talhoffer’s fight book, a sixteenth-century manuscript about the art of fighting, harry burton (1879–1940): the pharaoh’s photographer, hasanlu in the iron age, haute couture, heian period (794–1185), hellenistic and roman cyprus, hellenistic jewelry, hendrick goltzius (1558–1617), henri cartier-bresson (1908–2004), henri de toulouse-lautrec (1864–1901), henri matisse (1869–1954), henry kirke brown (1814–1886), john quincy adams ward (1830–1910), and realism in american sculpture, heroes in italian mythological prints, hinduism and hindu art, hippopotami in ancient egypt, hiram powers (1805–1873), the hittites, the holy roman empire and the habsburgs, 1400–1600, hopewell (1–400 a.d.), horse armor in europe, hot-worked glass from islamic lands, the house of jeanne hallée (1870–1924), the housemistress in new kingdom egypt: hatnefer, how medieval and renaissance tapestries were made, the hudson river school, hungarian silver, icons and iconoclasm in byzantium, the idea and invention of the villa, ife (from ca. 6th century), ife pre-pavement and pavement era (800–1000 a.d.), ife terracottas (1000–1400 a.d.), igbo-ukwu (ca. 9th century), images of antiquity in limoges enamels in the french renaissance, impressionism: art and modernity, in pursuit of white: porcelain in the joseon dynasty, 1392–1910, indian knoll (3000–2000 b.c.), indian textiles: trade and production, indigenous arts of the caribbean, industrialization and conflict in america: 1840–1875, the industrialization of french photography after 1860, inland niger delta, intellectual pursuits of the hellenistic age, intentional alterations of early netherlandish painting, interior design in england, 1600–1800, interiors imagined: folding screens, garments, and clothing stands, international pictorialism, internationalism in the tang dynasty (618–907), introduction to prehistoric art, 20,000–8000 b.c., the isin-larsa and old babylonian periods (2004–1595 b.c.), islamic arms and armor, islamic art and culture: the venetian perspective, islamic art of the deccan, islamic carpets in european paintings, italian painting of the later middle ages, italian porcelain in the eighteenth century, italian renaissance frames, ivory and boxwood carvings, 1450–1800, ivory carving in the gothic era, thirteenth–fifteenth centuries, jacopo dal ponte, called bassano (ca. 1510–1592), jade in costa rica, jade in mesoamerica, jain manuscript painting, jain sculpture, james cox (ca. 1723–1800): goldsmith and entrepreneur, james mcneill whistler (1834–1903), james mcneill whistler (1834–1903) as etcher, jan gossart (ca. 1478–1532) and his circle, jan van eyck (ca. 1390–1441), the japanese blade: technology and manufacture, japanese illustrated handscrolls, japanese incense, the japanese tea ceremony, japanese weddings in the edo period (1615–1868), japanese writing boxes, jasper johns (born 1930), jean antoine houdon (1741–1828), jean honoré fragonard (1732–1806), jean-baptiste carpeaux (1827–1875), jean-baptiste greuze (1725–1805), jewish art in late antiquity and early byzantium, jews and the arts in medieval europe, jews and the decorative arts in early modern italy, jiahu (ca. 7000–5700 b.c.), joachim tielke (1641–1719), joan miró (1893–1983), johannes vermeer (1632–1675), johannes vermeer (1632–1675) and the milkmaid, john constable (1776–1837), john frederick kensett (1816–1872), john singer sargent (1856–1925), john singleton copley (1738–1815), john townsend (1733–1809), jōmon culture (ca. 10,500–ca. 300 b.c.), joseon buncheong ware: between celadon and porcelain, joseph mallord william turner (1775–1851), juan de flandes (active by 1496, died 1519), julia margaret cameron (1815–1879), the julio-claudian dynasty (27 b.c.–68 a.d.), kamakura and nanbokucho periods (1185–1392), the kano school of painting, kingdoms of madagascar: malagasy funerary arts, kingdoms of madagascar: malagasy textile arts, kingdoms of madagascar: maroserana and merina, kingdoms of the savanna: the kuba kingdom, kingdoms of the savanna: the luba and lunda empires, kings and queens of egypt, kings of brightness in japanese esoteric buddhist art, the kirtlington park room, oxfordshire, the kithara in ancient greece, kodak and the rise of amateur photography, kofun period (ca. 300–710), kongo ivories, korean buddhist sculpture (5th–9th century), korean munbangdo paintings, kushan empire (ca. second century b.c.–third century a.d.), la venta: sacred architecture, la venta: stone sculpture, the labors of herakles, lacquerware of east asia, landscape painting in chinese art, landscape painting in the netherlands, the lansdowne dining room, london, lapita pottery (ca. 1500–500 b.c.), lascaux (ca. 15,000 b.c.), late eighteenth-century american drawings, late medieval german sculpture, late medieval german sculpture: images for the cult and for private devotion, late medieval german sculpture: materials and techniques, late medieval german sculpture: polychromy and monochromy, the later ottomans and the impact of europe, le colis de trianon-versailles and paris openings, the legacy of genghis khan, the legacy of jacques louis david (1748–1825), leonardo da vinci (1452–1519), letterforms and writing in contemporary art, life of jesus of nazareth, life of the buddha, list of rulers of ancient egypt and nubia, list of rulers of ancient sudan, list of rulers of byzantium, list of rulers of china, list of rulers of europe, list of rulers of japan, list of rulers of korea, list of rulers of mesopotamia, list of rulers of south asia, list of rulers of the ancient greek world, list of rulers of the islamic world, list of rulers of the parthian empire, list of rulers of the roman empire, list of rulers of the sasanian empire, lithography in the nineteenth century, longevity in chinese art, louis comfort tiffany (1848–1933), louis-rémy robert (1810–1882), lovers in italian mythological prints, the lure of montmartre, 1880–1900, luxury arts of rome, lydenburg heads (ca. 500 a.d.), lydia and phrygia, made in india, found in egypt: red sea textile trade in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, made in italy: italian fashion from 1950 to now, the magic of signs and patterns in north african art, maiolica in the renaissance, mal’ta (ca. 20,000 b.c.), mangarevan sculpture, the manila galleon trade (1565–1815), mannerism: bronzino (1503–1572) and his contemporaries, the mantiq al-tair (language of the birds) of 1487, manuscript illumination in italy, 1400–1600, manuscript illumination in northern europe, mapungubwe (ca. 1050–1270), marcel duchamp (1887–1968), mary stevenson cassatt (1844–1926), the master of monte oliveto (active about 1305–35), the materials and techniques of american quilts and coverlets, the materials and techniques of english embroidery of the late tudor and stuart eras, mauryan empire (ca. 323–185 b.c.), medicine in classical antiquity, medicine in the middle ages, medieval aquamanilia, medieval european sculpture for buildings, medusa in ancient greek art, mendicant orders in the medieval world, the mesoamerican ballgame, mesopotamian creation myths, mesopotamian deities, mesopotamian magic in the first millennium b.c., the metropolitan museum’s excavations at nishapur, the metropolitan museum’s excavations at ctesiphon, the metropolitan museum’s excavations at qasr-i abu nasr, michiel sweerts and biblical subjects in dutch art, the middle babylonian / kassite period (ca. 1595–1155 b.c.) in mesopotamia, military music in american and european traditions, ming dynasty (1368–1644), minoan crete, mission héliographique, 1851, miyake, kawakubo, and yamamoto: japanese fashion in the twentieth century, moche decorated ceramics, moche portrait vessels, modern and contemporary art in iran, modern art in india, modern art in west and east pakistan, modern art in west asia: colonial to post-colonial, modern materials: plastics, modern storytellers: romare bearden, jacob lawrence, faith ringgold, momoyama period (1573–1615), monasticism in western medieval europe, the mon-dvaravati tradition of early north-central thailand, the mongolian tent in the ilkhanid period, monte albán, monte albán: sacred architecture, monte albán: stone sculpture, monumental architecture of the aksumite empire, the monumental stelae of aksum (3rd–4th century), mosaic glass from islamic lands, mountain and water: korean landscape painting, 1400–1800, muromachi period (1392–1573), music and art of china, music in ancient greece, music in the ancient andes, music in the renaissance, musical instruments of oceania, musical instruments of the indian subcontinent, musical terms for the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, mycenaean civilization, mystery cults in the greek and roman world, nabataean kingdom and petra, the nabis and decorative painting, nadar (1820–1910), the nahal mishmar treasure, nature in chinese culture, the nature of islamic art, the neoclassical temple, neoclassicism, neolithic period in china, nepalese painting, nepalese sculpture, netsuke: from fashion fobs to coveted collectibles, new caledonia, the new documentary tradition in photography, new ireland, new vision photography, a new visual language transmitted across asia, the new york dutch room, nicolas poussin (1594–1665), nineteenth-century american drawings, nineteenth-century american folk art, nineteenth-century american jewelry, nineteenth-century american silver, nineteenth-century classical music, nineteenth-century court arts in india, nineteenth-century english silver, nineteenth-century european textile production, nineteenth-century french realism, nineteenth-century iran: art and the advent of modernity, nineteenth-century iran: continuity and revivalism, nineteenth-century silhouette and support, nok terracottas (500 b.c.–200 a.d.), northern italian renaissance painting, northern mannerism in the early sixteenth century, northern song dynasty (960–1127), northwest coast indians musical instruments, the nude in baroque and later art, the nude in the middle ages and the renaissance, the nude in western art and its beginnings in antiquity, nudity and classical themes in byzantine art, nuptial furnishings in the italian renaissance, the old assyrian period (ca. 2000–1600 b.c.), orientalism in nineteenth-century art, orientalism: visions of the east in western dress, the origins of writing, ottonian art, pablo picasso (1881–1973), pachmari hills (ca. 9000–3000 b.c.), painted funerary monuments from hellenistic alexandria, painting formats in east asian art, painting in italian choir books, 1300–1500, painting in oil in the low countries and its spread to southern europe, painting the life of christ in medieval and renaissance italy, paintings of love and marriage in the italian renaissance, paolo veronese (1528–1588), the papacy and the vatican palace, the papacy during the renaissance, papyrus in ancient egypt, papyrus-making in egypt, the parthian empire (247 b.c.–224 a.d.), pastoral charms in the french renaissance, patronage at the early valois courts (1328–1461), patronage at the later valois courts (1461–1589), patronage of jean de berry (1340–1416), paul cézanne (1839–1906), paul gauguin (1848–1903), paul klee (1879–1940), paul poiret (1879–1944), paul revere, jr. (1734–1818), paul strand (1890–1976), period of the northern and southern dynasties (386–581), peter paul rubens (1577–1640) and anthony van dyck (1599–1641): paintings, peter paul rubens (1577–1640) and anthony van dyck (1599–1641): works on paper, petrus christus (active by 1444, died 1475/76), the phoenicians (1500–300 b.c.), photographers in egypt, photography and surrealism, photography and the civil war, 1861–65, photography at the bauhaus, photography in düsseldorf, photography in europe, 1945–60, photography in postwar america, 1945-60, photography in the expanded field: painting, performance, and the neo-avant-garde, photojournalism and the picture press in germany, phrygia, gordion, and king midas in the late eighth century b.c., the piano: the pianofortes of bartolomeo cristofori (1655–1731), the piano: viennese instruments, pictorialism in america, the pictures generation, pierre bonnard (1867–1947): the late interiors, pierre didot the elder (1761–1853), pieter bruegel the elder (ca. 1525–1569), pilgrimage in medieval europe, poetic allusions in the rajput and pahari painting of india, poets in italian mythological prints, poets, lovers, and heroes in italian mythological prints, polychrome sculpture in spanish america, polychromy of roman marble sculpture, popular religion: magical uses of imagery in byzantine art, portrait painting in england, 1600–1800, portraits of african leadership, portraits of african leadership: living rulers, portraits of african leadership: memorials, portraits of african leadership: royal ancestors, portraiture in renaissance and baroque europe, the portuguese in africa, 1415–1600, post-impressionism, postmodernism: recent developments in art in india, postmodernism: recent developments in art in pakistan and bangladesh, post-revolutionary america: 1800–1840, the postwar print renaissance in america, poverty point (2000–1000 b.c.), the praenestine cistae, prague during the rule of rudolf ii (1583–1612), prague, 1347–1437, pre-angkor traditions: the mekong delta and peninsular thailand, precisionism, prehistoric cypriot art and culture, prehistoric stone sculpture from new guinea, the pre-raphaelites, presidents of the united states of america, the print in the nineteenth century, the printed image in the west: aquatint, the printed image in the west: drypoint, the printed image in the west: engraving, the printed image in the west: etching, the printed image in the west: history and techniques, the printed image in the west: mezzotint, the printed image in the west: woodcut, printmaking in mexico, 1900–1950, private devotion in medieval christianity, profane love and erotic art in the italian renaissance, the pyramid complex of senwosret iii, dahshur, the pyramid complex of senwosret iii, dahshur: private tombs to the north, the pyramid complex of senwosret iii, dahshur: queens and princesses, the pyramid complex of senwosret iii, dahshur: temples, qin dynasty (221–206 b.c.), the qing dynasty (1644–1911): courtiers, officials, and professional artists, the qing dynasty (1644–1911): loyalists and individualists, the qing dynasty (1644–1911): painting, the qing dynasty (1644–1911): the traditionalists, the rag-dung, rare coins from nishapur, recognizing the gods, the rediscovery of classical antiquity, the reformation, relics and reliquaries in medieval christianity, religion and culture in north america, 1600–1700, the religious arts under the ilkhanids, the religious relationship between byzantium and the west, rembrandt (1606–1669): paintings, rembrandt van rijn (1606–1669): prints, renaissance drawings: material and function, renaissance keyboards, renaissance organs, renaissance velvet textiles, renaissance violins, retrospective styles in greek and roman sculpture, rinpa painting style, the rise of macedon and the conquests of alexander the great, the rise of modernity in south asia, the rise of paper photography in 1850s france, the rise of paper photography in italy, 1839–55, the rock-hewn churches of lalibela, roger fenton (1819–1869), the roman banquet, roman cameo glass, roman copies of greek statues, roman egypt, the roman empire (27 b.c.–393 a.d.), roman games: playing with animals, roman glass, roman gold-band glass, roman housing, roman inscriptions, roman luxury glass, roman mold-blown glass, roman mosaic and network glass, roman painting, roman portrait sculpture: republican through constantinian, roman portrait sculpture: the stylistic cycle, the roman republic, roman sarcophagi, roman stuccowork, romanesque art, romanticism, saint petersburg, saints and other sacred byzantine figures, saints in medieval christian art, the salon and the royal academy in the nineteenth century, san ethnography, sanford robinson gifford (1823–1880), the sasanian empire (224–651 a.d.), scenes of everyday life in ancient greece, scholar-officials of china, school of paris, seasonal imagery in japanese art, the seleucid empire (323–64 b.c.), senufo arts and poro initiation in northern côte d’ivoire, senufo sculpture from west africa: an influential exhibition at the museum of primitive art, new york, 1963, seventeenth-century european watches, the severan dynasty (193–235 a.d.), sèvres porcelain in the nineteenth century, shah ‘abbas and the arts of isfahan, the shah jahan album, the shahnama of shah tahmasp, shaker furniture, shakespeare and art, 1709–1922, shakespeare portrayed, shang and zhou dynasties: the bronze age of china, shoes in the costume institute, shōguns and art, shunga dynasty (ca. second–first century b.c.), sienese painting, silk textiles from safavid iran, 1501–1722, silks from ottoman turkey, silver in ancient egypt, sixteenth-century painting in emilia-romagna, sixteenth-century painting in lombardy, sixteenth-century painting in venice and the veneto, the solomon islands, south asian art and culture, southern italian vase painting, southern song dynasty (1127–1279), the spanish guitar, spiritual power in the arts of the toba batak, stained (luster-painted) glass from islamic lands, stained glass in medieval europe, still-life painting in northern europe, 1600–1800, still-life painting in southern europe, 1600–1800, the structure of photographic metaphors, students of benjamin west (1738–1820), the symposium in ancient greece, takht-i sulaiman and tilework in the ilkhanid period, talavera de puebla, tanagra figurines, tang dynasty (618–907), the technique of bronze statuary in ancient greece, techniques of decoration on arms and armor, telling time in ancient egypt, tenochtitlan, tenochtitlan: templo mayor, teotihuacan: mural painting, teotihuacan: pyramids of the sun and the moon, textile production in europe: embroidery, 1600–1800, textile production in europe: lace, 1600–1800, textile production in europe: printed, 1600–1800, textile production in europe: silk, 1600–1800, theater and amphitheater in the roman world, theater in ancient greece, theseus, hero of athens, thomas chippendale’s gentleman and cabinet-maker’s director, thomas cole (1801–1848), thomas eakins (1844–1916): painting, thomas eakins (1844–1916): photography, 1880s–90s, thomas hart benton’s america today mural, thomas sully (1783–1872) and queen victoria, tibetan arms and armor, tibetan buddhist art, tikal: sacred architecture, tikal: stone sculpture, time of day on painted athenian vases, tiraz: inscribed textiles from the early islamic period, titian (ca. 1485/90–1576), the tomb of wah, trade and commercial activity in the byzantine and early islamic middle east, trade and the spread of islam in africa, trade between arabia and the empires of rome and asia, trade between the romans and the empires of asia, trade relations among european and african nations, trade routes between europe and asia during antiquity, traditional chinese painting in the twentieth century, the transatlantic slave trade, the transformation of landscape painting in france, the trans-saharan gold trade (7th–14th century), turkmen jewelry, turquoise in ancient egypt, tutankhamun’s funeral, tutsi basketry, twentieth-century silhouette and support, the ubaid period (5500–4000 b.c.), ubirr (ca. 40,000–present), umberto boccioni (1882–1916), unfinished works in european art, ca. 1500–1900, ur: the royal graves, ur: the ziggurat, uruk: the first city, valdivia figurines, vegetal patterns in islamic art, velázquez (1599–1660), venetian color and florentine design, venice and the islamic world, 828–1797, venice and the islamic world: commercial exchange, diplomacy, and religious difference, venice in the eighteenth century, venice’s principal muslim trading partners: the mamluks, the ottomans, and the safavids, the vibrant role of mingqi in early chinese burials, the vikings (780–1100), vincent van gogh (1853–1890), vincent van gogh (1853–1890): the drawings, violin makers: nicolò amati (1596–1684) and antonio stradivari (1644–1737), visual culture of the atlantic world, vivienne westwood (born 1941) and the postmodern legacy of punk style, wadi kubbaniya (ca. 17,000–15,000 b.c.), walker evans (1903–1975), wang hui (1632–1717), warfare in ancient greece, watercolor painting in britain, 1750–1850, ways of recording african history, weddings in the italian renaissance, west asia: ancient legends, modern idioms, west asia: between tradition and modernity, west asia: postmodernism, the diaspora, and women artists, william blake (1757–1827), william henry fox talbot (1800–1877) and the invention of photography, william merritt chase (1849–1916), winslow homer (1836–1910), wisteria dining room, paris, women artists in nineteenth-century france, women china decorators, women in classical greece, women leaders in african history, 17th–19th century, women leaders in african history: ana nzinga, queen of ndongo, women leaders in african history: dona beatriz, kongo prophet, women leaders in african history: idia, first queen mother of benin, woodblock prints in the ukiyo-e style, woodcut book illustration in renaissance italy: florence in the 1490s, woodcut book illustration in renaissance italy: the first illustrated books, woodcut book illustration in renaissance italy: venice in the 1490s, woodcut book illustration in renaissance italy: venice in the sixteenth century, wordplay in twentieth-century prints, work and leisure: eighteenth-century genre painting in korea, x-ray style in arnhem land rock art, yamato-e painting, yangban: the cultural life of the joseon literati, yayoi culture (ca. 300 b.c.–300 a.d.), the year one, years leading to the iranian revolution, 1960–79, yuan dynasty (1271–1368), zen buddhism, 0 && essaysctrl.themev == 'departments / collections' && essaysctrl.deptv == null">, departments / collections '">.

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AP®︎/College Art History

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Prehistoric (before c. 3000 B.C.E.)

Ancient (c. 3000 b.c.e. to c. 400 c.e.), middle ages (c. 400 c.e. to c. 1400 c.e.), renaissance (c. 1400 to 1600), early modern (c. 1600 - 1800), modern (after c. 1800), where do we fit in, want to join the conversation.

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Can you suggest some essay topics related to sociolinguistics and languages in algeria for example.

While many fields of study seem to only have academic applications, sociolinguistics has many real-world applications.  Sociolinguistics examines how various cultural factors impact the use of language, not only in what languages are spoken by people in various groups, but also how that language is spoken by those people.  The various factors that can influence the language someone speaks or how they speak a language include, but are not limited to: gender , ethnicity, religion, status, level of education, age, and geographical distribution.  The primary languages spoken in Algeria are Algerian Arabic (Darja),....

Let\'s brainstorm together! What essay topics could be interesting on why graffiti should be protected?

Introduction Graffiti, often stigmatized as vandalism, has emerged as a form of artistic expression that challenges societal norms and sparks meaningful discussions. While some view graffiti as a nuisance, others recognize its potential as a catalyst for urban revitalization, social commentary, and cultural enrichment. This essay will explore the compelling reasons why graffiti deserves protection and recognition as a legitimate art form. Section 1: Urban Beautification and Revitalization Graffiti has the transformative power to revitalize dilapidated urban landscapes. By adding color, vibrancy, and artistic flair to dull walls, graffiti can enhance the visual appeal of neighborhoods, attracting tourists and boosting local economies. Moreover,....

American Cultural History and Cult of Matthias

American Cultural History And Cult of Matthias There had been many changes occurs in terms of the progress of the economy, population and intellectual abilities during the 18th century and these could be considered as the possible reasons for the evolution of a fresh thinking in all the various spheres of life, and this pertains to religion as well. This was in complete a need for change and a great desire for bring about changes. To a certain extent, this was considered to bring about the end of earlier concepts of religion of pertaining to the thought that it can be handled only by the privileged classes also ended. This led to the emergence of certain new religious thinkers and practical leaders like that of Mathias as leaders like him could not have become popular religious figures in the previous era. The line of thinking of Matthias was very much different….

Amazon Book Review: The Kingdom of Matthias/a Story of Sex and Salvation in 19Th-Century

America: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19Th-Centtury America. Retrieved from  http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/0195098358/ref=dp_proddesc_0/102-8894187-2176153?%5Fencoding=UTF8& ; n=283155 Accessed 30 September, 2005

Bush, Perry. The Kingdom of Matthias: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19th-Century America.

Book reviews. Journal of Social History. Spring, 1997. Retrieved from  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_n3_v30/ai_19409248

Chinese Cultural History the Female

Internal affairs included the cultivation of healthy relations with the extended family and the management of household finances. It also entailed the nourishment and regulation of the family's children, particularly the sons. In many ways, women were understood to not have lives if they did not have either a husband. Yang betrays this understanding when he implores his wife to not choose an otherwise honorable suicide after his own death, explaining quite matter-of-factly "Among women, there are those who die with their husbands. This is because the husband is [the wife's] master, and there are no children to maintain: there would be no purpose in living." Yang elaborates that, in situations where the husband is dead and there are still children, if the wife "…dies, then she is abandoning her husband and master's ancestral sacrifices, letting his work degenerate…" Whether dead or alive, the husband is always a woman's raison d'etre. After her….

Susan Mann and Yu-Yin Cheng (eds.), Yang Jisheng, Final Instructions, from Under Confucian Eyes: Writings on Chinese Gender in Chinese History (2001).

Susan Mann and Yu-Yin Cheng (eds.), Gu Ruopu, Letter To My Sons, from Under Confucian Eyes: Writings on Chinese Gender in Chinese History (2001).

Gu Ruopu, 152

Gu Ruopu, 151

Vonnegut in Cultural History as

A Vonnegut theme, however, is often hard to miss; especially since part of Vonnegut's style placed the author in a position where many readers could palpably feel him throughout the novel. Vonnegut seems to read alongside the reader and assist him; he seems to teach and guide -- gently -- as well as write. As such, Vonnegut helped re-define what high art, and the novel specifically, could be: Irving, who went on to write "The World According to Garp" and "The Cider House Rules," remembered Vonnegut as a self-effacing presence who "didn't have an agenda about what 'the novel' should be." Vonnegut also appreciated that you didn't have to be in the classroom to get your work done (MSNC, 2007). South Park postmodernism seems to be endemic to recent generations, and, if so, the ideological roots of those generations must be traced back to Vonnegut and his contemporaries. Some more direct, technical….

Bibliography

1. Vonnegut, Kurt.

a. Slaughterhouse Five. New York: Random House, 1969. Print

b. Glapagos. New York: Random House, 1985. Print.

c. Cat's Cradle. New York: Random House, 1963. Print.

History of the Areas of

It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before. Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin). The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the Baroque….

Cultural Forms of Expression African-American

(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm) Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a….

Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.

Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At  http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm 

Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.

Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.

Cultural Differences in Medical Setting

Counseling eport The field of counseling is very complex and multi-dimensional. This report includes a general description of counseling, how cultural insensitivity can occur within the construct of counseling, the impacts of cultural of said insensitivity in counseling as well as the broader workplaces of Australia and the broader world, the types and forms of cultural insensitivity that a counselor can endure and encounter while working and two ways in which cultural insensitivity can be addressed and responded to in a counseling setting. While some people project their insensitivities on others and counselors can be both good and bad in terms of cultural sensitivity, it is always best for counselors and indeed everyone else to be sensitive to the religious, cultural and societal differences that exist between us. Analysis To be sure, there are going to be situations in the lives and careers of therapists and counselors where a counselor is addressing a….

Atkin, K. (2003). Ethnicity and the politics of the new genetics: principles and engagement. Ethnicity & Health, 8(2), 91-109.

Brinson, J.A. (2004). Recognizing Our Cultural Biases as Counsellor Supervisors: A

Reflective Learning Approach. Guidance & Counseling, 19(2), 81-91.

Lopez, S.A. (2011). Culture as an Influencing Factor in Adolescent Grief and Bereavement. Prevention Researcher, 18(3), 10-13.

History of Organized Crime in the US

Org Crime Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do the….

Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth

Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.

Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.

Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online:  http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961

Positive Ways of Thinking About Cultural Diversity

Cultural Diversity: What Is It? Cultural diversity is that quality or characteristic of any society, community, group or family that consists of a variety of cultural and/or ethnic backgrounds. Thus, for example, a nation like America could be said to be culturally diverse because it is represented by various cultures and ethnicities throughout the land. At the same time, being culturally diverse is also about showing respect and appreciation for and towards the various cultural and ethnic groups within the community. Diversity is something that is recognized rather than something is suppressed or ignored. True cultural diversity is not just the physical make-up of the group of community but also the state of mind of the members of that group regarding how they think about and view diversity. Yet, as DiMaggio and Bryson (2000) show, cultural diversity remains a controversial subject for some. One of the main challenges of cultural diversity is….

Day, R. (2007). Facing the Challenge of Cultural Diversity. Retrieved Nov. 2010 from  http://farnhamcastle.blogspot.com/2007/09/facing-challenge-of-cultural-diversity.html 

DiMaggio, P., and Bryson, B. (2000). Public attitudes towards cultural authority and cultural diversity in higher education and the arts. Retrieved December 2012 from http://www.princeton.edu/~artspol/workpap/WP11%20-%20DiMaggio%2BBryson.pdf

Turner-Vorbeck, Tammy A. (2005). Expanding multicultural education to include family diversity. Multicultural Education,13(2), 6-10. Retrieved August 2013 from ProQuest.

Cultural Blending That Occurred When the British Colonized India

Cultural Blending That Occurred hen the British Colonized India Throughout the course of history, the British were known as the world's conquerors. This is because they established a series of colonies around the globe that supported the nation and its self-interest. During their occupation of India, there was focus on blending different cultures to create a unique society. (Bingham) This transformed India from being a backward region to one that was able to improve its standard of living and make steps towards joining the modern world. The result is that a new social identify was developed. To fully understand the way that this occurred requires examining cultural blending, how it shaped their identity, if it was permanent, what caused it to change and if it was beneficial. These different factors will illustrate the way this occurred and the impact it had on India's development. (Bingham) Description The British first arrived in India in the….

Works Cited

Bingham, Jane. Indian Art and Culture. Hoboken: Wiley, 2005. Print.

Kasbekar, Asha. Pop Culture in India. Oxford: ABC CLIO, 2006. Print.

Cultural Conflict of Two Stories

But Rushdie's relationship with English as a writer, even as a critic of the former British Empire, is far more complex. In Salman Rushdie's text "English is an Indian literary language," Rushdie states that the output of literature in English by Indian writers is more interesting and vital than those produced in India's native languages. Through creativity and dialogue with the oppressor, a great literature has been generated. India's original languages were vast in number but parochial. Ironically, English has proved to be a unifying force for Indians, even if one of the unifying ideologies for Indian writers in English is their attempt to create a new, national literature that is distinct from the British. This phenomenon is not new, of course. Great Irish writers also used the English language that was imposed upon them to create great works of literature. Even if the ideology that resulted in the imposition….

Macaulay, Thomas Babington. "The Civilizing Mission" from "Minute on Indian Education"

(1835).  http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/victorian/topic_4/macaulay.htm 

Rushdie, Salman. "English is an Indian literary language."

Cultural Environment China Is Now

"9.8% in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) for 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China") the occupation breakdown for the nation is also rather simplistic, with a large protion of the population still being engaged in agricultural industries: "agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29% (2003 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China") Cultural habits of China are relatively universal as the nation has relatively few national minorities and limited immigration from other nations due to its communist legacy. The majority ethnic group Han Chinese constitutes 91.9% of the total population with the significant minorities including Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities, constituting only a total of 8.1%. There is though a significant social and cultural disparity between urban and rural populations. Urban China is relatively modern, with many conveniences….

CIA World Factbook "China" at  http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact2005/geos/ch.html 

Goldberg, Jonah. "10 Million Missing Girls." National Review 30 Jan. 2006: 8.

Cultural Attitude Towards Animals in India

Cultural Attitudes Towards Animals in India India has long held the cow to be a sacred animal (hence the famous phrase 'sacred cow'). But the attitude of Hindus towards cows has often been described as perplexing and irrational by esterners, particularly given the high rates of poverty in the nation. It is not uncommon to see cows wandering through the streets while starving people beg, causing observers from other ethnicities and faiths to wonder why Indians do not slaughter the cows for food. Even an Indian anthropologist, M.N. Srinivas, an Indian stated: "Orthodox Hindu opinion regards the killing of cattle with abhorrence, even though the refusal to kill the vast number of useless cattle which exists in India today is detrimental to the nation...the large animal population is more a liability than an asset in view of our land resources" (Harris 1) According to Orthodox Hindu doctrine: "the cow is our mother,….

"Animals in Indian culture." Sri.Venkateswara Zoological Park [24 Apr 2012]

http://www.svzoo.org/html/anicult.htm

Harris, Marvin. "India's sacred cow." Sociology 101. [24 Apr 2012]

 http://sociology101.net/readings/Indias-sacred-cow.pdf

Cultural Perceptions of Time in Africa Time

Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas. Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians. In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are mixed systems of….

Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)

Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.

(Adjaye 1994, 57)

Cultural Tourism Culture Tourism Research

The Balinese seem to be coping with the tourist invasion as well as they have coped with others, that is they are taking what they want, but they are not allowing themselves to be any the less Balinese. This appears to have been the story throughout Bali's history, outside cultures came, perhaps as conquerors, perhaps only as visitors and traders, but Balinese society and culture have remained distinctive, accepting outward forms, but molding them to its own different purposes." (Pickard, 1996) These insights are showing how the changes in tourism are having an effect on Bali by developing the industry. However, for most local residents, they are maintaining their basic cultural traditions. This is despite the fact that there are added pressures to continually adopt these practices (in spite of the transformations). (Pickard, 1996) However, many local officials feel that an influx of tourism is having an adverse impact on Bali.….

Bali Weather and Climate. (2011). Indonesia Point. Retrieved from:  http://www.indonesiapoint.com/tourist-attractions/bali/bali-weather.html 

Botetar, R. (2012). The Beauty of Bali is under Pressure. ABC News. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-01-05/over-development-of-bali-feature/3760496 

Fiegenbaum, E. (2012). The Impact of Tourism in Bali. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_7195825_impact-tourism-bali.html

Hitchcock, M. (2009). Tourism in Southeast Asia. Copenhagen: NAIS.

Cultural Epoch Theory The Shift

At the same time, it considerably increased the number of books that would reach the masses, allowing them to see outside the teachings of the Church or of the religious preachers. Moreover, the printing machine offered the possibility for those opposing the rule of the Catholic Church to spread their beliefs and convictions. Thus, Gutenberg's invention was the main tool for what would later be called the Reformation, the religious movement which is often associated with the Renaissance and which influenced the artistic movement in the same manner as the Renaissance affected the emergence of the reformist churches. The hallmarks of the previous era were rather obvious and contrasted to the ones the Renaissance promoted. They manifested themselves at all the levels of the society. Thus, during the middle Ages, the Church represented the highest institution of the state which had as its subjects all political and land owners (Berstein….

Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994

Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses, 1998

Culture-Epoch Theory: The fact of Ceaseless Change. N.d. 20 May 2008 http://iws.ccccd.edu/mbailey/culture_epoch_theory.htm

Hispanic Society. Paintings from the Middle Ages. 2006. 20 May 2008  http://www.hispanicsociety.org/hispanic/paintings_medieval.htm

image

Mythology - Religion

American Cultural History And Cult of Matthias There had been many changes occurs in terms of the progress of the economy, population and intellectual abilities during the 18th century and…

Family and Marriage

Internal affairs included the cultivation of healthy relations with the extended family and the management of household finances. It also entailed the nourishment and regulation of the family's…

Research Paper

A Vonnegut theme, however, is often hard to miss; especially since part of Vonnegut's style placed the author in a position where many readers could palpably feel him…

Drama - World

It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before. Furthermore, with regards…

(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm) Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate…

Counseling eport The field of counseling is very complex and multi-dimensional. This report includes a general description of counseling, how cultural insensitivity can occur within the construct of counseling, the…

Criminal Justice

Org Crime Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should…

A2 Coursework

Cultural Diversity: What Is It? Cultural diversity is that quality or characteristic of any society, community, group or family that consists of a variety of cultural and/or ethnic backgrounds. Thus,…

History - Asian

Cultural Blending That Occurred hen the British Colonized India Throughout the course of history, the British were known as the world's conquerors. This is because they established a series of…

But Rushdie's relationship with English as a writer, even as a critic of the former British Empire, is far more complex. In Salman Rushdie's text "English is an…

"9.8% in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) for 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)" (CIA…

Cultural Attitudes Towards Animals in India India has long held the cow to be a sacred animal (hence the famous phrase 'sacred cow'). But the attitude of Hindus towards cows…

Literature - African

Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences…

The Balinese seem to be coping with the tourist invasion as well as they have coped with others, that is they are taking what they want, but they…

At the same time, it considerably increased the number of books that would reach the masses, allowing them to see outside the teachings of the Church or of…

cultural history essay

How to write an introduction for a history essay

Facade of the Ara Pacis

Every essay needs to begin with an introductory paragraph. It needs to be the first paragraph the marker reads.

While your introduction paragraph might be the first of the paragraphs you write, this is not the only way to do it.

You can choose to write your introduction after you have written the rest of your essay.

This way, you will know what you have argued, and this might make writing the introduction easier.

Either approach is fine. If you do write your introduction first, ensure that you go back and refine it once you have completed your essay. 

What is an ‘introduction paragraph’?

An introductory paragraph is a single paragraph at the start of your essay that prepares your reader for the argument you are going to make in your body paragraphs .

It should provide all of the necessary historical information about your topic and clearly state your argument so that by the end of the paragraph, the marker knows how you are going to structure the rest of your essay.

In general, you should never use quotes from sources in your introduction.

Introduction paragraph structure

While your introduction paragraph does not have to be as long as your body paragraphs , it does have a specific purpose, which you must fulfil.

A well-written introduction paragraph has the following four-part structure (summarised by the acronym BHES).

B – Background sentences

H – Hypothesis

E – Elaboration sentences

S - Signpost sentence

Each of these elements are explained in further detail, with examples, below:

1. Background sentences

The first two or three sentences of your introduction should provide a general introduction to the historical topic which your essay is about. This is done so that when you state your hypothesis , your reader understands the specific point you are arguing about.

Background sentences explain the important historical period, dates, people, places, events and concepts that will be mentioned later in your essay. This information should be drawn from your background research . 

Example background sentences:

Middle Ages (Year 8 Level)

Castles were an important component of Medieval Britain from the time of the Norman conquest in 1066 until they were phased out in the 15 th and 16 th centuries. Initially introduced as wooden motte and bailey structures on geographical strongpoints, they were rapidly replaced by stone fortresses which incorporated sophisticated defensive designs to improve the defenders’ chances of surviving prolonged sieges.

WWI (Year 9 Level)

The First World War began in 1914 following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The subsequent declarations of war from most of Europe drew other countries into the conflict, including Australia. The Australian Imperial Force joined the war as part of Britain’s armed forces and were dispatched to locations in the Middle East and Western Europe.

Civil Rights (Year 10 Level)

The 1967 Referendum sought to amend the Australian Constitution in order to change the legal standing of the indigenous people in Australia. The fact that 90% of Australians voted in favour of the proposed amendments has been attributed to a series of significant events and people who were dedicated to the referendum’s success.

Ancient Rome (Year 11/12 Level)  

In the late second century BC, the Roman novus homo Gaius Marius became one of the most influential men in the Roman Republic. Marius gained this authority through his victory in the Jugurthine War, with his defeat of Jugurtha in 106 BC, and his triumph over the invading Germanic tribes in 101 BC, when he crushed the Teutones at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae (102 BC) and the Cimbri at the Battle of Vercellae (101 BC). Marius also gained great fame through his election to the consulship seven times.

2. Hypothesis

Once you have provided historical context for your essay in your background sentences, you need to state your hypothesis .

A hypothesis is a single sentence that clearly states the argument that your essay will be proving in your body paragraphs .

A good hypothesis contains both the argument and the reasons in support of your argument. 

Example hypotheses:

Medieval castles were designed with features that nullified the superior numbers of besieging armies but were ultimately made obsolete by the development of gunpowder artillery.

Australian soldiers’ opinion of the First World War changed from naïve enthusiasm to pessimistic realism as a result of the harsh realities of modern industrial warfare.

The success of the 1967 Referendum was a direct result of the efforts of First Nations leaders such as Charles Perkins, Faith Bandler and the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders.

Gaius Marius was the most one of the most significant personalities in the 1 st century BC due to his effect on the political, military and social structures of the Roman state.

3. Elaboration sentences

Once you have stated your argument in your hypothesis , you need to provide particular information about how you’re going to prove your argument.

Your elaboration sentences should be one or two sentences that provide specific details about how you’re going to cover the argument in your three body paragraphs.

You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points.

Finally, explain any important key words, phrases or concepts that you’ve used in your hypothesis, you’ll need to do this in your elaboration sentences.

Example elaboration sentences:

By the height of the Middle Ages, feudal lords were investing significant sums of money by incorporating concentric walls and guard towers to maximise their defensive potential. These developments were so successful that many medieval armies avoided sieges in the late period.

Following Britain's official declaration of war on Germany, young Australian men voluntarily enlisted into the army, which was further encouraged by government propaganda about the moral justifications for the conflict. However, following the initial engagements on the Gallipoli peninsula, enthusiasm declined.

The political activity of key indigenous figures and the formation of activism organisations focused on indigenous resulted in a wider spread of messages to the general Australian public. The generation of powerful images and speeches has been frequently cited by modern historians as crucial to the referendum results.

While Marius is best known for his military reforms, it is the subsequent impacts of this reform on the way other Romans approached the attainment of magistracies and how public expectations of military leaders changed that had the longest impacts on the late republican period.

4. Signpost sentence

The final sentence of your introduction should prepare the reader for the topic of your first body paragraph. The main purpose of this sentence is to provide cohesion between your introductory paragraph and you first body paragraph .

Therefore, a signpost sentence indicates where you will begin proving the argument that you set out in your hypothesis and usually states the importance of the first point that you’re about to make. 

Example signpost sentences:

The early development of castles is best understood when examining their military purpose.

The naïve attitudes of those who volunteered in 1914 can be clearly seen in the personal letters and diaries that they themselves wrote.

The significance of these people is evident when examining the lack of political representation the indigenous people experience in the early half of the 20 th century.

The origin of Marius’ later achievements was his military reform in 107 BC, which occurred when he was first elected as consul.

Putting it all together

Once you have written all four parts of the BHES structure, you should have a completed introduction paragraph. In the examples above, we have shown each part separately. Below you will see the completed paragraphs so that you can appreciate what an introduction should look like.

Example introduction paragraphs: 

Castles were an important component of Medieval Britain from the time of the Norman conquest in 1066 until they were phased out in the 15th and 16th centuries. Initially introduced as wooden motte and bailey structures on geographical strongpoints, they were rapidly replaced by stone fortresses which incorporated sophisticated defensive designs to improve the defenders’ chances of surviving prolonged sieges. Medieval castles were designed with features that nullified the superior numbers of besieging armies, but were ultimately made obsolete by the development of gunpowder artillery. By the height of the Middle Ages, feudal lords were investing significant sums of money by incorporating concentric walls and guard towers to maximise their defensive potential. These developments were so successful that many medieval armies avoided sieges in the late period. The early development of castles is best understood when examining their military purpose.

The First World War began in 1914 following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The subsequent declarations of war from most of Europe drew other countries into the conflict, including Australia. The Australian Imperial Force joined the war as part of Britain’s armed forces and were dispatched to locations in the Middle East and Western Europe. Australian soldiers’ opinion of the First World War changed from naïve enthusiasm to pessimistic realism as a result of the harsh realities of modern industrial warfare. Following Britain's official declaration of war on Germany, young Australian men voluntarily enlisted into the army, which was further encouraged by government propaganda about the moral justifications for the conflict. However, following the initial engagements on the Gallipoli peninsula, enthusiasm declined. The naïve attitudes of those who volunteered in 1914 can be clearly seen in the personal letters and diaries that they themselves wrote.

The 1967 Referendum sought to amend the Australian Constitution in order to change the legal standing of the indigenous people in Australia. The fact that 90% of Australians voted in favour of the proposed amendments has been attributed to a series of significant events and people who were dedicated to the referendum’s success. The success of the 1967 Referendum was a direct result of the efforts of First Nations leaders such as Charles Perkins, Faith Bandler and the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. The political activity of key indigenous figures and the formation of activism organisations focused on indigenous resulted in a wider spread of messages to the general Australian public. The generation of powerful images and speeches has been frequently cited by modern historians as crucial to the referendum results. The significance of these people is evident when examining the lack of political representation the indigenous people experience in the early half of the 20th century.

In the late second century BC, the Roman novus homo Gaius Marius became one of the most influential men in the Roman Republic. Marius gained this authority through his victory in the Jugurthine War, with his defeat of Jugurtha in 106 BC, and his triumph over the invading Germanic tribes in 101 BC, when he crushed the Teutones at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae (102 BC) and the Cimbri at the Battle of Vercellae (101 BC). Marius also gained great fame through his election to the consulship seven times. Gaius Marius was the most one of the most significant personalities in the 1st century BC due to his effect on the political, military and social structures of the Roman state. While Marius is best known for his military reforms, it is the subsequent impacts of this reform on the way other Romans approached the attainment of magistracies and how public expectations of military leaders changed that had the longest impacts on the late republican period. The origin of Marius’ later achievements was his military reform in 107 BC, which occurred when he was first elected as consul.

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A List of 185 Interesting Cultural Topics to Write About

Culture is a set of knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs shared by a group of people. You would probably agree that it’s an integral part of humanity. It’s no wonder that students are often assigned to write about it.

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That’s why we came up with a list of interesting and creative culture essay topics. Whether you are writing a research paper, an essay, or a speech, our list of culture topics is for you. You can find various topics from popular culture and funny aspects of culture to cultural diversity. They will be useful for middle school, high school, and college students.

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  • 🔝 Top 10 Topics
  • 🏺 Western Culture Topics
  • 📚✍️ Cultural Criticism
  • 🎥 Cultural Phenomena
  • 🧔👓 Subculture Topics
  • 🧑🤝🧑 Socio-Cultural Topics
  • ⛩️🕌 Cultural Diversity
  • 👥 Cultural Anthropology

🔝 Top 10 Cultural Topics

  • What causes culture shock?
  • Cultural appropriation in fashion
  • The Cold War’s impact on culture
  • Women’s role in Italian culture
  • Global impact of American culture
  • How to preserve cultural diversity
  • Pros and cons of cultural globalization
  • Cultural differences in East Asian countries
  • How do people assimilate into a foreign culture?
  • Cultural background’s effect on one’s personality

🏺 Western Culture Topics to Write About

Much of today’s culture takes roots in the Western world. With this subject, the possibilities are endless! You can write about ancient civilizations or modern European culture. Sounds interesting? Then have a look at these topics:

  • Write about a Greek myth of your choice.
  • Research the history of the ancient Roman theater.
  • Pick a Greek philosopher and describe their legacy.
  • The heritage of the Roman Empire in the modern world.
  • Discover the history of the Olympic Games .
  • How did Christianity spread throughout Europe?
  • The architecture of ancient Britain.

Mahatma Gandhi quote.

  • How did the Great Plague influence western culture?
  • Write about the key Renaissance artists .
  • How did humanism emerge in British culture?
  • Pick a European country and analyze how its traditions developed.
  • The impact of the Renaissance on Europe’s worldview.
  • Research the latest archeological discoveries of western civilization .
  • How did the Protestant Reformation influence German culture?
  • The legacy of the Renaissance artworks.
  • What was the effect of the 1848 revolution on art?
  • The role of scientific discoveries in Europe’s socio-cultural formation.
  • Analyze the influence of colonization of African culture.
  • Describe the highlights of the Enlightenment period .
  • How did Brexit affect the British lifestyle?
  • Did the American Revolution bring change in culture?
  • What attitude does Poland have about their World War II heritage?
  • How did the technological revolution impact everyday life in Europe?
  • The influence of World War I on French culture.
  • Write about European fashion during a specific period.

📚✍️ Cultural Criticism Essay Topics

Cultural criticism looks at texts, music, and artworks through the lens of culture. This type of analysis suggests that culture gives an artwork a specific meaning. The following topics will guide you towards an excellent critical essay:

  • Analyze the cultural aspects of your favorite novel.
  • Ethnicity in Between the World and Me by Ta-Nehisi Coates .
  • What’s the meaning of financial stability in The Great Gatsby ?
  • Discover social changes in Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind .
  • The effect of industrialization in John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath .
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and its context.
  • Representation of race in Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison .
  • Note the cultural features of The Hundred-Foot Journey by Richard C. Morais.
  • Write about the main character’s mindset in The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini .
  • What are the main character’s values in A Bronx Tale ?
  • Hispanic customs in The Tortilla Curtain by T. C. Boyle.
  • Discover cultural clashes in Fury by Salman Rushdie.
  • Pick a movie and analyze the cultural impact on your perception of the plot.
  • Discuss the beliefs of white women in The Help .
  • Does the movie My Big Fat Greek Wedding portray Greek-American culture correctly?
  • How did the background story in Slumdog Millionaire change your perception of the main character?
  • What’s the meaning of gender in Bend It Like Beckham ?
  • Far and Away : integration into a new society.
  • Pick a painting and analyze its cultural background.

Culture can be divided into two equally categories.

  • Compare depictions of Christ from different continents.
  • Discover the context of Delacroix’s Liberty Leading the People .
  • What’s the context of Punjabi Ladies Near a Village Well ?
  • Discuss the symbolism of Girl with a Pearl Earring .
  • Write about social roles based on Homer among the Greeks by Gustav Jäger.
  • Select a song and analyze how culture is reflected in the lyrics.

🎥 Cultural Phenomena Topics for an Essay

Cultural phenomena refer to developing certain beliefs or preferences among many people. It is also called the bandwagon effect . Keep in mind that the fact of something becoming popular is not a phenomenon. This notion is more concerned with the process of gaining fame than with fame itself. Take a look at these helpful topic ideas for your paper:

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  • Describe any cultural phenomenon in your area.
  • Reasons why TikTok gained popularity in the U.S.
  • How did the Pokemon Go! fad spread across the world?
  • Analyze the percentage of people worldwide who like McDonald’s .
  • What factors made “the dab” popular?
  • Can the bandwagon effect explain bullying ?
  • Discover cross-cultural fashion trends.
  • Does social media facilitate cultural phenomena?
  • Pick a celebrity and analyze their fanbase.
  • How can you explain the high demand for Apple products?
  • What made sitcoms popular?
  • Write about Thanksgiving celebrations outside the U.S.
  • Reasons why famous authors from the past remain influential.
  • Does effective marketing cause the bandwagon effect?
  • Discuss the tendency to follow trends for social acceptance.
  • Choose a classic movie and analyze its popularity.
  • Examine similar TV talent shows across nations.
  • Discover why some dishes are considered “America’s favorite.”
  • Explore the psychological side of cultural phenomena.
  • List criteria needed for becoming a famous musician.
  • Analyze the bandwagon effect in history.
  • Why was holocaust normalized in some nations?
  • Explain why Nike products are popular all over the world.
  • Did the bandwagon effect play a part in the Renaissance?
  • Can the spread of religious beliefs be called a cultural phenomenon?

🧔👓 Subculture Topics for an Essay

The term “subculture” means “a culture within a culture.” In other words, it’s a smaller group, inside a larger one, with its own beliefs and interests. You can write about a specific subculture or discover why such groups form. Feel free to use these essay topics:

  • Write about the athletic community.
  • Are marketing strategies aimed at subcultures effective?
  • Why is the deviation from social norms considered dangerous?
  • What makes the Amish stand out?
  • Can a subculture serve as a basis for a culture?
  • Does the U.S. benefit from cybersport?

Some of the most prominent subcultures.

  • Tell about a social group that you’re a part of.
  • Clothes as an identifier of a subculture.
  • Pick a religious organization and describe it.
  • Why did the anime community grow worldwide?
  • Explain why some subcultures are considered dangerous.
  • How do social groups emerge?
  • Should parents encourage children to join an interest group ?
  • Describe the way people develop mutual beliefs cross-culturally.
  • How does social media influence one’s lifestyle?
  • Which interest group does your family belong to?
  • Do subcultures benefit society?
  • Analyze the Social Disorganization Theory concerning subcultures.
  • How did hipsters influence global fashion trends?
  • What are the requirements for becoming a skater?
  • Discover the history and lifestyle of Goths .
  • What is the basis of scumbro culture?
  • Belonging to an interest group as a healthy social practice.
  • What are the most popular subcultures amongst generation Z ?
  • Discuss the importance of the hairstyle for subcultures.

🧑🤝🧑 Socio-Cultural Essay Topics

Let’s break the word “socio-cultural” in two parts. Social aspects include people, their roles, and available resources. Cultural factors refer to language, laws, religion, and values. Therefore, socio-cultural issues revolve around the unique design of a specific culture. Here are some topic ideas on this subject that you might find helpful.

  • Describe the social stigma attached to single mothers .
  • What pushes the elderly to the edge of poverty?
  • Do marketing strategies vary from country to country?
  • Is receiving psychological assistance culturally accepted in developing countries?
  • Can art be misunderstood because of the socio-cultural context?
  • Compare the average wage in the U.S. and the country of your choice.
  • Does the increased use of technology in schools affect society?
  • What factors push Americans to abuse drugs ?
  • Which socio-cultural aspects make drunkenness acceptable?
  • Describe the social environment in a country that legalizes slavery .
  • Why do Christians get persecuted in some countries?
  • How does information overload impact modern teenagers?
  • Is child abuse justified outside the U.S.?
  • Does technology affect the emotional maturity of children?
  • Free education in Europe: pros and cons.
  • Prove that the U.S. healthcare system should help the homeless.
  • How often does cyberbullying occur worldwide?
  • What does successful life mean for a third world country citizen?
  • Does globalization put the national identity in danger?
  • The importance of developing cultural sensitivity .
  • Write about various religions in America .

Religions practiced by Americans.

  • Discuss the correlation between the economic level and crime rates .
  • Manifestations of ethical egoism in modern society.
  • Cross-cultural missionary work: pros and cons.
  • Does social stigma towards HIV contribute to its spread?

⛩️🕌 Cultural Diversity Topics for an Essay

America is one of the most diverse nations in the world. Each culture has its language, customs, and other factors that enrich a country like the U.S. The life of a culturally diverse community has its advantages and challenges. In your paper, unpack one of the aspects of such an environment. Take a look at these essay topics:

  • Discuss ethnic groups within the U.S. which have the highest suicide rate .
  • Is it essential for American psychologists to develop cultural competence ?
  • Describe the basic principles of cultural respect.
  • Prove that racism should not be tolerated.
  • Does the American education system embrace ethnic minorities?
  • Analyze the benefit of ethnic inclusiveness for the U.S. food industry .
  • How can managers encourage a multiethnic environment in the workplace?
  • White about the challenges of second-generation Americans.
  • Should the term “ immigrant ” be banned?
  • Discuss the advantages of the U.S. as a multicultural nation.
  • Prove that the English language proficiency test shouldn’t be required for U.S. citizenship.
  • What is the effect of prejudice against ethnic minorities?
  • How does diversity find a place in American traditions ?
  • Describe the culture shock experience of an international student.
  • Is transracial adoption becoming more common in the U.S.?
  • What is cultural narcissism, and how can you avoid it?
  • Effective strategies for conflict resolution in a diverse environment .
  • What multiculturalism policies currently exist in the U.S.?
  • Analyze the heritage of a specific nation.
  • Should learning a second language be mandatory in America?
  • What are the stereotypes associated with different ethnicities?
  • Describe the benefits of ethnic diversity.
  • Write about the widespread interracial marriages in the U.S.
  • How can one avoid cultural ignorance?
  • Are the Americans guilty of ethnocentrism ?

👥 Cultural Anthropology Topics for a Paper

Cultural anthropology is a study of beliefs, practices, and social organization of a group. The shaping of ideas and the physical environment are in the focus of this study. In other words, anthropology discovers why people live the way they do. This list will help narrow down your attention on this subject.

Cesar Chavez quote.

  • Why are social networks commonly used in the U.S.?
  • Explain the popularity of online shopping worldwide.
  • Will e-books replace paper books in developed countries?
  • Artificial intelligence technologies in Japan.
  • Pick two American states and compare their laws.
  • Why is cycling so prevalent in the Netherlands?
  • How architecture reflects a nation’s history.
  • Why is it easier to receive citizenship in some countries than in others?
  • Explain why Americans have a strong sense of national pride.
  • Analyze the perception of time in tropical countries.
  • Are most Swiss households wealthy?
  • Discover how language reflects a cultural worldview.
  • Does the country’s economy affect the self-esteem of its citizens?
  • Reasons for the political division in the U.S.
  • Analyze the difference in lifestyles between the Northern and the Southern states .
  • Why is it common in some countries to be bilingual ?
  • Analyze the cultural values of a communistic nation.
  • How can liberalism affect the education system?
  • What’s the social meaning of disease in third world countries?
  • Examine how the two-child policy affects the Chinese lifestyle.
  • Free health care: pros and cons.
  • Write about the way the former Soviet Union countries transitioned from communism.
  • Do Christian traditions vary from culture to culture?
  • Analyze the impact of refugee presence in European countries.
  • Does traditional food reflect the history of a nation?

We hope you were able to pick a culture topic for your paper after reading this article.

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Good luck with your assignment on culture!

Further reading:

  • 497 Interesting History Topics to Research
  • 137 Social Studies Topics for Your Research Project
  • 512 Research Topics on HumSS (Humanities & Social Sciences)
  • How to Write an Art Critique: Examples and Simple Techniques
  • 430 Philosophy Topics & Questions for Your Essay
  • 267 Hottest Fashion Topics to Write About in 2024

🔍 References

  • So You’re an American?: State.gov
  • A Brief History of Western Culture: Khan Academy
  • What Exactly is “Western Culture”?: University of California, Santa Barbara
  • What is Cultural Criticism?: University of Saskatchewan
  • What is a Subculture?: Grinnell College
  • Socio-Cultural Factors and International Competitiveness: ResearchGate
  • Cultural Diversity: Definition & Meaning: Purdue Global
  • What Is Cultural Anthropology?: US National Park Service
  • Cultural Anthropology: Encyclopedia Britannica
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How to Write a Cultural Identity Essay With Tips and Examples

11 December 2023

last updated

Writing a cultural identity essay is an exciting academic exercise that allows students to develop and utilize critical thinking, reflective, and analytical skills. Unlike a standard essay, this type of paper requires learners to use first-person language throughout. In essence, a cultural identity essay is about writers and what makes them identify with a particular cultural orientation. When writing a cultural identity essay, authors should choose a specific identity and focus on it throughout their texts. Moreover, they should reflect and brainstorm, use the “show, not tell” method, utilize transitions to create a natural flow, and proofread their papers to eliminate mistakes and errors. Hence, students need to learn how to write a cultural identity essay to provide high-quality papers to their readers.

Definition of a Cultural Identity Essay

Students undertake different writing exercises in the learning environment to develop their critical thinking, reflective, and analytical skills. Basically, one of these exercises is academic writing , and among different types of essays that students write is a cultural identity essay. In this case, it is a type of essay where authors write about their culture, which entails exploring and explaining the significance of their cultural identity. Moreover, there are numerous topics that instructors may require students to write about in a cultural identity essay. For example, some of these essay topics fall under different disciplines, such as religion, socio-economic status, family, education, ethnicity, and business. In essence, the defining features of a cultural identity essay are what aspects make authors know that they are writing in this type of essay. In turn, these features include language, nationality, gender, history, upbringing, and religion, among many others.

How to write a cultural identity essay

Differences Between a Cultural Identity Essay and Other Papers

Generally, a cultural identity essay is similar to a standard essay regarding an essay structure and an essay outline . However, the point of difference is the topic. While standard essays, such as argumentative, persuasive, and informative essays, require learners to use third-person language, such a paper requires them to use first-person language. In this case, when writing a cultural identity essay, authors should use the word “I” throughout to show the audience that they are writing from their perspective. Indeed, this aspect is the primary objective of a cultural identity essay – to give the writer’s perspective concerning their culture. Besides, another point of difference between a cultural identity essay and other papers is that the former does not require writers to utilize external sources but to write from a personal viewpoint.

List of Possible Examples of Cultural Identity Essay Topics

1. cultural identity and socialization in a learning environment.

Here, a cultural identity essay prompt may require students to discuss the significance of culture in education, focusing on cultural identity and socialization. As such, this topic requires writers to reflect on how culture influences behavior in a learning environment.

2. The Impact of Culture Change on Family

Here, this prompt may require students to explore and discuss how culture impacts a family unit. Moreover, the theme is a family, and the students’ mission would be to explain how culture in all its dynamics affects families in diverse settings.

3. The Role of Language in Building a Cultural Identity

Here, instructions may require students to explore and explain the significance of language in cultural identity. Hence, writers should focus on explaining the place of culture in the sociology discipline, focusing on the connection between language and cultural identity.

4. The Significance of Culture in a Globalized Economy

Here, a cultural identity essay topic may require students to explore and discuss how culture affects individuals and businesses in today’s connected world. Also, the students’ task would be to explain how culture, in all its dynamics, such as language, is essential in business for individuals and enterprises.

5. How Culture Influences Relations in the Workplace

Here, an essay prompt may require students to explore and explain how culture, in all its dynamics, affects or influences social relations at the workplace. In turn, the task of writers, for example, would be to focus on how Human Resource (HR) departments can use culture to enrich workplace relations.

6. The Place of Culture in Individuals’ Self-Concept

Here, an analysis of a theme may require students to reflect on how their cultural orientation has affected their self-concept. Moreover, the student’s task would be to discuss how culture and its dynamics enable individuals to build a strong or weak understanding of themselves.

7. The Importance of Cultural Orientation in a Multicultural Environment

Here, assignment instructions may require students to explore and discuss how their cultural orientation enables them to operate in a culturally diverse environment, such as a school or workplace. In this case, the student’s task would be to explain how cultural characteristics, such as language and religion, facilitate or hamper social competency in a multicultural setting. 

8. How Global Conflicts Disturb Cultural Identity for Refugees

Here, this example of a cultural identity topic may require students to explore and explain how conflicts in today’s world, such as civil unrest, affect the cultural identity of those who flee to foreign countries. Also, the student’s task would be to explain how one’s culture is affected in a new environment with totally different cultural dynamics.

9. The Challenges of Acculturation

Here, a cultural identity essay prompt may require students to explore and explain the challenges that individuals face in identifying with the dominant culture. In particular, the student’s task would be to explain the significance of the dominant culture and what those from other cultures that try to identify with it must confront.

10. Host Country Culture and Multinational Enterprises

Here, this prompt sample may require students to explore and explain how a host country’s culture affects expatriates working for multinational corporations. Besides, the students’ task would be to show how one’s culture defines their behaviors and how that can be affected in a new environment with new cultural characteristics.

11. Compare and Contrast Native Culture and Dominant Culture in the United States

Here, such instructions require students to explain specific areas of similarity and difference between the Native culture and the dominant culture. In turn, the students’ task would be to define the Native culture and the dominant culture and help the audience to understand whether they mean the same thing. Hence, whether they do or do not, students should elaborate.

12. The Objective of Acculturation

Here, this example of a cultural identity essay topic requires students to explore and explain why people prefer to identify with the dominant culture. Moreover, the students’ task would be to note the advantages of the dominant culture over others and the opportunities that one may access to identify with this dominant culture.

13. The Challenges That the LGBTQ Community Faces in the Modern World

Here, essay prompt instructions require students to explore and discuss the challenges that lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender people face in their normal day-to-day activities. In this case, the students’ task would be to explain the uniqueness of the LGBTQ community and how stereotyping makes their lives miserable in an environment where people are intolerant of different personalities and viewpoints.

14. Dangers of Cultural Intolerance in the Health Care System

Here, instructions may require students to explore and discuss how nurses that are intolerant to cultural differences may jeopardize patients’ lives.

15. Advantages and Disadvantages of Acculturation

Here, a cultural identity essay prompt requires students to discuss the pros and cons of identifying with the dominant culture.

How Students Know if They Write a Cultural Identity Essay

The defining features of a cultural identity essay give students the indication that they need to write this kind of essay. Basically, when learners read instructions regarding their essay topics they need to write about, they should identify one or several defining elements. In turn, these elements include language, nationality, religion, ethnicity, and gender.

Structure of a Cultural Identity Essay

As stated previously, the primary point of similarity between a cultural identity essay and standard papers is an essay structure and an essay outline. Basically, this structure and outline comprise of three main sections: introduction, body, and conclusion. Like in all other essays, writing a cultural identity essay requires students to address specific issues, which are, in essence, the defining characteristics of the essay’s structure and outline.

I. Introduction and Its Defining Characteristics

The introduction is the first paragraph of a cultural identity essay. Here, students introduce themselves to the audience, giving a brief background of their cultural identity. Moreover, rules of academic writing dictate that this part should not exceed 10 percent of the entire paper. In this case, writers should be brief and concise. Then, the most prominent component of this section is a thesis, a statement that appears at the end of an introduction paragraph and whose objective is to indicate the writer’s mission. In summary, the introduction part’s defining features are the writer’s background and thesis statement . In turn, the former gives a hint about a writer, and the latter provides the audience with insight into the writer’s objective in writing a cultural identity essay.

The body of a cultural identity essay is the most significant section of a paper and takes the largest part. Generally, writers use several paragraphs to advance different arguments to explain specific concepts. In a cultural identity essay, writers can use different paragraphs to explain important aspects of their cultural identity. Nonetheless, what determines the number of paragraphs and the content of each is a paper topic. Also, the most prominent defining features of a cultural identity essay’s body are paragraphs, with each advancing a unique concept about the writer’s cultural identity. In turn, paragraphs are where writers provide real-life experiences and other personal anecdotes that help the audience to develop a deeper understanding of authors from a cultural perspective.

III. Conclusion

The conclusion part is the last section of a cultural identity essay. In particular, writers restate a thesis statement and summarize the main points from body paragraphs. Moreover, authors provide concluding remarks about a topic, which is mostly an objective personal opinion. In summary, the conclusion part’s defining features are a restatement of a thesis, a summary of the main points, and the writer’s final thoughts about a topic.

Outline Template for a Cultural Identity Essay

I. Introduction

A. Hook statement/sentence. B. Background information. C. A thesis statement that covers the main ideas from 1 to X in one sentence.

II. Body Paragraphs

A. Idea 1 B. Idea 2 … X. Idea X

A. Restating a thesis statement. B. Summary of the main points from A to X. C. Final thoughts.

An Example of a Cultural Identity Essay

Topic: Identifying as a Naturalist

I. Introduction Sample in a Cultural Identity Essay

The period of birth marks the beginning of one’s identity, with culture playing a significant role. However, from the stage of adolescence going forward, individuals begin to recognize and understand their cultural makeup. In my case, I have come to discover my love for nature, an aspect that I believe has made me a naturalist both in belief and action.

II. Examples of Body Paragraphs in a Cultural Identity Essay

A. idea 1: parents.

Parents play a critical role in shaping the cultural and personal identity of their children. In my case, it is my mother who has instilled in me a love for nature. Although I may not say exactly when this love started, I can only reason that since it was ingrained in me since childhood, it has developed gradually.

B. Idea 2: Naturalism

Today, naturalism defines my interactions with people and the environment. In short, I can say it shapes my worldview. As a lover of nature herself, my mother had this habit of taking me outdoors when I was a toddler. I have seen family photographs of my mother walking through parks and forests holding my hand. What is noticeable in these pictures besides my mother and me is the tree cover that gives the setting such a lovely sight. Moreover, I can now understand why I seem more conversant with the names and species of flowers, trees, and birds than my siblings- my mother was the influence. In turn, my siblings and friends make a joke that I have developed a strong love for nature to the point of identifying myself with the environment. Hence, the basis for this argument is my love for the green color, where even my clothes and toys are mostly green.

III. Conclusion Sample of a Cultural Identity Essay

Naturally, human beings behave in line with their cultural background and orientation. Basically, this behavior is what determines or reflects their cultural identity. In turn, my intense love for nature underscores my naturalist identity. While I may not tell the stage in life when I assumed this identity, I know my mother has played a significant role in shaping it, and this is since childhood.

Summing Up on How to Write a Good Cultural Identity Essay

Like any standard paper, writing a cultural identity essay allows students to build essential skills, such as critical thinking, reflective, and analytical skills. In this case, the essence of a paper is to provide the writer’s cultural identity, background, or orientation. Therefore, in order to learn how to write a good cultural identity essay, students should master the following tips:

  • Decide where to focus. Culture is a broad topic, and deciding what to focus on is essential in producing a cultural identity essay. For example, one may have several cultural identities, and addressing all may lead to inconclusive explanations.
  • Reflect and brainstorm. Given the close link between one’s cultural identity and personal experiences, learners need to reflect on experiences that would provide the audience with an accurate picture of their cultural identity.
  • Adopt the “Show, not tell” approach by providing vivid details about one’s experiences. Using personal anecdotes may be effective in accomplishing this objective.
  • Use transitions , such as “therefore,” “thus,” ” additionally,” and “furthermore,” to enhance a natural and logical flow throughout the essay.
  • Stay personal by using first-person language to describe one’s background and experiences.
  • Proofread a cultural identity essay to eliminate spelling and grammatical mistakes and other notable errors, such as an inconsistent life storyline.

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Essay on Indian Culture for Students and Children

500+ words essay on indian culture.

India is a country that boasts of a rich culture. The culture of India refers to a collection of minor unique cultures. The culture of India comprises of clothing, festivals, languages, religions, music, dance, architecture, food, and art in India. Most noteworthy, Indian culture has been influenced by several foreign cultures throughout its history. Also, the history of India’s culture is several millennia old.

Components of Indian Culture

First of all, Indian origin religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism . All of these religions are based on karma and dharma. Furthermore, these four are called as Indian religions. Indian religions are a major category of world religions along with Abrahamic religions.

Also, many foreign religions are present in India as well. These foreign religions include Abrahamic religions. The Abrahamic religions in India certainly are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Besides Abrahamic religions, Zoroastrianism and Bahá’í Faith are the other foreign religions which exist in India. Consequently, the presence of so many diverse religions has given rise to tolerance and secularism in Indian culture.

The Joint family system is the prevailing system of Indian culture . Most noteworthy, the family members consist of parents, children, children’s spouses, and offspring. All of these family members live together. Furthermore, the eldest male member is the head of the family.

Arranged marriages are the norm in Indian culture. Probably most Indians have their marriages planned by their parents. In almost all Indian marriages, the bride’s family gives dowry to bridegroom. Weddings are certainly festive occasions in Indian culture. There is involvement of striking decorations, clothing, music, dance, rituals in Indian weddings. Most noteworthy, the divorce rates in India are very low.

India celebrates a huge number of festivals. These festivals are very diverse due to multi-religious and multi-cultural Indian society. Indians greatly value festive occasions. Above all, the whole country joins in the celebrations irrespective of the differences.

Traditional Indian food, arts, music, sports, clothing, and architecture vary significantly across different regions. These components are influenced by various factors. Above all, these factors are geography, climate, culture, and rural/urban setting.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Perceptions of Indian Culture

Indian culture has been an inspiration to many writers. India is certainly a symbol of unity around the world. Indian culture is certainly very complex. Furthermore, the conception of Indian identity poses certain difficulties. However, despite this, a typical Indian culture does exist. The creation of this typical Indian culture results from some internal forces. Above all, these forces are a robust Constitution, universal adult franchise, secular policy , flexible federal structure, etc.

Indian culture is characterized by a strict social hierarchy. Furthermore, Indian children are taught their roles and place in society from an early age. Probably, many Indians believe that gods and spirits have a role in determining their life. Earlier, traditional Hindus were divided into polluting and non-polluting occupations. Now, this difference is declining.

Indian culture is certainly very diverse. Also, Indian children learn and assimilate in the differences. In recent decades, huge changes have taken place in Indian culture. Above all, these changes are female empowerment , westernization, a decline of superstition, higher literacy , improved education, etc.

To sum it up, the culture of India is one of the oldest cultures in the World. Above all, many Indians till stick to the traditional Indian culture in spite of rapid westernization. Indians have demonstrated strong unity irrespective of the diversity among them. Unity in Diversity is the ultimate mantra of Indian culture.

FAQs on Indian Culture

Q1 What are the Indian religions?

A1 Indian religions refer to a major category of religion. Most noteworthy, these religions have their origin in India. Furthermore, the major Indian religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.

Q2 What are changes that have taken place in Indian culture in recent decades?

A2 Certainly, many changes have taken place in Indian culture in recent decades. Above all, these changes are female empowerment, westernization, a decline of superstition, higher literacy, improved education, etc.

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Ann Corrick papers featured in new digital history project from UMD Libraries’ Special Collections in Mass Media & Culture

Ann Corrick Headshot

The University of Maryland Libraries’ Special Collections in Mass Media & Culture (MMC) is proud to announce the addition of the papers of the late journalist Ann Corrick to its growing collection of material on women in broadcasting. Ann Corrick, whose voice is one of the only female correspondents in the Group W (Westinghouse) tape archives , led a remarkable career in the mid-20th century when women were rarely permitted to participate in the male-dominated fields of broadcasting and journalism. Beginning as a reporter at the college newspaper at the University of Texas in the early 1940s, she quickly rose to prominence once she moved to Washington, D.C., where she worked as a White House correspondent before moving on to production and writing positions at NBC and CBS, followed by national and international assignments covering world events in North America and Vietnam. 

A blog post written in 2021 by UMD archivist Jim Baxter regarding Ms. Corrick’s work caught the attention of her niece, who reached out to the curators of MMC to offer the documents, photos, clippings, and correspondence that survive from her late aunt’s career. The Ann Corrick papers , added to the archives in 2022, are now available for research. They tell a rich, textured story of Ms. Corrick’s legacy as a brilliant and tenacious reporter. A new digital history feature, “Ann Corrick: A World-Class Journalist Earns Her Place in History,” highlights items from the collection and details the timeline of her career on the journalistic frontlines of presidential milestones, political conventions, congressional activities, and the Vietnam War. Researchers from any discipline interested in the history of women in media will discover a valuable voice now more fully documented in the annals of American broadcast history. 

For research assistance with the Ann Corrick papers, contact Laura Schnitker, Mass Media & Culture Curator, at [email protected]

Related links: American Women in Radio & Television records Women in Media Research Guide How to Preserve Broadcast History Research Guide

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Beyoncé Is Boldly Defying Country’s Stereotypes

cultural history essay

E very Black woman has been called a Jezebel. The term, which originates from the Bible, is one of the oldest examples of misogyny in the world. Instead of being heralded for her reign as Queen, the Phoenician princess (after whom the term was named) was slut-shamed and subjected to whorephobia. To this day, her name conjures up images of promiscuity. 

For those raised in the church, young women and girls are encouraged to not have a “jezebel spirit” because a church girl can never be a whore. But for many Black women and girls, there is not an option to cast out or distance oneself from the Jezebel spirit, because according to America, we’ve been whores since 1619 . Although the hypersexualization of Black women did not come from the Bible, the ideal of a modern, chaste woman did. When the Bible found itself stateside, those ideals and beliefs began to disseminate throughout the 13 original colonies; any woman who was not white and shapely was a Jezebel . A woman meant to be feared. A woman meant to be isolated. A woman not meant to be seen. Because if this woman was seen, perceived, and respected, it would certainly be a sign of hell on Earth.

Black women have been raising hell on Earth, particularly in the South, for generations. Rissi Palmer, Holly G of Black Opry, and Kamara Thomas of Country Soul Songbook have been leading the charge through their activism to create better conditions for Black women not just in the South, but in country music. And with the release of Cowboy Carter , the second album in the Renaissance trilogy, Beyoncé has become the latest artist to challenge these norms.

Read More: Beyoncé Has Always Been Country

When Beyoncé arrived at the 65th Annual Grammy Awards on February 4, a visible change had occurred. Although the general public did not know at the time that she was officially making her foray back into country, she was leading the charge with her fashion. No longer was she adorned in the glistening silver chrome looks of Renaissance , Beyoncé, in her white shirt, Stetson hat, and oversized Black leather jacket and skirt, had become an outlaw. And country music loves an outlaw . 

The problem is that country music only loves an outlaw when they are white. The outlaw movement , which started as a staunch rebuke against the red tape of Nashville, allowed white men in country music, such as Willie Nelson, to be seen as rebellious—but in a way that was not anti-Nashville. From Johnny Cash to George Jones to Merle Haggard , these hell raisers have not only been warmly embraced in country music but championed. And the way these artists would often display this defiant spirit was through their dress.

Historian and scholar Dr. Francesca Royster writes about country’s outlaw movement in Black Country Music : Listening for Revolutions : “As the Man in Black, Johnny Cash could stand up for injustices against incarcerated folks and other outsiders, his Black shirt, hat, and jeans trademarks for his heroically critical stance.” Royster continues, “Blackness’s association in mainstream white culture with danger, illegality, and outsiderhood was put to use in Cash’s career to lend an element of authenticity. These moments reveal how, for these white male outlaws, proximity to Blackness—particularly metaphorical Blackness—is the ultimate expression of outsiderhood.``

Yet it is Beyoncé’s Blackness that country took issue with in the first place. The most telling part of her Grammy outfit was not her choice to wear Pharrell Willliams’ Western-inspired menswear collection for Louis Vuttion, but the red manicure that accompanied it. The manicure, featured on the singer’s Instagram post from the night, was most noticeable when she gave her red nails a bite. Fashion and costume historian Shelby Ivey Christie equates Beyoncé’s red nails to setting off a flare, making everyone in Nashville aware about her re-entry into country music. 

“There’s a Shakespearean saying about biting your thumb at someone, and that's to make fun of them,’” says Christie. “I feel that imagery is kind of that. She's biting her thumb at you. She's teasing you.”

It’s a tease that continued when Beyonce appeared at Super Bowl LVIII with Dolly Parton-esque hair and a Texas bombshell-inspired outfit . Compared to the Grammys, where the singer donned a straightforward western look, this felt more sultry, more seductive—almost as if the singer was invoking the spirit of the Jezebel.

The Jezebel has been known by many names, one of them being Jolene. In the country music lexicon, Jolene was immortalized by Parton as a beautiful red-headed woman with emerald green eyes and ivory skin who has the ability to take Parton’s man away from her. Similar to how the Jezebel Root has been historically used in Hoodoo practices to attract men of wealth and high status, Jolene became known as the woman to avoid unless you want the destruction of your household. 

“Women in country can be seen as more bombshell glam,” says Christie. “I think [the Super Bowl] was kind of [Beyonce’s] moment to give us that and to show us that the country genre wasn’t something that was on her. It’s in her.” But compared to her first foray into country music where Beyoncé wore what culture journalist Victoria M. Massie noted was a “ voluminous Antebellum-style dress cut from African wax print ” in the visuals for “Daddy Lessons,” her second attempt into country is being done the Renaissance way. 

The visuals for Cowboy Carter tell a story between the two, seamless acts. In act i, Beyoncé slyly introduced the country outlaw aesthetic by donning herself in a black fringed leather jacket for the album’s teaser trailer . At this year’s Gold Party , Beyoncé and Jay Z’s annual Oscars party, she fronted a more masculine aesthetic in a black Givenchy structured blazer and flared trousers. Both outfits were accompanied by a black cowboy hat—a playful homage to her Texas roots, which then took center stage in her album cover for Cowboy Carter . In a red, white, and blue latex outfit, a nod to her American and Texas roots, the singer’s posture feels reminiscent of painter Kehinde Wiley’s majestic compositions. (Wiley’s approach to painting, similarly to Beyoncé’s approach to country, is to bridge the gap between the past and present through the creative arts.) From her usage of Americana aesthetics to her platinum blonde locks, Beyoncé is giving the public an insight into her “ un-American life .”

The one thing that stands out most in Beyoncé's country era is her bleach blonde hair. Taking note from Parton, to be a blonde in Southern culture, in particular, has always been regarded as tacky and not tasteful. But as Parton famously said: “It takes a lot of money to look this cheap,” and with her new locks, Beyoncé is turning that stereotype on its head, too.

In the South, the societal norms that police women’s bodies, especially Black women’s bodies, stem from Christianity . And in country music, women are expected to present themselves in a particular way that adheres to those rules, despite not receiving adequate resources from their record labels. Even more-so, the sexual violence inflicted onto  Black women’s bodies because they are curvier or more voluptuous are thought to be justified. As a result of these societal, cultural, and political forces, Black women are socialized to keep their distance from anything that could perceive them as Jezebel-like. 

“Instead of men controlling themselves, respecting women's bodies, and having boundaries, it is the woman's responsibility to do that, by covering herself, by contorting herself into whatever boundary or rules are created to make them more palatable around men and to make them more palatable to the women peers around them,” says Christie. “That extends to color.”

There is a reason why Beyoncé decided to use the color red for “ Can’t B Broken ,” her Super Bowl commercial with Verizon. She wanted to be seen. She wanted to be heard. She wanted to tell Nashville that she is doing country her way, all the while honoring the legion of Black women in country music who came before her. 

In the official visualizer for “ Texas Hold ‘Em ,” Beyoncé in a mixture of black and silver walks onto the screen in a beehive, side ponytail and bang, a clear homage to Linda Martell , the first Black female country star. The style, which was immortalized in the May 1970 issue of Ebony, shows Martell on a press tour at WSM Radio alongside fellow country music legend Jeannie C. Riley on the heels of Martell’s  first appearance at the Grand Ole Opry in 1969. With this performance, Martell made history as the first Black female artist to perform on the highly esteemed music show.

But despite Martell’s legendary career, she experienced intense mistreatment and harassment by the country music industry. While at Plantation Records, the record label that she was signed to, Martell expressed discomfort with the label’s name because of its racist history. In addition to racial discomfort, she fell victim to a predatory contract. When she left Plantation Records, Shelby Singleton, the label founder, blacklisted Martell from any opportunities in the country music industry.

Read More: How Beyoncé Fits Into the Storied Legacy of Black Country

When Beyonce sweeps up her hair into an illustrious beehive and side swept bangs, it is a homage to Martell. Without saying a word, she is honoring the pioneering efforts of Martell and the Black women country artists of that time, while also sounding an alarm to the country music genre:that she expects to be treated with respect. For the entire world has their eyes on Beyoncé as she enters the country music industry for the second time. But it is not Beyoncé who should be in fear—it is Nashville. 

In a celebratory dinner with her husband Jay Z to commemorate Valentine’s Day, Beyonce appeared in mourning dress . Her Black Southern Gothic look drew inspiration from the post-Civil war period where widows wore a mourning veil for an alloted period of time. The question is: whose death is she calling into existence? The death of the country genre? The death of the barriers that restrict Black women from achieving success in country? Or has she become death itself? An omen of what’s to come.  

If Jezebel has to be one to kill the country genre, so be it. It is time for the church girl and the Jezebel to be seen as one in the same. It is time for the structures that govern and police Black women’s bodies to die. And it’s time we bury the old ways country music has been governed by into the ground.

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    Cultural history brings to life a past time and place. In this search, cultural historians study beliefs and ideas, much as intellectual historians do. In addition to the writings of intellectual elites, they consider the notions (sometimes unwritten) of the less privileged and less educated. These are reflected in the products of deliberately artistic culture, but also

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    8 years ago. Cultural Heritage is the sum total of various influences on an individual, as of a particular point in time, that influences that person to voice their thoughts, opinions and ideas to others. Culture over time can and will change as new ideas are explored and adopted. Comment. ( 3 votes) Upvote.

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    The culture of India refers to a collection of minor unique cultures. The culture of India comprises of clothing, festivals, languages, religions, music, dance, architecture, food, and art in India. Most noteworthy, Indian culture has been influenced by several foreign cultures throughout its history. Also, the history of India's culture is ...

  24. Ann Corrick papers featured in new digital history project from UMD

    The University of Maryland Libraries' Special Collections in Mass Media & Culture (MMC) is proud to announce the addition of the papers of the late journalist Ann Corrick to its growing collection of material on women in broadcasting. Ann Corrick, whose voice is one of the only female correspondents in the Group W (Westinghouse) tape archives, led a remarkable career in the mid-20th century ...

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