Cause and Effect Essay Outline: Types, Examples and Writing Tips

20 June, 2020

9 minutes read

Author:  Tomas White

This is a complete guide on writing cause and effect essays. Find a link to our essay sample at the end. Let's get started!

Cause and Effect

What is a Cause and Effect Essay?

A cause and effect essay is the type of paper that the author is using to analyze the causes and effects of a particular action or event. A curriculum usually includes this type of exercise to test your ability to understand the logic of certain events or actions.

cause and effect essay

If you can see the logic behind cause and effect in the world around you, you will encounter fewer problems when writing. If not, writing this kind of paper will give you the chance to improve your skillset and your brain’s ability to reason.

“Shallow men believe in luck or in circumstance. Strong men believe in cause and effect.” ― Ralph Waldo Emerson

In this article, the  Handmade Writing team will find out how to create an outline for your cause and effect essay – the key to successful essay writing.

Types of the Cause and Effect Essay

Before writing this kind of essay, you need to draft the structure. A good structure will result in a good paper, so it’s important to have a plan before you start. But remember , there’s no need to reinvent the wheel: just about every type of structure has already been formulated by someone.

If you are still unsure about the definition of an essay, you can take a look at our guide:  What is an Essay?

Generally speaking, there are three types of cause and effect essays. We usually differentiate them by the number of and relationships between the different causes and the effects. Let’s take a quick look at these three different cases:

1. Many causes, one effect

Cause and effect graphic organizer

This kind of essay illustrates how different causes can lead to one effect. The idea here is to try and examine a variety of causes, preferably ones that come from different fields, and prove how they contributed to a particular effect. If you are writing about World War I, for example, mention the political, cultural, and historical factors that led to the great war.

By examining a range of fundamental causes, you will be able to demonstrate your knowledge about the topic.

Here is how to structure this type of essay:

  • Introduction
  • Cause #3 (and so on…)
  • The effect of the causes

2. One cause, many effects

Cause and effect chart

This type of cause and effect essay is constructed to show the various effects of a particular event, problem, or decision. Once again, you will have to demonstrate your comprehensive knowledge and analytical mastery of the field. There is no need to persuade the reader or present your argument . When writing this kind of essay, in-depth knowledge of the problem or event’s roots will be of great benefit. If you know why it happened, it will be much easier to write about its effects.

Here is the structure for this kind of essay:

  • Effect #3 (and so on…)

3. Chain of causes and effects

Cause and effect pictures

This is the most challenging type. You need to maintain a chain of logic that demonstrates a sequence of actions and consequences, leading to the end of the chain. Although this is usually the most interesting kind of cause and effect essay, it can also be the most difficult to write.

Here is the outline structure:

  • Effect #1 = Cause #2
  • Effect #2 = Cause #3
  • Effect #3 = Cause #4 (and so on…)

Cause and Effect Essay Outline Example

Let’s take a look at an example. Below, you will find an outline for the topic “The causes of obesity” (Type 1) :

Cause and effect examples

As you can see, we used a blended strategy here. When writing about the ever-increasing consumption of unhealthy food, it is logical to talk about the marketing strategies that encourage people to buy fast food. If you are discussing fitness trainers, it is important to mention that people need to be checked by a doctor more often, etc.

In case you face some issues with writing your Cause and Effect essay, you can always count on our Essay Writers !

How do I start writing once I have drafted the structure?

If you start by structuring each paragraph and collecting suitable examples, the writing process will be much simpler. The final essay might not come up as a classic five paragraph essay – it all depends on the cause-effect chain and the number of statements of your essay.

Five paragraph essay graphic organizer

In the Introduction, try to give the reader a general idea of what the cause and effect essay will contain. For an experienced reader, a thesis statement will be an indication that you know what you are writing about. It is also important to emphasize how and why this problem is relevant to modern life. If you ever need to write about the Caribbean crisis, for instance, state that the effects of the Cold War are still apparent in contemporary global politics. 

Related Post: How to write an Essay introduction | How to write a Thesis statement

In the Body, provide plenty of details about what causes led to the effects. Once again, if you have already assembled all the causes and effects with their relevant examples when writing your plan, you shouldn’t have any problems. But, there are some things to which you must pay particular attention. To begin with, try to make each paragraph the same length: it looks better visually. Then, try to avoid weak or unconvincing causes. This is a common mistake, and the reader will quickly realize that you are just trying to write enough characters to reach the required word count.

Moreover, you need to make sure that your causes are actually linked to their effects. This is particularly important when you write a “chained” cause and effect essay (type 3) . You need to be able to demonstrate that each cause was actually relevant to the final result. As I mentioned before, writing the Body without preparing a thorough and logical outline is often an omission.

The Conclusion must be a summary of the thesis statement that you proposed in the Introduction. An effective Conclusion means that you have a well-developed understanding of the subject. Notably, writing the Conclusion can be one of the most challenging parts of this kind of project. You typically write the Conclusion once you have finished the Body, but in practice, you will sometimes find that a well-written conclusion will reveal a few mistakes of logic in the body!

Cause and Effect Essay Sample

Be sure to check the sample essay, completed by our writers. Use it as an example to write your own cause and effect essay. Link: Cause and effect essay sample: Advertising ethic issues .

Tips and Common Mistakes from Our Expert Writers

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Check out Handmadewriting paper writing Guide to learn more about academic writing!

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effect essay form

How To Write A Cause And Effect Essay: Topics, Structure, Examples

How To Write A Cause And Effect Essay?

If you're a student, chances are you'll encounter a cause and effect essay during your studies. This type of essay is all about exploring the relationship between a specific event (the cause) and its outcomes (the effects). But don't worry, we've got you covered with this easy-to-follow guide that breaks down everything you need to know about what is cause and effect essay and the steps for writing it. So get set to dive into the fascinating world of cause and effect as we equip you with the skills to ace this writing task like a pro!

What is a Cause and Effect Essay: Unique Characteristics from Other Essays

A cause and effect essay is a unique type of essay that focuses on examining the reasons (causes) behind an event or phenomenon and the resulting consequences (effects) that occur as a result. What sets it apart from other essays is its emphasis on establishing a clear cause-and-effect relationship between two or more variables.

In a cause and effect essay, the writer analyzes and explains the connections between the causes and effects, providing evidence and supporting details to illustrate the relationship. This type of essay requires critical thinking, logical reasoning, and a structured approach to present the causal chain effectively.

Unlike descriptive or narrative essays that focus on storytelling or presenting facts, cause and effect essays delve into the underlying causes and explore the outcomes, aiming to inform and educate the reader about the relationships between different factors.

cause and effect examples

Different Types of Cause and Effect Essay Structure

A cause and effect essay is a type of academic writing that explores the reasons (causes) and outcomes (effects) of a particular event, situation, or phenomenon. It aims to analyze the relationship between these causes and effects, providing a comprehensive understanding of how one factor leads to another. When structuring a cause and effect essay, there are several approaches you can take. Here are three common types of cause and effect essay structure from our experts:

  • Block Structure:
  • Introduction: Introduce the topic and provide background information.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Present the causes and their supporting details.
  • Body Paragraph 2: Discuss the effects and provide evidence or examples.
  • Conclusion: Summarize the main points and emphasize the overall significance.
  • Chain Structure:
  • Introduction: Introduce the topic and its importance.
  • Body Paragraphs: Each paragraph focuses on a specific cause and its subsequent effects, forming a chain-like progression.
  • Cause 1: Explain the first cause and its effects.
  • Cause 2: Describe the second cause and its effects, which may also include the effects of Cause 1.
  • Cause 3: Discuss the third cause and its effects, which may include the effects of Causes 1 and 2.

Continue this pattern for additional causes if necessary.

  • Conclusion: Summarize the main causes and effects, highlighting their interconnections.
  • Causal Chain Structure:
  • Introduction: Introduce the topic and provide context.
  • Body Paragraphs: Each paragraph focuses on a specific cause and effect, examining the relationships between them.
  • Cause 1: Explain the first cause and its immediate effect(s).
  • Cause 2: Discuss the second cause, which is triggered by the effect(s) of Cause 1 and its subsequent effect(s).
  • Cause 3: Describe the third cause, influenced by the effect(s) of Cause 2 and its further effect(s).

Continue this pattern for additional causes and effects.

  • Conclusion: Summarize the causal chain, emphasizing the overall significance and potential long-term effects.

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effect essay form

Cause and Effect Essay Outline

cause and effect outline

I. Introduction

A. Explanation of cause and effect essays

B. Hook: 'Have you ever wondered how excessive screen time affects academic performance?'

C. Thesis statement: Excessive screen time negatively impacts academic performance due to decreased focus, impaired cognitive abilities, and reduced study time.

II. Body Paragraph 1: Cause 1 - Decreased Focus

A. Topic sentence: Excessive screen time leads to decreased focus.

B. Explanation: Constant exposure to screens can overstimulate the brain and make it harder to concentrate on academic tasks.

C. Example: Studies have shown that students who spend excessive time on electronic devices during study sessions often struggle to maintain their focus, leading to reduced productivity and lower academic performance.

III. Body Paragraph 2: Cause 2 - Impaired Cognitive Abilities

A. Topic sentence: Excessive screen time impairs cognitive abilities.

B. Explanation: Prolonged screen usage can negatively impact cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and critical thinking skills.

C. Example: Research has indicated that excessive screen time, particularly in the form of video games or social media, can hinder the development of cognitive abilities, making it more difficult for students to comprehend complex concepts and retain information.

IV. Body Paragraph 3: Cause 3 - Reduced Study Time

A. Topic sentence: Excessive screen time reduces the amount of time dedicated to studying.

B. Explanation: The allure of screens can distract students and tempt them away from their academic responsibilities.

C. Example: A study conducted at XYZ University found that students who spent more time on social media or streaming platforms were more likely to allocate less time to study, resulting in poor performance on exams and assignments.

V. Conclusion

A. Restate the thesis statement: Excessive screen time has a detrimental effect on academic performance due to decreased focus, impaired cognitive abilities, and reduced study time.

B. Recap the main points discussed in each body paragraph.

C. Final thoughts: Encourage students to manage their screen time wisely to optimize their academic success.

10 Cause and Effect Essay Topics

If you are struggling to come up with a topic for your essay, consider one of these ten great cause and effect essay ideas below. Feel free to also hit us up with your ' write my essay ' request for a professionally crafted paper on your chosen topic.

Discuss the Effects of Social Media on Face-to-Face Communication

Social media has become a ubiquitous part of modern society, with platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram connecting people from all over the world. However, as social media usage has increased, so has concern over its impact on face-to-face communication. Some argue that social media has made it easier for people to stay in touch with friends and family, regardless of distance. Others worry that social media has led to a decline in the quality of face-to-face interactions, with people spending more time on their phones than engaging with those around them. This topic is ripe for exploration and analysis.

Analyze the Reasons Behind the Increased Use of Smartphones by Children

Smartphones have become a ubiquitous part of modern life, with people of all ages relying on them for communication, entertainment, and information. However, there has been a recent trend of children using smartphones at increasingly young ages. Some argue that smartphones can be a valuable tool for education and communication, while others worry that they can be addictive and harmful to children's development. This topic is worth exploring in depth, with a focus on the factors that have led to this trend and its potential long-term effects.

Explore the Impacts of Climate Change on the Natural Environment

Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing the world today, with rising temperatures, sea levels, and extreme weather events all having profound impacts on the natural environment. This topic is complex and multifaceted, with a range of potential causes and effects to explore. Some of the key areas to consider might include the impact of climate change on ecosystems, wildlife, and natural resources, as well as the potential long-term consequences for human societies.

Investigate the Effects of Pollution on Human Health

Pollution is a major problem in many parts of the world, with air, water, and soil pollution all having serious consequences for human health. This topic is worth exploring in depth, with a focus on the specific ways in which pollution can impact different aspects of human health, including respiratory health, cardiovascular health, and mental health. Some of the key factors to consider might include the impact of pollution on vulnerable populations, such as children and the elderly, as well as potential strategies for prevention and mitigation.

Discuss How Social Isolation Can Lead to Mental Health Issues

Social isolation is a growing problem in many parts of the world, with people of all ages and backgrounds feeling increasingly disconnected from their communities and social networks. This topic is worth exploring in depth, with a focus on the specific ways in which social isolation can impact mental health. Some of the key areas to consider might include the impact of social isolation on depression, anxiety, and other mental health disorders, as well as potential strategies for prevention and treatment.

Analyze the Reasons Behind the Rise of Populism in Politics

Populism has become an increasingly prominent force in politics in recent years, with populist politicians and movements gaining ground in many parts of the world. This topic is complex and multifaceted, with a range of potential causes and effects to explore. Some of the key areas to consider might include the impact of economic inequality, globalization, and cultural change on the rise of populism, as well as potential strategies for addressing this trend.

Explore the Impacts of the Internet on the Traditional Media Industry

The internet has had a profound impact on the media industry, with traditional forms of media such as newspapers, television, and radio facing increasing competition from online sources. This topic is worth exploring in depth, with a focus on the specific ways in which the internet has disrupted traditional media models. Some of the key areas to consider might include the impact of social media on news consumption, the rise of citizen journalism, and the challenges facing traditional media outlets in the digital age.

Examine the Factors that Lead to the Growth of Online Shopping

Online shopping has become an increasingly popular way for people to purchase goods and services, with e-commerce platforms like Amazon and eBay dominating the retail landscape. This topic is worth exploring in depth, with a focus on the specific factors that have contributed to the growth of online shopping. Some of the key areas to consider might include the impact of convenience and accessibility, the rise of mobile devices, and the changing demographics of consumers.

Investigate the Effects of Globalization on Local Industries

Globalization has had a profound impact on the world economy, with goods, services, and capital flowing more freely across borders than ever before. This topic is worth exploring in depth, with a focus on the specific ways in which globalization has affected local industries. Some of the key areas to consider might include the impact of outsourcing and offshoring on employment, the role of multinational corporations in shaping local economies, and the potential benefits and drawbacks of globalization for different regions of the world.

Analyze The Impact of Social Media on Sleep Quality

Analyzing the impact of social media on sleep quality requires examining various factors related to social media usage and its effects on sleep patterns. Investigate the correlation between the amount of time individuals spend on social media platforms and their sleep quality. Excessive use of social media may lead to delayed bedtime, shorter sleep duration, or disrupted sleep. You can also explore the impact of blue light emitted by electronic devices, including smartphones and tablets, which are commonly used for social media browsing.

How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay: Step-by-Step Guide

In this section, we will unravel the essential elements of how to write a cause and effect essay, equipping you with the tips to present a logical and well-supported argument.

how to write a cause and effect essay

Step 1: Choose a Topic

The first step in writing a great cause and effect examples essay is choosing the right topic. Consider something that interests you and is relevant to your academic field. The cause and effect essay topics should also be specific enough to allow for in-depth analysis in your assignment.

Step 2: Conduct Research

Once you have identified your topic, it is important to do extensive research to gather sufficient information to support your arguments. Use scholarly sources such as academic journals, books, or reputable websites to do your research.

Step 3: Develop a Thesis Statement

The thesis statement is the core idea of your essay and should be presented in the opening paragraph. It is a single sentence that clearly states the cause and effect relationship you will be discussing in the essay. A well-crafted thesis statement is critical to the success of your essay.

Step 4: Create an Outline

Creating a cause and effect essay outline is a crucial element of the writing process. It helps in organizing your thoughts and providing a clear structure for your essay. Divide your essay into an introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion.

Step 5: Write the Introduction

The introduction is the first paragraph of your essay, and it should catch the reader's attention and provide background information on the topic at hand. The introduction should also include the thesis statement.

Step 6: Write the Body Paragraphs

The body paragraphs should discuss the causes and effects of the event or topic at hand. Each paragraph should discuss one specific cause or effect followed by supporting evidence from your research.

Step 7: Write the Conclusion

The cause and effect essay conclusion should restate the thesis statement and provide a summary of your arguments. It should also demonstrate the relationship between the various causes and effects you have discussed.

Step 8: Proofread and Edit

The final step is to proofread and edit your essay. Ensure that your grammar, spelling, and punctuation are all correct and that your ideas are presented in a clear and concise manner.

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effect essay form

Cause and Effect Essay Examples

You can order an essay from professional writers have meticulously crafted a sample essay that delves into the cause and effect relationship between air pollution on human health.

Title: The Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health

Air pollution is a prevalent issue that has detrimental effects on human health. This essay will explore the multiple causes and consequences of air pollution, highlighting the interconnectedness between environmental factors and public well-being.

The primary cause of air pollution is industrial emissions. Factories and power plants release harmful pollutants, including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter, into the atmosphere. These pollutants contribute to the formation of smog, which can be inhaled by individuals, leading to respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer. Furthermore, vehicular emissions also contribute significantly to air pollution, particularly in urban areas with heavy traffic congestion.

The effects of air pollution on human health are alarming. Prolonged exposure to polluted air can cause respiratory diseases, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Studies have also linked air pollution to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attacks and strokes. Additionally, children and the elderly are more susceptible to the harmful effects of air pollution, as their immune systems are less robust.

Moreover, air pollution has broader societal consequences. It contributes to the degradation of ecosystems, reduces crop yields, and harms biodiversity. It also poses economic burdens by increasing healthcare costs and decreasing productivity due to illnesses and absenteeism.

In conclusion, air pollution has far-reaching effects on human health and the environment. The causes, including industrial emissions and vehicular pollution, directly impact the quality of the air we breathe. The consequences, such as respiratory diseases and cardiovascular problems, highlight the urgent need for measures to mitigate and control air pollution. Efforts to reduce emissions, promote cleaner technologies, and raise public awareness are crucial steps toward safeguarding human health and preserving the environment for future generations.

A Final Perspective

In our exploration of cause and effect essays, we've covered all the essentials. We've defined what is a cause and effect essay, delved into good cause and effect essay topics, and taken a closer look at its structure.

Now, here's the deal: if you put in the time and effort to prepare, your professor will definitely notice and give you the grade you deserve. But hey, we get it! Sometimes these tasks can be confusing and eat up all your time. If that's the case, no worries! You can easily hire an essay writer to lend a hand and enjoy some well-deserved free time without the stress of assignments.

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How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay: Full Guide

effect essay form

Ever wondered how things are connected in our world? Think of the butterfly effect—where a butterfly's wings in Brazil can set off a tornado in Texas. It's a quirky idea, but it shows how events are intertwined. Writing a cause and effect essay is like unraveling these connections, connecting the dots to reveal how things influence each other and shape our experiences.

In this guide, experts from our paper writing service will explore the concept of causality and share practical tips for creating great cause and effect essays. These essays won't just provide information—they'll leave a lasting impression on your readers.

What Is a Cause and Effect Essay

A cause and effect essay is a form of writing that aims to explore and explain the relationships between different events, actions, or circumstances. The central idea is to investigate why certain things happen (causes) and what results from those occurrences (effects). It's like peeling back the layers to reveal the interconnectedness of events, understanding the domino effect in the narrative of life.

What is a Cause and Effect Essay

Here's a breakdown of the key components:

  • Causes: These are the factors or events that initiate a particular situation. They are the reasons behind why something occurs. For instance, if you're exploring the cause of obesity, factors like unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity could be identified as causes.
  • Effects: The effects are the outcomes or consequences that result from the identified causes. Following the obesity example, effects could include health issues, reduced quality of life, or increased healthcare costs.
  • Connection: The heart of a cause and effect essay lies in demonstrating the link between causes and effects. It's not just about listing events but explaining how one event leads to another in a logical and coherent manner.

When crafting such an essay, you're essentially acting as a storyteller and investigator rolled into one. Your goal is to guide the reader through the web of interconnected events, providing insights into the 'why' and 'what happens next.'

How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay with Easy Steps

Understanding how to write a cause and effect essay is like putting together a puzzle. Here are ten simple steps to help you write an engaging essay that looks into how things are connected.

How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay with Easy Steps

1. Select a Specific Topic

  • Choose a cause and effect relationship that sparks your interest.
  • Ensure your topic is focused and manageable for a thorough exploration.

2. Explore Causal Links

  • Conduct thorough research to uncover hidden connections and supporting evidence.
  • Look beyond the obvious to identify intricate relationships between causes and effects.

3. Craft a Clear Thesis Statement

  • Develop a precise thesis that clearly articulates the main cause and the resulting effects.
  • Your thesis serves as the roadmap for your essay, guiding readers through your analysis.

4. Organize Chronologically or by Significance

  • Structure your essay in a logical order, either chronologically or by the significance of events.
  • This organization enhances clarity and helps readers follow the cause-and-effect progression.

5. Utilize Transitional Phrases

  • Employ transition words and phrases to ensure seamless flow between causes and effects.
  • Clear transitions enhance readability and strengthen the coherence of your essay.

6. Support Arguments with Credible Evidence

  • Back up your claims with relevant data, examples, and statistics.
  • Strong evidence adds credibility to your analysis and reinforces the cause-and-effect relationships you present.

7. Illustrate Chain Reactions

  • Show how a single cause can trigger a chain of effects, and vice versa.
  • Illustrate the ripple effects to emphasize the complexity of the relationships.

8. Analyze Root Causes

  • Move beyond surface-level explanations and explore the underlying factors contributing to the cause-and-effect scenario.
  • Deep analysis adds depth and nuance to your essay.

9. Consider Alternative Causes

  • Address potential counterarguments to showcase a comprehensive understanding.
  • Acknowledging alternative causes strengthens your essay's overall credibility.

10. Conclude with Impact

  • Summarize key points and emphasize the broader significance of your analysis.
  • Leave your readers with a thought-provoking conclusion that ties together the cause-and-effect relationships explored in your essay.

Cause and Effect Essay Structure Types

When setting up your essay, you can choose from different structures to make it organized. Let's look at two common types of cause and effect essay structures:

Cause and Effect Essay Structure Types

  • Block Structure:

The block structure is a clear and organized way to present causes and effects in your essay. Here, you dedicate one section to discussing all the causes, covering multiple causes within each category. After that, you have another section to explore all the effects. This separation makes your ideas easy to understand.

Using the block structure allows you to dive deep into each category, thoroughly looking at causes and effects separately. It's handy when you want to give a detailed analysis and show the importance of each part of the causal relationship. This way, readers can fully grasp each element before moving on.

  • Chain Structure:

On the other hand, the chain structure focuses on how events are connected and create ripple effects. It highlights how one cause leads to a specific effect, and that effect becomes the cause of more effects in an ongoing chain. This method is potent for illustrating the complexity of causal relationships.

The chain structure works well when you want to emphasize the sequence of events or deal with intricate cause-and-effect scenarios. It allows you to show how actions trigger a series of reactions, displaying the domino effect that leads to a specific outcome.

Regardless of the structural style you choose, if you require assistance with your academic paper, reach out to us with your ' write my paper for me ' request. Our experienced team is ready to tailor your paper to your specific requirements and ensure its excellence.

Cause and Effect Essay Outline

Creating an effective cause and effect essay begins with a well-structured outline. This roadmap helps you organize your thoughts, maintain a logical flow, and ensure that your essay effectively conveys the causal relationships between events. Below, we'll outline the key components of the essay along with examples:

I. Introduction

  • Hook: Start with an engaging statement or fact. Example: 'Did you know that stress can significantly impact your overall health?'
  • Background Information: Provide context for your topic. Example: 'In today's fast-paced world, stress has become an increasingly prevalent issue.'
  • Thesis Statement: Clearly state the main cause and its corresponding effects. Example: 'This essay will explore the causes of stress and their profound negative effects on physical and mental health.'

II. Body Paragraphs

  • Topic Sentence: Introduce the first cause you'll discuss. Example: 'One major cause of stress is heavy workload.'
  • Supporting Details: Provide evidence and examples to support the cause. Example: 'For instance, individuals juggling multiple job responsibilities and tight deadlines often experience heightened stress levels.'
  • Transition: Link to the next cause or move on to the effects.
  • Topic Sentence: Introduce the first effect. Example: 'The effects of chronic stress on physical health can be devastating.'
  • Supporting Details: Present data or examples illustrating the impact. Example: 'Studies have shown that prolonged stress can lead to cardiovascular problems, including hypertension and heart disease.'
  • Transition: Connect to the next effect or cause.

C. Causes (Continued)

  • Topic Sentence: Introduce the next cause in a new cause and effect paragraph. Example: 'Another significant cause of stress is financial strain.'
  • Supporting Details: Explain how this cause manifests and its implications. Example: 'Financial instability often results in anxiety, as individuals worry about bills, debts, and their financial future.'
  • Transition: Prepare to discuss the corresponding effects.

D. Effects (Continued)

  • Topic Sentence: Discuss the effects related to financial strain. Example: 'The psychological effects of financial stress can be profound.'
  • Supporting Details: Offer real-life examples or psychological insights. Example: 'Depression and anxiety are common consequences of constant financial worries, affecting both mental well-being and daily life.'

III. Conclusion

  • Restate Thesis: Summarize the main cause and effects. Example: 'In summary, the heavy workload and financial strain can lead to stress, impacting both physical and mental health.'
  • Closing Thoughts: Reflect on the broader significance of your analysis. Example: 'Understanding these causal relationships emphasizes the importance of stress management and financial planning in maintaining a balanced and healthy life.'

Cause and Effect Essay Examples

To help you grasp cause and effect essay writing with clarity, we have prepared two distinct essay examples that will guide you through the intricacies of both block and chain structures. Additionally, should you ever find yourself requiring assistance with academic writing or descriptive essays examples , simply send us your ' write my research paper ' request. Our expert writers are here to provide the support you need!

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Cause and Effect Essay Topics

Choosing a good topic starts with recognizing cause and effect key words. Here are 10 interesting topics that let you dig into fascinating connections and their important consequences:

  • The Relationship Between Lack of Exercise and Mental Health in Older Adults
  • Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Workplace Productivity
  • The Impact of Cyberbullying on Adolescents' Emotional Well-being
  • Influence of Social Media Advertising on Consumer Purchasing Decisions
  • Consequences of Oil Spills on Coastal Ecosystems
  • How Noise Pollution Affects Concentration and Academic Performance in Schools
  • The Connection Between Fast-Food Marketing and Childhood Obesity
  • Effects of Urbanization on Water Quality in Local Rivers
  • The Relationship Between Indoor Plants and Air Quality in Homes
  • Impact of Plastic Pollution on Wildlife in Urban Environments
  • The Effect of Meditation on Stress Reduction in College Students
  • How Increased Screen Time Affects Teenagers' Attention Span
  • The Impact of Single-Use Plastics on Marine Microorganisms
  • The Relationship Between Smartphone Use and Sleep Quality in Adults
  • Effects of High-Fructose Corn Syrup on Metabolic Health
  • The Consequences of Deforestation on Local Biodiversity
  • Influence of Social Media Comparison on Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescents
  • The Connection Between Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Urban Areas
  • Effects of Excessive Gaming on Academic Performance in High School Students
  • The Impact of Fast Food Consumption on Childhood Obesity Rates

Final Words

Knowing what a cause and effect essay is and how to write it helps you uncover connections in different topics. With this guide, you can share your ideas in a clear and impactful way.

Meanwhile, if you're in need of a reaction paper example , rest assured we have you covered as well. So, seize this opportunity, put your thoughts on paper logically, and witness your essays leaving a lasting and influential mark.

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How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay: The Complete Guide

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by  Antony W

November 4, 2021

how to write a cause and effect essay

Suppose the river where you spent many fun afternoons fishing or swimming is drying up. There must be a cause or many causes leading to that effect.

Or, suppose you want to investigate the effects of excessive logging upstream of your favorite river. The two events may be related, and it is the goal of a cause and effect essay to display this relationship.

Everything in this world has causes and effects, resulting in a cosmic interrelationship of infinite proportions.

As an example, writing a good essay results in good grades, good grades get you into a good college, a good college will likely get you a good life.

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If you aim to learn what a cause and effect essay is, how to write one, and the criteria used to mark it, read on.

Be sure to stick around to the end for the detailed cause and effect essay outline example.

What Is A Cause And Effect Essay

While the name is self-explanatory, the definition is a bit more specific.

A cause and effect essay is an academic paper that analyzes the causes of an event and draws logical links between the two.

It can also be defined as a paper that investigates the causative factors of an event to draw clear, direct links between them.

From this definition, you can tell that there are two types of cause and effect essays.

One kind focuses on the event to find the causes, called a Focus-on-Effects essay. The other focuses on how various events cause a certain effect, so it is called a Focus-on-Causes essay.

This essay is not as simple as one might think.

For example, it is common in some parts of the world to have power outages during storms. However, do you think it is accurate to say the power went out because there was a storm?

Just because one precedes the other does not give it a direct correlation - instead, it might be better to say the power went out because a tree fell on the lines.

The goal of a cause and effect essay is to find out and clarify such nuances. 

What Makes A Good Cause and Effect Essay

There are no specific criteria that define what a good cause and effect essay is.

Most schools and instructors will use a custom rubric to grade the essays from their students.

However, from years of experience, top academicians at Help for Assessment cite the following qualities as necessary in a top-grade cause and effect essay.

  • It needs to be interesting:  As with most essays, a clinical listing of factors and effects will deny the essay of character. Instead, it should be highly engaging, have links to real-life evidence and experiences, and have a unique character infused from the writer's point of view.
  • Relevant: A cause and effect essay needs to have a direct impact on the real world. Don’t be drawn to analyze events in Harry Potter or some other fictional event because it will have no academic value.
  • Accurate : The link between causes and effects you choose to explore must be clear, logical, and accurate. Support your assumptions and inferences with plenty of evidence and data. No matter how straightforward it seems, make sure that your claims are verifiable and have solid proof.
  • Concise : A cause and effect essay is one of the shortest in academia, spanning only 5 paragraphs in total. Make sure that the topic chosen is highly specific, and that each of the ideas presented is thorough but brief.
  • Simple and clear : The essay needs to be written in simple, clear language that even a layman can understand clearly. Anyone reading the essay should be able to follow the same logical steps as you do and arrive at a similar conclusion. Use linking phrases such as because, hence, due to, consequently, as a result of, since  and therefore. 

Each of the paragraphs has a specific purpose in the essay. As such, our next step is to review the cause and effect essay structure.

Cause and Effect Essay Format Sample

effect essay form

This is a chain cause and effect essay outline , where each cause is followed by an effect.

You will notice that this essay is very similar in structure to another common type of essay: the problem-solution essay. 

Another outline called the block format is also possible.

With the block format, all the causes/effects are listed first, then all the corresponding effects/causes are listed and then links drawn between the two. Below is a sample block format.

effect essay form

Sometimes, you find that a cause does not lead directly to an effect. Instead, it leads to a situation, and that situation to another, in a linked chain that leads to the effect.

In this case, you can choose to use the causal chain or domino pattern for the essay format.

Each paragraph in your essay will represent one link, and the essay will usually have up to seven paragraphs and five in the body. 

With that, it’s time to explore the step-by-step process that leads to writing the best cause and effect essay.

How to Write A Cause and Effect Essay Step-by-Step

1. brainstorm.

The first step is to come up with an appropriate cause and effect essay topic .

There are unlimited ideas for you to start with, but thinking about the qualities you want from your essay will help you to narrow down. 

That is, it should be specific, interesting, relevant, accurate, and consistent with your current level of education.  

You can gather ideas from books and publications, movies and videos, and even music. Write down all the ideas that pop into your head.

2. Selection

Narrow down the ideas you have so that you ultimately end up with one. You can start by eliminating those that are too common and likely to be overused.

You want your topic idea to be as unique and fresh as possible. You can also look at which will have relevance in your dream career.

For example, if you want to be a doctor, you might pick one that is related to that as opposed to one on climate change.

Take your chosen topic and narrow it down to a specific statement.

For example, if your idea was “Deforestation,” you can narrow it down to “The effects of deforestation in the Amazon on global climate.”

4. Identify The Causes/Effects And Your Supporting Points

If your topic will be cause-focused, identify the effects and its main supporting points or vice versa for the alternative viewpoint.

Write these down, and then choose the three strongest points which will fit into your essay body.

5. Craft a Concise Thesis Statement And Title

These should be as focused as possible to be able to tell the reader exactly what your essay is about.

To write the thesis statement, condense all the causes and effects into one brief but clear sentence. You can do it in two sentences if they don’t fit in one.

Now you know the what and the how of cause and effect essays. Checkout 20+ cause and effect essay sample topics here .

Need Help to Write Your Cause and Effect Essay?

A cause and effect essay is straightforward and relatively easy to write. However, this makes it all the harder to achieve top marks.

Your essay has to stand out and be exceptional if it to impress your instructor. 

Remember that Help for Assessment is here to take the burden off your hands. For all essay and project writing services,  check out our services page and order your paper at the most affordable rates in town. We'll even throw in a 50% discount for you if it's your first time  here !  

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Cause And Effect Essay Writing

Cause And Effect Essay Outline

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Learn How to Create a Cause and Effect Essay Outline

Published on: Mar 19, 2020

Last updated on: Mar 25, 2024

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Writing a cause and effect essay can be an engaging and insightful task. It allows you to look deeper into the complicated connections between events, phenomena, and their consequences. 

However, before diving into the essay writing process, it's essential to lay a solid foundation with a well-structured outline. 

In this guide, we'll explore the process of creating a good cause and effect essay outline in simple steps.

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What is Cause and Effect Writing?

A cause and effect essay is a type of essay that examines the reasons (causes) behind an event or phenomenon and explores the outcomes (effects) that result from it. These essays aim to uncover the relationships between various occurrences, whether they are societal, environmental, or personal.

The Importance of Outlining 

  • Outlining helps clarify your thoughts and organize your ideas in a logical manner.
  • It provides a framework for your essay, ensuring that each point flows smoothly into the next.
  • Outlining keeps you focused on your main points and prevents you from getting sidetracked.
  • It saves time by helping you identify gaps in your argument and address them before you start academic writing.
  • Outlining ensures that your essay is coherent and cohesive, making it easier for readers to follow your train of thought.

Cause and Effect Essay Structure 

In a cause and effect essay, you have the flexibility to structure your essay in a way that best suits your topic and argument. Here are a few common approaches to consider:

Single Cause, Single Effect

Each paragraph focuses on one cause and its corresponding effect. This approach provides clarity and allows for in-depth exploration of each cause-effect relationship.

Single Cause, Multiple Effects

In this structure, you dedicate a paragraph to each cause and then discuss multiple effects stemming from that cause. This allows for a comprehensive analysis of the various outcomes resulting from a single cause.

Multiple Causes, Single Effect

Alternatively, you can examine multiple causes that contribute to a single effect. This approach enables you to highlight the interconnectedness of different factors leading to a particular outcome.

Chain Structure

This method involves tracing a chain of causes and effects, where one event leads to another in a sequential manner. Each paragraph explores a link in the causal chain, providing a clear understanding of the progression of events.

Note: Adjust the number of body paragraphs based on the depth and complexity of your analysis to maintain coherence and effectiveness.

How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay Outline?

Here's a step-by-step process for creating a cause and effect essay outline.

Step 1: Choose a Topic

Select a topic that allows you to explore meaningful cause-effect relationships. Consider issues that have multiple causes and effects, such as environmental pollution, technological advancements, or social trends.

Example: Topic - "The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health"

Step 2: Identify Causes and Effects

Brainstorm potential causes and effects related to your chosen topic. Consider both immediate and underlying causes, as well as short-term and long-term effects.

Step 3: Determine Your Thesis Statement

Craft a clear and concise thesis statement that outlines the main causes and effects you will explore in your essay. Your thesis should provide a roadmap for your readers and guide the direction of your analysis.

Step 4: Organize Your Outline

Structure your outline in a logical manner, with distinct sections for your cause and effect essay introduction , body paragraphs, and conclusion . Each section should serve a specific purpose and contribute to the overall coherence of your essay.

Step 5: Develop Each Section of the Outline

Flesh out each section of your outline by incorporating a strong topic sentence that clearly introduces the cause or effect. Follow this with detailed explanations that look into the why and how of each point. Support your claims with relevant supporting evidence, whether it's real-life examples, statistics, or expert opinions. 

Ensuring the relevance and strength of your examples is important to solidify the connection between causes and effects. It also provides strong support for your cause and effect essay thesis statement.

Example (Body Paragraph):

Step 6: Use Transitional Words 

Use transition words and phrases to create seamless transitions between paragraphs and sections of your outline. This helps maintain coherence and ensures that your ideas flow logically from one point to the next.

Example:     

Transitional Words: Furthermore, Additionally, Moreover, Consequently, Therefore

Step 7: Review and Revise Your Outline

Review your outline for clarity, coherence, and completeness. Ensure that each section aligns with your thesis statement and contributes to the overall argument of your essay. Make revisions as needed to improve the structure and organization of your outline.

Step 8: Finalize Your Outline

Once you are satisfied with the content and structure of your outline, finalize it by formatting it according to your preferred style (e.g., bullet points, Roman numerals). Your outline should be a comprehensive roadmap for drafting your cause and effect essay.

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Cause and Effect Essay Outline Examples

Here are some cause and effect essay outline pdf samples to give you an idea of how to structure your essay.

Cause And Effect Essay Outline Template

Cause And Effect Essay Outline College

Cause And Effect Essay Outline Global Warming

Cause And Effect Essay Topics

Here are some trending and thought-provoking cause and effect essay topics:

  • The Impact of Climate Change on Global Weather Patterns
  • The Effects of Social Media on Mental Health Among Adolescents
  • The Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality in Modern Society
  • The Relationship Between Junk Food Consumption and Obesity Rates
  • The Impact of Technology on Interpersonal Communication Skills
  • The Causes of Stress in College Students and Its Effects on Academic Performance
  • The Effects of Deforestation on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Stability
  • The Causes and Effects of Rising Healthcare Costs in Developed Countries
  • The Relationship Between Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases
  • The Impact of Single-Parent Households on Child Development and Behavior

 For more ideas check out our cause and effect essay topics blog and get inspired!

To Sum it Up!

Drafting a well-structured outline is the first step toward writing a compelling cause and effect essay. By following the guidelines outlined in this blog, you can effectively organize your ideas, present coherent arguments, and engage your readers with insightful analysis. 

At CollegeEssay.org , we provide the perfect solution for your essay-writing problems. Our cause and effect essay writing service is just what you need to craft an exceptional essay. 

However, if you are on a tight deadline and want a quick solution, our AI essay generator can help you create a fantastic essay outline.

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effect essay form

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10.8 Cause and Effect

Learning objectives.

  • Determine the purpose and structure of cause and effect in writing.
  • Understand how to write a cause-and-effect essay.

The Purpose of Cause and Effect in Writing

It is often considered human nature to ask, “why?” and “how?” We want to know how our child got sick so we can better prevent it from happening in the future, or why our colleague a pay raise because we want one as well. We want to know how much money we will save over the long term if we buy a hybrid car. These examples identify only a few of the relationships we think about in our lives, but each shows the importance of understanding cause and effect.

A cause is something that produces an event or condition; an effect is what results from an event or condition. The purpose of the cause-and-effect essay is to determine how various phenomena relate in terms of origins and results. Sometimes the connection between cause and effect is clear, but often determining the exact relationship between the two is very difficult. For example, the following effects of a cold may be easily identifiable: a sore throat, runny nose, and a cough. But determining the cause of the sickness can be far more difficult. A number of causes are possible, and to complicate matters, these possible causes could have combined to cause the sickness. That is, more than one cause may be responsible for any given effect. Therefore, cause-and-effect discussions are often complicated and frequently lead to debates and arguments.

Use the complex nature of cause and effect to your advantage. Often it is not necessary, or even possible, to find the exact cause of an event or to name the exact effect. So, when formulating a thesis, you can claim one of a number of causes or effects to be the primary, or main, cause or effect. As soon as you claim that one cause or one effect is more crucial than the others, you have developed a thesis.

Consider the causes and effects in the following thesis statements. List a cause and effect for each one on your own sheet of paper.

  • The growing childhood obesity epidemic is a result of technology.
  • Much of the wildlife is dying because of the oil spill.
  • The town continued programs that it could no longer afford, so it went bankrupt.
  • More young people became politically active as use of the Internet spread throughout society.
  • While many experts believed the rise in violence was due to the poor economy, it was really due to the summer-long heat wave.

Write three cause-and-effect thesis statements of your own for each of the following five broad topics.

  • Health and nutrition

The Structure of a Cause-and-Effect Essay

The cause-and-effect essay opens with a general introduction to the topic, which then leads to a thesis that states the main cause, main effect, or various causes and effects of a condition or event.

The cause-and-effect essay can be organized in one of the following two primary ways:

  • Start with the cause and then talk about the effects.
  • Start with the effect and then talk about the causes.

For example, if your essay were on childhood obesity, you could start by talking about the effect of childhood obesity and then discuss the cause or you could start the same essay by talking about the cause of childhood obesity and then move to the effect.

Regardless of which structure you choose, be sure to explain each element of the essay fully and completely. Explaining complex relationships requires the full use of evidence, such as scientific studies, expert testimony, statistics, and anecdotes.

Because cause-and-effect essays determine how phenomena are linked, they make frequent use of certain words and phrases that denote such linkage. See Table 10.4 “Phrases of Causation” for examples of such terms.

Table 10.4 Phrases of Causation

The conclusion should wrap up the discussion and reinforce the thesis, leaving the reader with a clear understanding of the relationship that was analyzed.

Be careful of resorting to empty speculation. In writing, speculation amounts to unsubstantiated guessing. Writers are particularly prone to such trappings in cause-and-effect arguments due to the complex nature of finding links between phenomena. Be sure to have clear evidence to support the claims that you make.

Look at some of the cause-and-effect relationships from Note 10.83 “Exercise 2” . Outline the links you listed. Outline one using a cause-then-effect structure. Outline the other using the effect-then-cause structure.

Writing a Cause-and-Effect Essay

Choose an event or condition that you think has an interesting cause-and-effect relationship. Introduce your topic in an engaging way. End your introduction with a thesis that states the main cause, the main effect, or both.

Organize your essay by starting with either the cause-then-effect structure or the effect-then-cause structure. Within each section, you should clearly explain and support the causes and effects using a full range of evidence. If you are writing about multiple causes or multiple effects, you may choose to sequence either in terms of order of importance. In other words, order the causes from least to most important (or vice versa), or order the effects from least important to most important (or vice versa).

Use the phrases of causation when trying to forge connections between various events or conditions. This will help organize your ideas and orient the reader. End your essay with a conclusion that summarizes your main points and reinforces your thesis. See Chapter 15 “Readings: Examples of Essays” to read a sample cause-and-effect essay.

Choose one of the ideas you outlined in Note 10.85 “Exercise 3” and write a full cause-and-effect essay. Be sure to include an engaging introduction, a clear thesis, strong evidence and examples, and a thoughtful conclusion.

Key Takeaways

  • The purpose of the cause-and-effect essay is to determine how various phenomena are related.
  • The thesis states what the writer sees as the main cause, main effect, or various causes and effects of a condition or event.

The cause-and-effect essay can be organized in one of these two primary ways:

  • Start with the cause and then talk about the effect.
  • Start with the effect and then talk about the cause.
  • Strong evidence is particularly important in the cause-and-effect essay due to the complexity of determining connections between phenomena.
  • Phrases of causation are helpful in signaling links between various elements in the essay.

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Cause & effect essays Aka reason and result

The Cause and effect essay is another common essay type, either as an essay type on its own, or as part of a larger essay which includes one or more paragraphs examining causes and effects. This page gives information on what a cause and effect essay is , how to structure this type of essay, and how to use cause and effect structure words (transition signals) for this type of essay. There is also an example cause and effect essay on the topic of women at work, as well as some exercises to help you practice this area.

What are cause & effect essays?

cause

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effect essay form

A cause and effect essay looks at the reasons (or causes) for something, then discusses the results (or effects). For this reason, cause and effect essays are sometimes referred to as reason and result essays. They are one of the most common forms of organisation in academic writing. Sometimes the whole essay will be cause and effect, though sometimes this may be only part of the whole essay. It is also possible, especially for short exam essays, that only the causes or the effects, not both, are discussed. See the examples below.

  • Discuss the causes and effects of global warming ['cause and effect' essay]
  • Explain the high death rate in Chernobyl ['causes' only essay]
  • Discuss the WTO and its effects on the Chinese economy ['effects' only essay]

There are two main ways to structure a cause and effect essay. These are similar to the ways to structure problem-solution essays , namely using a block or a chain structure. For the block structure, all of the causes are listed first, and all of the effects are listed afterwards. For the chain structure, each cause is followed immediately by the effect. Usually that effect will then be the cause of the next effect, which is why this structure is called 'chain'. Both types of structure have their merits. The former is generally clearer, especially for shorter essays, while the latter ensures that any effects you present relate directly to the causes you have given.

The two types of structure, block and chain , are shown in the diagram below.

Cause and Effect Structure Words

Cause and effect structure words are transition signals which show the cause and effect relationships. It is important to be clear which is the cause (or reason) and which is the effect (or result), and to use the correct transition word or phrase. Remember that a cause happens first , and the effect happens later .

Below are some common cause and effect structure words. X is used to indicate a cause, while Y is used to indicate the effect.

  • The first cause of (Y) is (X)
  • The next reason is (X)
  • Because of (X), (Y)
  • As a result of (X), (Y)
  • As a consequence of (X), (Y)
  • because/since/as (X)
  • to result from (X)
  • (X) results in (Y)
  • to be the result of (X)
  • (Y) is due to (X)
  • Owing to (X), (Y)
  • (Y) is because of (X)
  • (Y) is the effect of (X)
  • (Y) is the consequence of (X)
  • Worsening pollution levels in cities are due to the increased use of cars.
  • Because of the increased use of cars, pollution levels in cities are worsening.
  • As a result of the increased use of cars, pollution levels in cities are worsening.
  • The effect of the increased use of cars is a worsening of pollution levels in cities.
  • The first effect of (X) is (Y)
  • Another result of (X) is (Y)
  • As a result, (Y)
  • As a consequence, (Y)
  • Consequently (Y)
  • Therefore, (Y)
  • (X) causes (Y)
  • (X) has an effect on (Y)
  • (X) affects (Y)
  • (X) is one of the causes of (Y)
  • (X) is the reason for (Y)
  • Cars are used increasingly for urban transport. As a consequence , pollution levels in cities are worsening.
  • Increased use of cars for urban transport adversely affects pollution levels in cities.
  • Increased use of cars for urban transport is one of the causes of worsening pollution levels in cities.

Example essay

Below is a cause and effect essay. This essay uses the block structure . Click on the different areas (in the shaded boxes to the right) to highlight the different structural aspects in this essay, i.e. Causes, Effects, and structure words. This will highlight not simply the paragraphs, but also the thesis statement and summary , as these repeat the causes and effects contained in the main body.

Title: More and more women are now going out to work and some women are now the major salary earner in the family. What are the causes of this, and what effect is this having on families and society?

In the past, most women stayed at home to take care of domestic chores such as cooking or cleaning. Women's liberation and feminism have meant that this situation has been transformed and in contemporary society women are playing an almost equal role to men in terms of work. This has had significant consequences , both in terms of the family , for example by improving quality of life and increasing children's sense of independence , and also for society itself with greater gender equality . The main reasons behind the increase of women in the workplace are women's liberation and feminism. The women's liberation movement originated in the 1960s and was popularised by authors such as Simone de Beauvoir. As a consequence of this, new legislation emerged, granting women equal rights to men in many fields, in particular employment. Because of feminist ideas, men have taken up roles which were previously seen as being for women only, most importantly those related to child rearing. As a result of this, women have more time to pursue their own careers and interests. These have led to some significant effects, both to family life and to society as a whole. Although the earning capacity of a woman in her lifetime is generally much less than that of a man, she can nevertheless make a significant contribution to the family income. The most important consequence of this is an improved quality of life. By helping to maintain a steady income for the family, the pressure on the husband is considerably reduced, hence improving both the husband's and the wife's emotional wellbeing. Additionally, the purchasing power of the family will also be raised. This means that the family can afford more luxuries such as foreign travel and a family car. A further effect on the family is the promotion of independence in the children. Some might argue that having both parents working might be damaging to the children because of a lack of parental attention. However, such children have to learn to look after themselves at an earlier age, and their parents often rely on them to help with the housework. This therefore teaches them important life skills. As regards society, the most significant impact of women going to work is greater gender equality. There are an increasing number of women who are becoming politicians, lawyers, and even CEOs and company managers. This in turn has led to greater equality for women in all areas of life, not just employment. For example, women today have much stronger legal rights to protect themselves against domestic violence and sexual discrimination in the workplace. In conclusion, the increasing number of women at work has brought about some important changes to family life, including improved quality of life and increased independence for children, as well as affecting society itself. It is clear that the sexes are still a long way from being equal in all areas of life, however, and perhaps the challenge for the present century is to ensure that this takes place.

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Below is a checklist for cause and effect essays. Use it to check your own writing, or get a peer (another student) to help you.

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Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 16 January 2022.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of EAPFoundation.com. He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter , Facebook and LinkedIn .

Compare & contrast essays examine the similarities of two or more objects, and the differences.

Cause & effect essays consider the reasons (or causes) for something, then discuss the results (or effects).

Discussion essays require you to examine both sides of a situation and to conclude by saying which side you favour.

Problem-solution essays are a sub-type of SPSE essays (Situation, Problem, Solution, Evaluation).

Transition signals are useful in achieving good cohesion and coherence in your writing.

Reporting verbs are used to link your in-text citations to the information cited.

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How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay: Step by Step Guide

Every professor expects students to know how to write a cause and effect essay. They might explain, but if you’re here, then this explanation wasn’t sufficient. Don’t be concerned, as our guide will answer each question you might have in less than ten minutes. We got some of our best experts to combine their experience and share their insights with students. If you aren’t interested in gaining them and want quick help, contact us and tell us, “Please write my essay on a specific topic.” But if you’re determined to do it personally, look at our guide, see examples scattered throughout this text, and by the end of it, your knowledge of how to write such an essay will be absolute.

Cause and Effect Writing and Its Purpose

You have to choose a topic, research it, understand why it happened, and explain this process from its inception to its implications. Connecting points and educating yourself along with your readers is the central goal of this assignment. It might be complex and boring, especially if you choose the wrong topic, but with some knowledge and patience, you’ll be a master before you know it.

Six Steps that Will Help Prepare You for Successful Essay Writing

Before and when they’re writing cause and effect essays, students must cover several productive writing stages. There are only six of them. Each of them is simple, and together, they form an impressive paper.

  • Brainstorm and come up with a topic. Sometimes students receive a prompt from their professor. In this case, they might look for an article review writing service because they have no interest in reading the assigned article, never mind reviewing it. But if you’re free to make your own choices, decide on a unique topic for your cause-and-effect paper, something you find truly curious. Brainstorm by going through your interests, speaking with friends, or browsing online topics for perfection. Remember that you must have both a cause plus an effect for exploring.
  • Make up a strong thesis. Thesis plays such an important role in writing that students have to develop it first and foremost. Inside a standard cause and effect essay structure, the thesis will take place at the end of the introduction. It’s a summary of your paper confined to just one single sentence. It should be powerful, and it must directly engage your readers in your argument. We’re going to give you an example. Our chosen essay topic is “The Impact that Unhealthy Dynamics in a Family Have on a Person’s Future Romantic Relationships.” A possible thesis could be:   “Unhealthy family dynamics cause people to have unsatisfying romantic relationships in their future, as obvious in the example of Vivien from the regarded case study.”
  • Arrange points from the thesis into body paragraphs. The next step lies in placing each aspect of your thesis into its own cause and effect paragraph. We suggest creating an outline: it is a quick process, and it will hardly take you ten minutes, but its value will last for as long as you’re working on a final version of your essay. Outlines ground you; they preserve your ideas and remind you of them any time they begin to slip your mind. Create it, make it of any length, and you’ll see how much it simplifies your life later.
  • Create your first draft. Most students are impatient to know how to start a cause and effect essay: they don’t want to waste their time on drafts. Unfortunately, it’s an important step that we wholeheartedly recommend you follow. Writing a draft takes maybe an hour, but once you do it, you’ll leave the hardest steps behind. It won’t be difficult to expand your already-crafted points, add quotes from relevant research, and polish any rough edges. Checking which of these nuances are necessary is what students should do next.
  • Review it in search of any issues. Check the draft of your cause and effect research paper thoroughly. Identify any problems with it. Some points may sound weak; some paragraphs are more convincing than others, or the conclusion is ineffective. If you need, take a break and return to re-reading your essay.
  • Correct them and expand the draft. At this stage, you can finally focus on writing your cause and effect expository essay. Correct every weakness you identified during previous steps in your draft and start working on each paragraph, starting with the introduction. Add details to your ideas, create links, and elaborate on conclusions. Ensure your word count corresponds to the number of words your professor requires.

Structure of a Cause and Effect Essay

The cause-and-effect paper doesn’t differ from any other essay in structure. It must have at least three well-defined paragraphs: introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction and conclusion should constitute about 10% of your word count. Start your introduction with a hook: it’s the very first sentence. It must be impressive, and it should awaken curiosity in your audience. After that, describe your topic’s background. Mention how an issue emerged and which causes commonly contribute to it. You already know how to write a cause and effect thesis — it comes last in the introduction, and it must create a layout for your future exploration.

The body is the most responsible part. It’s heavy with content, and it must begin with a special opening sentence that links back to the thesis statement. Never include direct quotes in it: make it clear what your paragraph will focus on. Afterward, introduce research and explanations, and cite sources you use correctly. Finish it with a closing sentence that summarizes what you’ve just discussed. If you face problems at any stage, consult our college paper writing service at any time. The conclusion is the final section that must remind readers of your thesis and the major outcomes you’ve reached. Specify the connection between your reason and its effect.

Types of Cause and Effect Papers You Could Pick

Unless college professors specify their requirements, students could choose their preferred cause and effect essay format. There are three kinds of it. We’ll discuss them all while giving you some quick examples:

  • Effect-Focused Essay. In these papers, the effect dominates the entire show. While students should still discuss causes, most of their attention goes toward what consequences they have. Imagine a topic about the problem of drinking coffee often. A cause would be excessive coffee drinking, while the effect would be insomnia, irritability, and headaches. In such an essay, students would have to discuss the issue of coffee drinking in one paragraph before moving on to its effects, exploring them in detail, and dedicating a separate paragraph to each.
  • Cause-Focused Essay. In the cause and effect essay definition, no focus goes toward a specific part, but if you want to concentrate on a cause in particular, nothing is stopping you. Take a topic about inefficient policies at school leading to aggravated incidents of bullying among students. If you plan on emphasizing the policies, do it by listing each of them and dedicating several paragraphs to them. Mention the bullying as the result of such policies quickly, without stopping to expand it or go into details.
  • Casual Chain Method Essay. This is an interesting model that allows students to describe causes and effects one by one, alternating between them repeatedly. Instead of focusing on a certain cause or a specific consequence, you build a whole chain of them. Here is a fitting scenario: your colleague fell sick, and you had to take up their work shift; because of this, you didn’t have time to do your homework, so you decided to get essays for sale from experts. Your colleague’s illness is a cause that led to extra work for you — this is one chain of cause and effect; an insufficient amount of free time resulted in you ordering your paper from third parties. This is a second chain of causes and effects.

Pick any model from above. They are all efficient.

Example of Your Cause and Effect Outline

Hopefully, you know why outlines are crucial by now. We want to give you an even more explicit idea by sharing an outline for our hypothetical essay. It’s going to mention every key part of the ideal paper structure briefly:

Introduction

Hook: “Wounds left in a childhood continue to fester decades after they were inflicted.”

Background: Research shows that children who grow up surrounded by unhealthy dynamics are usually incapable of forming healthy romantic relationships in adulthood.

Thesis statement: Unhealthy dynamics within families cause people to have unsatisfying romantic relationships in their future, as obvious in the example of Vivien from the regarded case study.

Body paragraph: Proving how people with childhood traumas struggle with forming solid romantic bonds on the example of a case study.

As a case study showed, having toxic relationships in one’s childhood leaves a negative impact on a person’s ability to build their own healthy family.

Five Ideas of Topics for Your Cause and Effect Paper

If you need ideas for your essay on cause and effects, we have a couple of suggestions. Here are five topics that could inspire you. We offered explanations for them, too, to help you make your decision more easily.

  • How Writing Fanfiction Can Affect People’s Skills

Explore how writing fanfiction is a cause that has different effects on people, such as improving their writing skills, helping them learn a new language, preparing them for criticism, and so on.

  • The Effect PTSD Has on Sleep Patterns

Focus on PTSD or its effects, like insomnia and nightmares. You could also focus on both to the same degree.

  • How Serial Killers Are Made

Trace the link between abusive childhood and violence that progresses in some abused children, with them going after animals first, then moving on to people.

  • What Led Hitler toward Power

Describe what caused Hitler to nearly succeed in conquering half of the world, such as weak global policies, the stupidity of the USSR, and the greediness of the USA.

  • Why It Might Be Difficult for Rabbits to Bond with Humans

Emphasize that rabbits are prey animals and their nature affects their attitude toward humans, making them scared and wary.

Practical Cause and Effect Essays Examples

Our collection of samples has numerous cause-and-effect papers, all free. You can find them on different topics and see how they should sound. If you are too impatient, we present an immediate short sample below. It focuses on the topic we already introduced about unhealthy childhood complicating people’s ability to build romantic relationships.

Wounds left in childhood continue to fester decades after they were inflicted. Research by Miliens (2022) shows that children who grew up surrounded by unhealthy dynamics usually cannot form healthy romantic relationships in adulthood. They might become abusers by themselves, manipulating their partners and creating another cycle of toxic communication. Unhealthy family dynamics cause people to have unsatisfying romantic relationships in the future, as obvious in the example of Vivien from the regarded case study.

The case study focusing on a girl named Vivien demonstrates that children who do not have healthy role models might be unable to create a positive romantic bond as they mature. According to Miliens (2022), children are extremely vulnerable to influence. He performed a case study, and one of its participants was Vivien, aged 21. As a child, she had a domineering mother and an obedient father who did everything his wife told him. He was working, cooking, and cleaning the house while the mother was focused on her hobbies. Vivien did not receive sufficient attention from either of her parents and when she was 18, she began a relationship of her own. She expected her boyfriend to do everything and cater to her every whim; instead of communicating her feelings, she tried to give commands. When her boyfriend disagreed, she shouted, cried, and threatened suicide, which is a common manipulation technique (Miliens, 2022). Thus, after watching the unhealthy dynamic between her parents, Vivien tried to enforce the same model on her boyfriend, creating a new cycle of abuse.

Children who watched their parents engage in unhealthy relationships often cannot build an appropriate relationship themselves. Vivien’s example from a case study by Miliens (2022) proves it. Toxic role models she observed in her childhood became the cause that brought the negative effect of her creating a failing relationship in her adulthood. Therapy might be helpful in addressing these problems in such people.

Enjoy Writing Your Paper Now that You Have Knowledge for It

You know how to write a cause and effect essay introduction; you understand what the body entails and what steps to take to craft a compelling paper. If we answered all your questions, start creating right away. Consult our experts if you need more tangible help or advice, and keep our guide close because it belongs to you now. Let it help you complete your homework effectively.

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Hello there! I am Laura Callisen, and I fancy myself to be a modern “Renaissance person.” I suppose my 30-something self began my incredible journey after having been born in Stavanger, Norway and then immigrating to the U.S. (Utah, actually) at the age of 5. I am certain that this change was more of a cultural “shock” for my parents than for me, because I quickly mastered the language and was clever enough to “play the game” of public education in America. After graduating from Skyline High School, where I spent two years as the school newspaper editor, obtaining a Bachelor’s degree in English and journalism from the University of Utah was a natural culmination of my love for writing.

My inclination to be socially conscious led me to lots of community outreach and volunteering during my college years, especially in the areas of educational and housing improvement for the poor and a number of environmental crusades. My passion for philosophy and travel have now taken over, and I am enthralled with the widely varied value systems of all cultures in which I can immerse myself, if only temporarily. My life as a freelance writer allows a freedom I never want to sacrifice for a stuffy office!

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What is Cause and Effect Essay?

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What is Cause and Effect Essay and How to Ace it?

You are the cause and your succes is the effect!

Have you ever wondered how life's events are connected? That is the main goal of cause and effect essays! They resemble detective fiction in that you can investigate the causes of events as well as their consequences. Essays on causes and consequences can help us understand the world around us, from analysing why your favourite team won to unravelling the implications of climate change. We're going to dissect how to write it. So buckle your seat, and let's explore the world of cause and effect essays together—whether you're a student attempting to ace that essay assignment or just someone who wants to learn more about how things function!

What is the Cause and Effect Essay?

Writing a cause and effect essay is similar to using words to play detective. It all boils down to investigating the relationships that exist between various acts or occurrences and the results that they lead to. It technically means, it's the process of determining the source of an event and the resultant event. Essays on causes and effects aid in our comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms underpinning a variety of occurrences, whether it be determining the reasons behind the existence of a social issue or the ramifications of a certain decision. Consider it as piecing together events to reveal the larger picture. Are you ready to become the next Sherlock Holmes?

How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay?

 There are some easy steps to write a cause and effect essay, and they are as follows-

1. Choose a topic: Choose a subject that gains your attention and has distinct causes and effects. Anything from the effects of technology on social interactions to environmental contamination could be the cause.

2. Generate a list: causes and effects associated with the topic you have chosen. Take into consideration the fundamental causes as well as the short- and long-term impacts.

3. Create a Thesis Statement: Clearly articulate the primary cause and effect relationship that your essay will be examining in your thesis statement. This will direct your writing and assist with argument emphasis. This is an integral part of a cause and effect essay. 

4. Support arguments : You need to support your thesis with credible data and relevant facts. It reinforces the cause and effect relationship. 

5. Analyse the root cause: Try to get beyond the surface-level explanations and explore the underlying factors contributing to the cause and effect scenario. You should analyze the root cause with deep knowledge and the right facts. 

6. Summary Your Essay: Put your thoughts into a framework consisting of an introduction, several body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Every body paragraph should concentrate on a specific cause or effect, bolstered by examples and supporting data.

7. Write the Introduction: To draw the reader in, begin with a captivating hook. Next, give some background information on the subject and present your thesis statement.

8. Create Body Paragraphs: Go into great detail on a certain cause or effect in each body paragraph. Introduce the primary idea of the paragraph with a topic sentence, then back up your claim with examples and supporting data.

9. Write the Conclusion: In the conclusion, restate your thesis statement and summarise the key ideas of your cause and effect essay. You can also talk about the results' broader ramifications or offer potential fixes for the issue.

10. Edit and Revise: Make sure your essay is accurate, coherent, and clear. Make sure your writing is clear and concise and that your ideas are well-supported by evidence.

What are the Types of Cause and Effect Structures?

There are several types of cause and effect essay structures that writers commonly use to organise their essays. Here are the main ones:

1. Block Structure

Causes and effects are covered independently in different text blocks in a cause and effect essay that follows the block format. The causes are arranged in a block and are each examined in a separate paragraph or section with supporting data and examples. The effects are then covered in a separate block, with room allotted for analysis and illustrations of each effect. The linkages between events are presented in a clear and focused manner thanks to this organisational technique, which makes it easier for readers to understand the connections between causes and their effects. By using the block structure, you dive deep into each section or category, where you can precisely look at causes and effects separately. 

2. Chain structure

Chain structure focuses on how the events are connected and how it acts like a butterfly effect. It talks about how one cause leads to a specific effect, and then those effects become the cause of more ongoing effects. This becomes a loop. This method is important in illustrating the complexity of casual relationships. It will be beneficial if you want to emphasise the sequence of events or deal with minute cause and effect scenarios. 

No matter which structure of cause and effect essay you choose, it should be detailed, to the point and easily comprehensive. 

You booking your room with amber is the cause and you feeling like home is the effect

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How to structure a Cause and Effect Essay?

A cause and effect essay's structure is very similar to any normal essay. So, without much further ado, let's focus on it. 

Introduction: Like every other essay, it starts with an introduction that can grab the reader's attention by giving a quick overview, telling about the problem and then presenting facts to support your judgement. 

Thesis: After the introduction for the cause and effect essay comes the thesis you have presented; now, all the points will have their para to be justified in the right way. Each point can be a short paragraph, depending on how much information you have and the news to be conveyed. If you want to know how to write a thesis statement, then you should read this blog. 

There are a few factors to structure your cause and effect essay, and they are- 

1. How many causes you include

2. How many effects do you include

3. The length of the essay

4. How closely are these causes and effects are related

For example, if your essay is about multiple effects and a single cause, it is logical to write about these effects in different paragraphs. Still, if it is about a single effect and multiple causes, then you should discuss all the causes first and then write a small section about the effect. Alternatively, it can make sense to give each cause and effect pair its section and then tie them together in your essay's conclusion if the causes and effects are more detached from one another and you need space to describe how they fit into the larger picture.

Conclusion: Complete composing your essay's conclusion after completing the body paragraphs. The ideas presented in the body are recapped in this section, which also emphasizes your thesis and draws your essay's argument to a logical conclusion. 

What is the Example of Outline of Cause and Effect essays?

As mentioned above, there are a few different ways to structure a cause and effect essay. This is how it is structured-

Introduction

Conclusion 

What are the Topics for Cause and Effect Essay?

1. The effects of social media on interpersonal relationships

2. The causes and effects of stress in modern society

3. The impact of technology on children's development

4. The causes and effects of climate change

5. The effects of pollution on the environment and human health

6. The causes and effects of procrastination on academic performance

7. The effects of video games on aggression and behaviour

8. The impact of globalisation on cultural diversity

9. The causes and effects of income inequality

10. The effects of substance abuse on mental and physical health

A strong framework for examining the complex relationships between events, acts, and results is offered by the cause and effect essay genre. Through investigating the fundamental origins of events and scrutinising their consequent outcomes, we acquire an enhanced comprehension of the surrounding environment. 

Frequently Asked Questions

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Cause And Effect Essay Guide

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Best Cause and Effect Essay Examples To Get Inspiration + Simple Tips

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You need to write a cause and effect essay for your assignment. Well, where should you start?

Establishing a relationship between causes and effects is no simple task. You need to ensure logical connections between variables with credible evidence.

However, don't get overwhelmed by the sound of it. You can start by reading some great cause and effect essay examples. 

In this blog, you can read cause and effect essays to get inspiration and learn how to write them. With these resources, you'll be able to start writing an awesome cause and effect paper.

Let’s dive in!

Arrow Down

  • 1. What is a Cause and Effect Essay?
  • 2. Cause and Effect Essay Examples for Students
  • 3. Free Cause and Effect Essay Samples
  • 4. Cause and Effect Essay Topics
  • 5. Tips For Writing a Good Cause and Effect Essay

What is a Cause and Effect Essay?

A cause and effect essay explores why things happen (causes) and what happens as a result (effects). This type of essay aims to uncover the connections between events, actions, or phenomena. It helps readers understand the reasons behind certain outcomes.

In a cause and effect essay, you typically:

  • Identify the Cause: Explain the event or action that initiates a chain of events. This is the "cause."
  • Discuss the Effect: Describe the consequences or outcomes resulting from the cause.
  • Analyze the Relationship: Clarify how the cause leads to the effect, showing the cause-and-effect link.

Cause and effect essays are common in various academic disciplines. For instance, studies in sciences, history, and the social sciences rely on essential cause and effect questions. For instance, "what are the effects of climate change?", or "what are the causes of poverty?"

Now that you know what a cause and effect is, let’s read some examples.

Cause and Effect Essay Examples for Students

Here is an example of a well-written cause and effect essay on social media. Let’s analyze it in parts to learn why it is good and how you can write an effective essay yourself. 

The essay begins with a compelling hook that grabs the reader's attention. It presents a brief overview of the topic clearly and concisely. The introduction covers the issue and ends with a strong thesis statement , stating the essay's main argument – that excessive use of social media can negatively impact mental health.

The first body paragraph sets the stage by discussing the first cause - excessive social media use. It provides data and statistics to support the claim, which makes the argument more compelling. The analysis highlights the addictive nature of social media and its impact on users. This clear and evidence-based explanation prepares the reader for the cause-and-effect relationship to be discussed.

The second body paragraph effectively explores the effect of excessive social media use, which is increased anxiety and depression. It provides a clear cause-and-effect relationship, with studies backing the claims. The paragraph is well-structured and uses relatable examples, making the argument more persuasive. 

The third body paragraph effectively introduces the second cause, which is social comparison and FOMO. It explains the concept clearly and provides relatable examples. It points out the relevance of this cause in the context of social media's impact on mental health, preparing the reader for the subsequent effect to be discussed.

The fourth body paragraph effectively explores the second effect of social comparison and FOMO, which is isolation and decreased self-esteem. It provides real-world consequences and uses relatable examples. 

The conclusion effectively summarizes the key points discussed in the essay. It restates the thesis statement and offers practical solutions, demonstrating a well-rounded understanding of the topic. The analysis emphasizes the significance of the conclusion in leaving the reader with a call to action or reflection on the essay's central theme.

This essay follows this clear cause and effect essay structure to convey the message effectively:

Read our cause and effect essay outline blog to learn more about how to structure your cause and effect essay effectively.

Free Cause and Effect Essay Samples

The analysis of the essay above is a good start to understanding how the paragraphs in a cause and effect essay are structured. You can read and analyze more examples below to improve your understanding.

Cause and Effect Essay Elementary School

Cause and Effect Essay For College Students

Short Cause and Effect Essay Sample

Cause and Effect Essay Example for High School

Cause And Effect Essay IELTS

Bullying Cause and Effect Essay Example

Cause and Effect Essay Smoking

Cause and Effect Essay Topics

Wondering which topic to write your essay on? Here is a list of cause and effect essay topic ideas to help you out.

  • The Effects of Social Media on Real Social Networks
  • The Causes And Effects of Cyberbullying
  • The Causes And Effects of Global Warming
  • The Causes And Effects of WW2
  • The Causes And Effects of Racism
  • The Causes And Effects of Homelessness
  • The Causes and Effects of Parental Divorce on Children.
  • The Causes and Effects of Drug Addiction
  • The Impact of Technology on Education
  • The Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality

Need more topics? Check out our list of 150+ cause and effect essay topics to get more interesting ideas.

Tips For Writing a Good Cause and Effect Essay

Reading and following the examples above can help you write a good essay. However, you can make your essay even better by following these tips.

  • Choose a Clear and Manageable Topic: Select a topic that you can explore thoroughly within the essay's word limit. A narrowly defined topic will make it easier to establish cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Research and Gather Evidence: Gather relevant data, statistics, examples, and expert opinions to support your arguments. Strong evidence enhances the credibility of your essay.
  • Outline Your Essay: Create a structured outline that outlines the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. This will provide a clear roadmap for your essay and help you present causes and effects clearly and coherently.
  • Transitional Phrases: Use transitional words and phrases like "because," "due to," "as a result," "consequently," and "therefore" to connect causes and effects within your sentences and paragraphs.
  • Support Each Point: Dedicate a separate paragraph to each cause and effect. Provide in-depth explanations, examples, and evidence for each point.
  • Proofread and Edit: After completing the initial draft, carefully proofread your essay for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors. Additionally, review the content for clarity, coherence, and flow.
  • Peer Review: Seek feedback from a peer or someone familiar with the topic to gain an outside perspective. They can help identify any areas that need improvement.
  • Stay Focused: Avoid going off-topic or including irrelevant information. Stick to the causes and effects you've outlined in your thesis statement.
  • Revise as Needed: Don't hesitate to make revisions and improvements as needed. The process of revising and refining your essay is essential for producing a high-quality final product. 

To Sum Up , 

Cause and effect essays are important for comprehending the intricate relationships that shape our world. With the help of the examples and tips above, you can confidently get started on your essay. 

If you still need further help, you can hire a professional writer to help you out. At MyPerfectWords.com , we’ve got experienced and qualified essay writers who can help you write an excellent essay on any topic and for all academic levels.

So contact our reliable essay writing service today!

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Cause and Effect

Wanda M. Waller

Student Learning Outcomes

  • Identify causes and effects (cause-and-effect relationships of various events, decisions, or conditions)
  • Apply an effective arrangement of introduction, body, and conclusion for a cause-and-effect essay
  • Create a cause-and-effect essay

Introduction to Cause and Effect

What is Cause and Effect?

The cause-and-effect essay is a form of argumentation that details the reasons for (causes) and the outcomes of (effects) an event, condition, or decision. The purpose of the cause-and-effect essay is to determine how various phenomena relate. This essay is an attempt to discover either the origins of something, such as an event or a decision, the effects or results that can be properly attributed to it, or both. Sometimes the connection between cause and effect is clear, but often, determining the exact relationship between the two is challenging. For example, a single cause can produce many different effects, or a single effect may have several causes. A cause-effect essay can do one of two things:

  • It can analyze the ways in which one or more effects result from a particular cause.
  • It can analyze the ways in which one or more causes lead to a particular effect.

In other words, your essay may focus more on the effects of a cause or more on the causes of one effect. Either approach provides a useful means of discussing the possible relationship between the two events. However, in cause-effect essays, it is easy to suggest that because one event preceded another event, the former event caused the latter. Simply because one event follows another one sequentially does not mean that the two actions are related. Similar to argumentation (see  the   chapter on Argument), the cause-and-effect essay attempts to advance knowledge and ideas with reason and support.

What Is Cause and Effect?

Watch the following video on “Homelessness in America” to share your thoughts on possible causes and effects. (You can also watch it directly on YouTube. ) Closed captioning is available and can be enabled using the player controls.

Self-Assessment

What causes are discussed in the video link? What effects?

Identify other causes and effects of homelessness in America.

Structure of a Cause-and-Effect Essay

Organization.

The cause-and-effect essay can be organized in one of the following two primary ways:

  • Start with the cause and then talk about the effects.
  • Start with the effect and then talk about the causes.

Introduction

The cause-and-effect essay opens with an introduction that provides appropriate background to inform the reader about the topic and establish a clear purpose for exploring the causes and effects. Include information on why your topic is significant, who or what it involves, and where, when, or how often the situation occurs. The introduction includes the thesis statement that states the main cause , main effect, or various causes and effects of a condition or event.

Thesis Statement

The thesis statement explains the main idea of the essay, whether the essay will focus on causes, effects, or both. Your thesis statement can highlight a single cause-and-effect relationship, or it can also show how one event causes multiple effects. You can also explore how a phenomenon has multiple causes.

Body Paragraphs and Supporting Details

Each body paragraph begins with a topic sentence that indicates which cause or effect the paragraph will discuss. Every paragraph explores a different facet of the relationship between the topic and its causes or effects. Link the causes and effects by providing evidence and explaining why the cause or effect has a relationship to the main topic. Include examples, experiences, or personal knowledge to convince your reader that certain causes or effects are creditable. The following words and phrases will assist in linking ideas, moving your essay forward, and improving readability:

Words That Link and Advance Ideas

Because                        Since                            Affects

As a result                    Therefore                     Results in

Due to                          Hence                           Leads to

Consequently                Thus                             Accordingly

The conclusion reinforces the thesis by summarizing the most significant causes or effects from the body paragraphs. It reminds the reader why the topic is important by emphasizing the connections discussed in the cause-effect relationship. Avoid introducing new causes or effects in your conclusion.

Writing a Cause-and-Effect Essay

Choose an event or condition that you think has an interesting cause-and-effect relationship. Introduce your topic in an engaging way. End your introduction with a thesis that states the main cause, the main effect, or both.

Organize your essay by starting with either the cause-then-effect structure or the effect-then-cause structure. Within each section, you should clearly explain and support the causes and effects using a full range of evidence. Contributory causes, for example, are secondary circumstances that produce actions, events, or conditions. However, contributory causes alone cannot cause the action, event, or condition to occur. If you are writing about multiple causes or multiple effects, you may choose to sequence either in terms of order of importance. In other words, order the causes from least to most important (or vice versa), or order the effects from least important to most important (or vice versa).

Use the phrases of causation when trying to forge connections between various events or conditions. This will help organize your ideas and orient the reader. End your essay with a conclusion that summarizes your main points and reinforces your thesis.

Professional Writing Example: “Misinformation and Biases Infect Social Media, Both Intentionally and Accidentally”

Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia and Filippo Menczer

Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia is an Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida. Filippo Menczer is a Professor of Computer Science and Informatics and the Director of the Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research at Indiana University. This article originally appeared in The Conversation .

Misinformation and Biases Infect Social Media, Both Intentionally and Accidentally

Social media are among the primary sources of news in the U.S. and across the world. Yet users are exposed to content of questionable accuracy, including conspiracy theories , clickbait , hyperpartisan content , pseudoscience,  and even fabricated “fake news” reports .

It’s not surprising that there’s so much disinformation published: Spam and online fraud are lucrative for criminals , and government and political propaganda yield both partisan and financial benefits . But the fact that low-credibility content spreads so quickly and easily suggests that people and the algorithms behind social media platforms are vulnerable to manipulation.

Explaining the tools developed at the Observatory on Social Media.

Our research has identified three types of bias that make the social media ecosystem vulnerable to both intentional and accidental misinformation. That is why our Observatory on Social Media at Indiana University is building tools to help people become aware of these biases and protect themselves from outside influences designed to exploit them.

Bias in the brain

Cognitive biases originate in the way the brain processes the information that every person encounters every day. The brain can deal with only a finite amount of information, and too many incoming stimuli can cause information overload . That in itself has serious implications for the quality of information on social media. We have found that steep competition for users’ limited attention means that some ideas go viral despite their low quality — even when people prefer to share high-quality content .

To avoid getting overwhelmed, the brain uses a number of tricks . These methods are usually effective, but may also become biases when applied in the wrong contexts.

One cognitive shortcut happens when a person is deciding whether to share a story that appears on their social media feed. People are very affected by the emotional connotations of a headline , even though that’s not a good indicator of an article’s accuracy. Much more important is who wrote the piece .

To counter this bias, and help people pay more attention to the source of a claim before sharing it, we developed Fakey , a mobile news literacy game (free on Android and iOS ) simulating a typical social media news feed, with a mix of news articles from mainstream and low-credibility sources. Players get more points for sharing news from reliable sources and flagging suspicious content for fact-checking. In the process, they learn to recognize signals of source credibility, such as hyperpartisan claims and emotionally charged headlines.

Bias in society

Another source of bias comes from society. When people connect directly with their peers, the social biases that guide their selection of friends come to influence the information they see.

In fact, in our research we have found that it is possible to determine the political leanings of a Twitter user by simply looking at the partisan preferences of their friends. Our analysis of the structure of these partisan communication networks found social networks are particularly efficient at disseminating information—accurate or not—when they are closely tied together and disconnected from other parts of society .

The tendency to evaluate information more favorably if it comes from within their own social circles creates “ echo chambers ” that are ripe for manipulation, either consciously or unintentionally. This helps explain why so many online conversations devolve into “us versus them” confrontations .

To study how the structure of online social networks makes users vulnerable to disinformation, we built Hoaxy , a system that tracks and visualizes the spread of content from low-credibility sources, and how it competes with fact-checking content. Our analysis of the data collected by Hoaxy during the 2016 U.S. presidential elections shows that Twitter accounts that shared misinformation were almost completely cut off from the corrections made by the fact-checkers.

When we drilled down on the misinformation-spreading accounts, we found a very dense core group of accounts retweeting each other almost exclusively—including several bots. The only times that fact-checking organizations were ever quoted or mentioned by the users in the misinformed group were when questioning their legitimacy or claiming the opposite of what they wrote.

Bias in the machine

The third group of biases arises directly from the algorithms used to determine what people see online. Both social media platforms and search engines employ them. These personalization technologies are designed to select only the most engaging and relevant content for each individual user. But in doing so, it may end up reinforcing the cognitive and social biases of users, thus making them even more vulnerable to manipulation.

For instance, the detailed advertising tools built into many social media platforms let disinformation campaigners exploit confirmation bias by tailoring messages to people who are already inclined to believe them.

Also, if a user often clicks on Facebook links from a particular news source, Facebook will tend to show that person more of that site’s content . This so-called “ filter bubble ” effect may isolate people from diverse perspectives, strengthening confirmation bias.

Our own research shows that social media platforms expose users to a less diverse set of sources than do non-social media sites like Wikipedia. Because this is at the level of a whole platform, not of a single user, we call this the homogeneity bias .

Another important ingredient of social media is information that is trending on the platform, according to what is getting the most clicks. We call this popularity bias , because we have found that an algorithm designed to promote popular content may negatively affect the overall quality of information on the platform. This also feeds into existing cognitive bias, reinforcing what appears to be popular irrespective of its quality.

All these algorithmic biases can be manipulated by social bots , computer programs that interact with humans through social media accounts. Most social bots, like Twitter’s Big Ben , are harmless. However, some conceal their real nature and are used for malicious intents, such as boosting disinformation or falsely creating the appearance of a grassroots movement , also called “astroturfing.” We found evidence of this type of manipulation in the run-up to the 2010 U.S. midterm election.

To study these manipulation strategies, we developed a tool to detect social bots called Botometer . Botometer uses machine learning to detect bot accounts, by inspecting thousands of different features of Twitter accounts, like the times of its posts, how often it tweets, and the accounts it follows and retweets. It is not perfect, but it has revealed that as many as 15 percent of Twitter accounts show signs of being bots .

Using Botometer in conjunction with Hoaxy, we analyzed the core of the misinformation network during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign. We found many bots exploiting both the cognitive, confirmation and popularity biases of their victims and Twitter’s algorithmic biases.

These bots are able to construct filter bubbles around vulnerable users, feeding them false claims and misinformation. First, they can attract the attention of human users who support a particular candidate by tweeting that candidate’s hashtags or by mentioning and retweeting the person. Then the bots can amplify false claims smearing opponents by retweeting articles from low-credibility sources that match certain keywords. This activity also makes the algorithm highlight for other users false stories that are being shared widely.

Understanding complex vulnerabilities

Even as our research, and others’, shows how individuals, institutions and even entire societies can be manipulated on social media, there are many questions left to answer. It’s especially important to discover how these different biases interact with each other, potentially creating more complex vulnerabilities.

Tools like ours offer internet users more information about disinformation, and therefore some degree of protection from its harms. The solutions will not likely be only technological , though there will probably be some technical aspects to them. But they must take into account the cognitive and social aspects of the problem.

Editor’s note: This article was updated on Jan. 10, 2019, to replace a link to a study that had been retracted. The text of the article is still accurate, and remains unchanged.

Misinformation and Biases Infect Social Media, Both Intentionally and Accidentally by Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia and Filippo Menczer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License .

Discussion Questions

  • What are the major causes that make social media vulnerable to misinformation?
  • What are the major effects?
  • Do the examples used in the essay show a causal relationship to the topic? Explain your answers using specific details from the essay.
  • Are the examples used in the essay convincing or persuasive? Explain.
  • Do the authors expose new ideas or knowledge on this topic? Explain why or why not.

Student Writing Example

Effects of video game addiction.

Video game addiction is a serious problem in many parts of the world today and deserves more attention. It is no secret that children and adults in many countries throughout the world, including Japan, China, and the United States, play video games every day. Most players are able to limit their usage in ways that do not interfere with their daily lives, but many others have developed an addiction to playing video games and suffer detrimental effects.

An addiction can be described in several ways, but generally speaking, addictions involve unhealthy attractions to substances or activities that ultimately disrupt the ability of a person to keep up with regular daily responsibilities. Video game addiction typically involves playing games uncontrollably for many hours at a time—some people will play only four hours at a time while others cannot stop for over twenty-four hours.

Regardless of the severity of the addiction, many of the same effects will be experienced by all.

One common effect of video game addiction is isolation and withdrawal from social experiences. Video game players often hide in their homes or in Internet cafés for days at a time—only reemerging for the most pressing tasks and necessities. The effect of this isolation can lead to a breakdown of communication skills and often a loss in socialization. While it is true that many games, especially massive multiplayer online games, involve a very real form of e-based communication and coordination with others, and these virtual interactions often result in real communities that can be healthy for the players, these communities and forms of communication rarely translate to the types of valuable social interaction that humans need to maintain typical social functioning. As a result, the social networking in these online games often gives the users the impression that they are interacting socially, while their true social lives and personal relations may suffer.

Another unfortunate product of the isolation that often accompanies video game addiction is the disruption of the user’s career. While many players manage to enjoy video games and still hold their jobs without problems, others experience challenges at their workplace. Some may only experience warnings or demerits as a result of poorer performance, or others may end up losing their jobs altogether. Playing video games for extended periods of time often involves sleep deprivation, and this tends to carry over to the workplace, reducing production and causing habitual tardiness.

Video game addiction may result in a decline in overall health and hygiene. Players who interact with video games for such significant amounts of time can go an entire day without eating and even longer without basic hygiene tasks, such as using the restroom or bathing. The effects of this behavior pose significant danger to their overall health.

The causes of video game addiction are complex and can vary greatly, but the effects have the potential to be severe. Playing video games can and should be a fun activity for all to enjoy. But just like everything else, the amount of time one spends playing video games needs to be balanced with personal and social responsibilities.

  • What are the major causes discussed in this essay?
  • Do the examples used in the essay show a causal relationship to the topic? Explain your answer using specific details from the essay.
  • Does the writer expose new ideas or knowledge on this topic? Why or why not?

What societal or personal issues/experiences have you observed and considered possible causes or effects?

What organizational structure would be best for the topic you are considering?

What is the relationship between your causes and effects?

  • Contributory causes
  • The purpose of the cause-and-effect essay is to determine how various phenomena are related.
  • The thesis states what the writer sees as the main cause, main effect, or various causes and effects of a condition or event.
  • The cause-and-effect essay can be organized in one of these two primary ways:
  • Start with the cause and then talk about the effect.
  • Start with the effect and then talk about the cause.
  • Strong evidence is particularly important in the cause-and-effect essay due to the complexity of determining connections between phenomena.
  • Phrases of causation are helpful in signaling links between various elements in the essay.

Reflective Response

Reflect on your writing process for the cause-and-effect essay. What was the most challenging? What was the easiest?

Additional Chapter Sources

“The 10 Most Homeless Cities in America” by Nicholas Johnson was posted on YouTube on March 20, 2020. Licensed under a YouTube standard license .

“Misinformation and Biases Infect Social Media, Both Intentionally and Accidentally” by Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia and Filippo Menczer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License .

A cause is something that produces an action, event, or condition.

An effect is what results from an action, event, or condition.

The primary cause that produces an action, event, or condition. The main clause requires critical evaluation as it may or may not be immediately obvious.

Contributory Causes are secondary circumstances that produce actions, events, or conditions. However, contributory causes alone cannot cause the action, event, or condition to occur.

Cause and Effect Copyright © 2022 by Wanda M. Waller is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay

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A cause and effect essay explores why events happen (cause) and what occurs as an outcome (effect). It's a type of essay that explains connections between different things, events or phenomena. Cause and effect essays should clearly state causal relationships and help readers understand how things are interconnected.

Writing a cause and effect essay is quite a difficult task since not everything can be explained by lookingat the issue from the fist glance. You often should conduct additional research to make sure that your conclusion is right. By using our expert tricks and tips, you can ease your task and prepare an interesting project. This blog post will shed more light on such aspects:  

  • Purpose of a cause and effect essay
  • Essay outlines
  • Methods of organizing information
  • Step-by-step writing process.

Also, get ready to find some examples that will surely come in handy. So let’s get started!

What Is a Cause and Effect Essay: Definition and Purpose

A cause and effect essay is a type of academic writing that defines a causal relationship between two objects, events or phenomena. Its main purpose is to explain the impact of one thing on another one. Writing a paper on causal topics requires a clear definition of the cause-and-effect link. This means that students should identify such situation and share their opinion on the consequences. To prepare for the writing process, you should conduct preliminary research. Prewriting includes 3 preparatory stages:  

  • Choosing an appropriate causal situation
  • Defining roots and consequences of some phenomena
  • Offering solutions for negative impact (if there is any).

This information will be enough to cover any issue. But it will take time to prepare necessary evidence. You should use all available sources and write a plan for your paper. Make sure that the accuracy of the received information is beyond doubt. To make your work simpler, you should determine the topic you are particularly interested in. Preparing a project that you aren’t passionate about is a huge mistake that any professional can easily see. Keep reading to find out what makes a cause and effect essay successful and how to write it with ease.   In case you are looking for other essays such as problem and solution essays , browse one more of our blogs.

How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay

Writing a cause and effect essay requires studying all important details thoroughly since there is no other way to get a comprehensive view of the situation. Students should make the list of reasons for a particular event, and then share observations in a logical order. Here’re several useful suggestions that will help you get started:  

  • Have a brainstorming session. Consider social movements, historical events, or recent trends to come up with an excellent cause and effect essay topic.
  • Do preliminary research. Research allows you to see what material is available on your topic and helps get the whole picture.
  • Build an effective thesis statement. Identify a causal relationship and write your essay on the basis of your thesis.
  • Jot down your main points. This basically means preparing an outline which will be discussed further in this blog post.
  • Write your rough draft. Expand the critical points listed in your outline to write the draft of your essay.

Keep in mind that it’s you whose work’s result depends on, so make sure that you have prepared convincing arguments.

Create Cause and Effect Essay Outline

Writing an informative piece begins with searching for an unusual topic. But it doesn’t mean that you won’t have to do anything else. Your task is to attract the readers’ attention, and this is impossible to achieve without preparing a structured cause and effect essay outline. Start by developing an informative plan, including these sections:

  • Introduction At the beginning, provide some memorable fact or news to attract attention. Provide some background and define your thesis statement.
  • Main body The main task is to convince readers that a chosen causal relationship matters. Specify the reason and how it affects some object or event. Use convincing arguments and don’t forget about the reliability of your information.
  • Conclusion Wrap up the main causes and effects and explain the significance of your topic. You may leave an open question for further consideration.

Forget about literally copying ideas from other sources. Your paper will be successful if you support each assumption with arguments. The focus on credibility is an important requirement that will enable you to make the right impression.

Cause and Effect Essay Structure

A cause and effect essay structure doesn’t differ from the rules of organizing your ideas in other text forms. Students are still required to come up with an introduction, the main points for body paragraphs, and summarize all presented information. Each block should resonate with your thesis. Generally, a cause and effect essay follows a 5 paragraph essay outline . However, the number of body paragraphs depends on the number of main points. Sometimes, one thing may have multiple effects. In this case, you should be prepared to create more paragraphs. Your finished text must be clear from speculation and guesses. Compiling a cause-and-effect chain is mandatory for the academic paper as well.  

Cause and Effect Essay Introduction

Typically, a cause and effect essay introduction includes such elements:

  • Background information
  • Thesis statement.

While working on your introduction, keep in mind that you will need to come up with the hook in an essay that will attract your audience’s attention. Then, you should provide some context to get readers familiar with your subject. Finally, you will develop your thesis statement listing causes and effects that will be discussed. If you still don’t have any ideas how to start a cause and effect essay, we recommend reading these tips:  

  • Avoid using parenthetical words. The phrases that will be used in the introduction can be deadly boring, so exclude such expressions as “as everyone knows” or “nowadays”.
  • Prepare several interesting facts or news. The best introduction you can come up with includes fascinating details. Thus, you will be able to get any attention you want.
  • Remember your main idea. Don’t deviate from the chosen topic. Be concise and stay on point.

A successful introduction should follow these common recommendations. So make sure you don’t skip our suggestions. Can't work those entire cause-and-effect writing out yet? Don't worry, professional college essay writers are always there for you.

Cause and Effect Essay Body: Block Method

The most difficult thing about writing a cause and effect essay is that readers may not follow all arguments and proofs. To save your work from possible confusion, you can structure your essay using body paragraphs. There are 2 methods to arrange your ideas in your main body:

  • Block method
  • Chain method.

The idea behind the block method is to provide arguments that are related to causes of events, and, then, use some evidence to show the effects. With this method, you can divide causal information into several blocks. This can simplify perception of your paper. You will get something like this:

It’s somewhat difficult for beginners to write a cause and effect essay body using this method. There may be too much space between the reasons and effects. However, using this method helps you eliminate any possible confusion in readers. Make a short outline of your presentation and use it to think over some basic structure. This trick will help you focus on the main facts and unbiasedly assess any situation.  

Cause and Effect Essay Body: Chain Method

Chain method is another way to organize information in a cause and effect essay body. Unlike the block method, building a chain is much easier for beginners. Since great attention is paid to cause-and-effect links, you should use an appropriate practical chain method. By choosing this option, you can sort out all arguments without missing any important details. Here’s how it will look like:  

By following this step-by-step cause and effect description in your project, you’ll be able to select a course and follow it throughout your whole work. As a result, you will draw up the main body that is structured according to academic requirements. You will be able to focus on a certain thought thanks to a clear understanding of your motives. This approach has been developed for students to choose the main idea first and only then proceed to writing their essay. Still, reasons and consequences do not take a back seat since an essay’s structure is united by some common idea.  

Cause and Effect Essay Conclusion

Cause and effect essay conclusion is probably the easiest section. Here, students don't have to introduce any new ideas. You will deal with an entirely different task – summarizing your critical points. Make sure you include these details:

  • Summary of main ideas
  • Reworded thesis statement
  • Food for thought.

Since your goal is to study cause-and-effect links, a conclusion is a great section to make some analysis. Students should organize their writing so that readers won’t have any questions after reading it. This being said, your final paragraph should confirm your thesis statement expressed in an introduction. In case you still have some questions, find an appropriate conclusion essay example .

Tips for Writing a Cause and Effect Essay

To make writing a cause and effect essay bring the result you need, use these simple tips:

  • Look through different cause and effect essay topics . Choosing an unusual one is your lucky ticket, so you should use sensational details.
  • Listed arguments should confirm your thesis and fit logically into the structure.
  • Use striking examples to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Study the existing opinions and make your choice. If you have a different point of view, find some evidence.
  • Before submitting your paper, proofread it for grammar and stylistic mistakes.
  • Make your essay title succinct and memorable. However, avoid long titles.

If you aren’t sure about the chosen topic, consult your professor. An expert opinion will help you choose a different direction and achieve the result you need. An irrelevant work is much worse than the one written with errors.

>> Read more: How to Write an Essay

Cause and Effect Essay Examples

Sometimes, all you need is good cause and effect essay examples. Luckily, we have lots of samples available on our website. Feel free to explore our collection of examples in the Sample section or check our ready-made essay below. Use this beautiful opportunity to save your time looking for essays. Alongside cause & effect, StudyCrumb proposes pretty great help with essay of any complexity.

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Cause and Effect Essays: Final Thoughts

It takes some effort and practice to master your cause/effect essay writing skills. Choosing a topic, preparing an outline, and searching for reliable arguments takes much time. You can achieve your goal by composing an essay using our guide.

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Our experts are ready to offer exceptional writing services and help with any academic paper. Professional approach and timely delivery are far from being the only advantages. Your work will be done by genuine experts who know how to convey any idea and develop a solid justification of cause and effect.  

FAQ About Writing a Cause and Effect Essay

1. which are the three types of cause and effect essays.

There are several types of cause and effect essays. To choose a preferable option, you should decide on the kind of work you are going to prepare. Each student can choose any of these 3 types:

  • One cause and many effects
  • One effect and many causes
  • Cause-and-effect chain.

These options are popular, so you should look for a narrative structure that suits your chosen type.

2. Which topic is narrow enough to address in a cause-and-effect essay?

You are assigned an essay, but you don’t understand which topic is narrow enough to address in a cause-and-effect essay? To get an answer, you won’t need to conduct any research since such a direction as Renewable Energy Resources is quite common. The main difficulty is that it will be impossible to cover this topic in a short essay. As your statement, you can use a variety of opinions on the existence of renewable resources.

3. What is the format of a cause and effect Essay?

The format choice affects your paper’s style, so you should decide between two popular options: MLA and APA. The difference is that the chosen cause and effect essay format assumes compliance with specific requirements. Select an applicable style depending on your field of study.

4. How many paragraphs should a cause and effect essay have?

The number of paragraphs in a cause and effect essay depends on the complexity of your topic. For this reason, you should decide on the number of causes and effects that can be covered. Usually, a complete essay consists of:

  • Introduction
  • 3 Body paragraphs
  • Conclusion.

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Daniel Howard is an Essay Writing guru. He helps students create essays that will strike a chord with the readers.

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3.4: Cause and Effect Model Essay 3

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Read the following essay, fill in the blanks with suitable cause-effect signal words and phrases. Pay attention to the sentence structure to help you decide. There may be more than one correct sign word or phrase.

First Name Last Name

Professor Name

Course Name and Number

Month Day Year

The Effects of Dropping Out of High School

(1) Every year thousands of teenagers drop out of high school. Some of these teenagers are wage earners who need to contribute to the family income. For them, the immediate need of helping out financially overrides their need for a diploma. Some teenagers did not get a strong academic foundation in elementary and middle school, so the high school curriculum proves to be too challenging, which leads to frustration. They find it easier to leave school and start life as working adults. Still others become involved in illegal activities, which often includes drug use. Such a lifestyle is not compatible with regular attendance and study necessary for high school success. In spite of the efforts of parents, teachers, and counselors, these teens end up leaving school to face whatever “real life” brings them. In their situations, it is difficult for them to see that leaving school will have profound effects on their finances, their ability to function in society, and even their sense of self-worth.

(2) Clearly, leaving high school without a diploma will have a negative (a) ____________on a person’s finances. Though there are jobs that do not require a high school diploma, these are often not suitable for the long term. Most of these are minimum-wage paying jobs, paying hourly wages that barely cover basic living expenses. Such jobs are usually in the service industry and are often physically demanding. They typically do not offer a lot of job satisfaction. Though there are some better-paying jobs that do not require a high school diploma such as utility line installers, heavy equipment operators, and communications installers, these jobs rarely (b)______________ higher-level managerial positions without a high school diploma. (c) _____________, for the rest of his life, the high school dropout is locked in a job with little hope of significant pay increases to keep up with the cost of living or to provide for a family beyond life’s basics.

(3) Dropping out of high school can also negatively (d) ______________a person’s ability to function as a fully participating member of society. High school math skills, which go beyond the basics, are necessary to function as an informed consumer. These skills affect good decision making about everything from home mortgages to retirement plans. The advanced reading and critical thinking skills that are part of the high school curriculum are also necessary to make good choices, whether choosing a cell phone plan or voting in local and national elections. The ability to be a fully participating member of society is severely hindered if a person lacks the skills learned in high school.

(4) Finally, a less obvious (e) ________________ of dropping out of high school concerns the person’s sense of self-worth. A high school diploma is considered a measure of a basic level of learning for citizens in modern societies. The vast majority of people complete this educational milestone. A person who drops out, however, cannot claim this accomplishment. (f) _________________, he may feel that he is not as valuable to society as others or that other people are somehow better than he is. Though this is not necessarily always the case, the lack of a diploma can lead to a lack of confidence. This could affect his interaction with other people, whether during a casual conversation when meeting new people at a party or during a high stakes job interview. A person may even feel he does not belong to a group of people with more education than he has.

(5) In short, the knowledge and skills learned in high school form a foundation for full participation in our society. Without a diploma, a teen has limited opportunities financially and socially. For those who choose not to complete this degree, life will provide a series of unique challenges, so it is important that anyone thinking of dropping out really understands the consequences.

Questions about the Model 3

1. Highlight the thesis statement of this essay.

2. Does the writer focus on causes or effects?

3. Does the writer give any causes? If so, where? What are they?

4. Can you think of any additional effects?

There’s a Reason They’re Called ‘Gut’ Feelings

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I n the 1800s, a French Canadian named Alexis St. Martin was shot in the stomach while at a fur trading post, when someone’s musket accidentally fired at close range. He survived, but his injuries resulted in a hole in his stomach wall. This provided an early window—literally—into how our emotions and mental health affect the gut. Through careful experiments, the surgeon William Beaumont discovered that St. Martin’s mental state had direct physiological consequences on his stomach’s activity: when he felt irritable, for example, his digestion slowed. Somehow, his emotional states were manifest in the specific, local biology of his gut.

Most people have experienced the gut consequences of their emotional feelings. Nerves before an exam might lead you to feel nauseous or even vomit. Profound sadness might make you lose your appetite, or perhaps cause a hunger impossible to satiate. Gut symptoms are common in mental health conditions, from appetite changes in depression to debilitating “psychosomatic” stomach pains. Many of our feelings are gut feelings.

But the gut doesn’t just respond to emotional feelings: it influences them, too. Take disgust. Disgust is visceral. Our stomach, like our heart, has a regular electrical rhythm; even just seeing something disgusting causes disruptions, called “dysrhythmias,” in this electrical signalling. Although disgust is crucial for survival—helping us avoid disease and stay alive—in many mental health conditions disgust becomes pathological. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), for instance, dirt or germs can preoccupy someone’s thoughts, causing symptoms like compulsive hand-washing. Self-disgust is common in depression and eating disorders. And even post-traumatic disorder can be brought on by profoundly disgusting traumas.

Pathological disgust is particularly hard to treat : exposure therapy and other psychological approaches are much less effective than for fear-based mental health problems. A couple years ago, working as a neuroscientist at the University of Cambridge, I wondered if abnormal signals from the stomach could be causing disgust avoidance. I ran an experiment to test this hypothesis, and found that changing someone’s gut activity with a common anti-nausea drug reduced their disgust avoidance . This could represent a new way of treating pathological disgust in mental health disorders. For example, an anti-nausea drug could be administered just before exposure therapy, enabling patients to engage with therapy under a more optimal gut state.

Read More: How I Learned to Listen to What My Gut Was Telling Me

So gut feelings are not “all in your mind”—but they are not “all in your gut,” either. Sensations from the gut are transmitted to the brain via the vagus nerve, the primary channel of information sent from the body to the brain. A second route to target “gut feelings” is by electrically stimulating this nerve, which changes the electrical rhythm of the stomach . That said,  the idea is not new: vagus nerve stimulation for patients with major depression dates back to 2000 .

A new theory published in November 2023 proposes that vagus nerve stimulation amplifies signals from the internal body to the brain, which helps us adapt our behaviour to its current challenges and needs. That could explain why the effects of vagus nerve stimulation are so wide-reaching, altering learning, memory, and motivation. That means amplifying signals from the gut using vagus nerve stimulation might improve mental health in some cases, but in others could be ineffective or even detrimental. Ultimately, we need to consider the state and needs of someone’s internal body before amplifying the body’s influence on the brain.

But the importance of the vagus nerve extends to even more established treatments: evidence from mice suggests that the most common type of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) require the vagus nerve to work. This, too, could begin to provide clues why antidepressants do, or don’t, work for a given person, and even help us understand why they might cause side effects in some people.

If the vagus nerve’s role helps us adapt to our bodily needs, perhaps the most important internal need of all is energy. One function of the gut—together with other organs—is metabolism, converting food to energy the body can use. There are mysterious and wide-ranging connections between our metabolic system and mental health. For example, the prevalence of depression in people with diabetes is two or three times higher than in the general population. It’s not clear why: diabetes could increase depression risk, or vice versa. My lab is currently testing a third possibility: that common metabolic factors might increase your risk of both depression and diabetes because of interactions between the body and the brain. If we’re right, this could open up avenues toward metabolic interventions that improve both physical and mental health.

Our brain and wider nervous system adapts to its circumstances, including the body’s internal, metabolic needs, as well as our experience of the environment around us. Because of this, your gut-brain connection is not static, but rather changes and adapts over time. A fascinating study in 2021 discovered that brain cells can re-activate gut inflammation that an animal has previously experienced. The mere “memory” of gut inflammation, stored in cells in the brain, induced the physical state in the body. So sometimes a “gut feeling” actually originates from the brain. This role of the brain in “gut feelings” means our brain has the capacity to produce dysfunctional gut symptoms via brain changes alone. This ability of the brain could have upsides as well, perhaps explaining why psychological therapy—which causes brain changes —can also treat some gut conditions .

Gut feelings originate from many sources: directly through the gut, through channels of communication between gut and brain, or even through the brain itself. In neuroscience, as we unravel the dynamic communications between gut and brain, we can begin to understand how these processes helped our ancestors survive—and how we could better harness them to improve emotional and mental wellbeing. A gut feeling might have many possible causes, but each of these represent a potential solution for mental health.

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A new podcast examines the perils of intense meditation

Andrea Muraskin

A woman meditating in the dark. Intense meditation can have negative side effects on mental health.

Imagine it's a crisp clear winter day, and you're skiing down a mountain, feeling exhilarated. All of a sudden, you lose control of your skis. You're hurtling down towards the base of the slope, and all you can feel is abject terror.

That's how one young man explained his emotional state during an intensive meditation retreat. It was one of several troubling accounts reporter Madison Marriage heard while reporting Untold: The Retreat , a new investigative podcast series from the Financial Times and Goat Rodeo.

The four-episode series focuses on retreats held by the Goenka network, teaching a popular meditation technique called Vipassana. Participants follow a strict schedule, waking before dawn and meditating silently for 10 days, 10 hours per day. They eat just two vegan meals each day.

In Oregon, psilocybin treatment is an experiment in real time

In Oregon, psilocybin treatment is an experiment in real time

Meditation and mindfulness have many known health benefits, including helping to process trauma and manage anxiety , improve eating habits, and ease chronic pain. While many participants say Goenka retreats changed their lives for the better, The Retreat tells the stories of individuals whose mental health deteriorated during a 10 day retreat – or for some, after several 10-day retreats.

Some spent time in psychiatric units, and two participants whose families spoke to Marriage, took their own lives.

If you or someone you know may be considering suicide or is in crisis, call or text 988 to reach the Suicide & Crisis Lifeline .

Marriage interviewed nearly two dozen people who had attended Goenka retreats in different countries, including the U.K., the United States, France, India, and Australia. According to these former participants, retreat staff all over the world had a similar reaction when they were approached with mental health problems. "They're going to be telling you the same thing, which is keep meditating even if you're in severe emotional distress," she told NPR.

A global organization, the structure of the Goenka network is decentralized. The Financial Times reached out for comment to lead teachers at several Goenka centers, including the centers in Delaware and British Columbia where participants had died by suicide after exhibiting signs of psychological distress. But they declined to do an interview or answer specific questions on the record.

In 'Hidden Valley Road,' A Family's Journey Helps Shift The Science Of Mental Illness

Author Interviews

In 'hidden valley road,' a family's journey helps shift the science of mental illness.

Bob Jeffs, director of one Goenka center near Merritt, British Columbia, told the producers of The Retreat in a written statement that his staff assess applicants before retreats and tries to dissuade people who are not ready: "Although the experience of hundreds of thousands of people who have successfully completed retreats since the early 1970's is overwhelmingly positive, these courses are not for everyone. We take the safety and well-being of every student in our care extremely seriously."

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Untold: The Retreat is a podcast from The Financial Times and Goat Rodeo. The Financial Times hide caption

NPR contributor Andrea Muraskin spoke with Marriage about what her investigation uncovered about the mental health risks of meditation retreats.

This interview has been edited for length and clarity.

Andrea Muraskin: What is Vipassana meditation and how is it taught at Goenka retreats?

Madison Marriage: Vipassana meditation is a type of meditation, which is ancient, its roots go back thousands of years... These retreats teach Vipassana meditation through the teachings of S. N. Goenka. And he's a kind of guru at the heart of this network, who founded the first meditation retreats back in the 1970s, and they've really proliferated.

Goenka's technique is that you spend a few days focusing on just one area of your body, and then it expands. And you have to shift your focus to different parts of your body. You wake up at 4 a.m., you start meditating at 4:30 a.m. You have a break at specific times, your day ends at 8, 9 p.m. And then in theory, you go to bed.

Muraskin: What did you discover about the Goenka retreats and mental health?

Mariage: I don't think many people associate the word meditation with anything negative. It sounds relaxing and something that you might do to help soothe yourself. And that's exactly the reason why a lot of people go off and do these retreats. They're looking for something that's going to help them to feel a bit more relaxed, a bit more calm, having a better headspace, that kind of thing.

I've now interviewed dozens of people who've done these retreats and have had the complete adverse reaction. It's almost like kind of jumping off a cliff in terms of their mental health. Some of these people have done two retreats or three retreats or ten retreats and really loved them. But there is a specific retreat where something in their mind clicks or breaks or snaps. Those are the kind of words that they've used.

Psychosis is really common. So [are] hallucinations, physical pain, like electrical zaps going up and down their bodies. In the first episode, [one young woman] describes it as being like stuck in a torture chamber for her mind.

The big one is terror, abject terror. I had one person email me this week saying, 'Thank you for making this podcast because I thought I was alone.' And he said that he would rather saw his own arm off than go back to that mental headspace.

One man in Britain ...was escorted out of a Goenka center in handcuffs by the police because he had to be sectioned at the local hospital and he wouldn't go voluntarily. There are people leaving these centers and heading to psychiatric units.

Muraskin: What did you learn about what's happening in the brains of people who have these adverse experiences with meditation?

Mariage: So we've interviewed several experts about what meditation does to the brain and one of the foremost experts we spoke to said it's a bit like a stimulant. So having lots of coffee or too much of any stimulants can end up having the opposite effect where instead of doing something good for you, it starts doing something bad, and it can begin to feel a little bit addictive. But there are limits to what the scientific community knows about the human brain and how and why it works in certain ways.

Muraskin: One of your interviewees told you she felt as if she had become addicted to meditation. There's no official diagnosis for meditation addiction in psychology. But did you speak to others who had experiences similar to addiction?

Mariage: Yes. Lots of people said that their first retreat or first several retreats really helped them and really brought them to quite an exciting spiritual plane. It almost sounds kind of mystical and godlike – you're on cloud nine mentally, and they come out and they feel calmer. They know how to process their thoughts better. Their life feels easier as a result. So they go to another. And they have kind of similar feelings, maybe not quite as intense.

And then the feeling starts to fade. So they do another retreat. And then a lot of people said that they ended up struggling to sleep. So they would meditate more because they had initially felt that meditation would help them to sleep because it had made them feel calmer at first. But effectively, they end up meditating through the night, all day, every day for weeks or months on end.

And then, I think maybe this comes back to your earlier question about impact on the brain – I would argue it's perhaps not meditation per se that is harming people's brains. A lot of the people I spoke to ended up having severe sleep deprivation. And it is clinically proven to be extremely bad for your brain not to sleep.

Muraskin: We've heard from several of our readers over time that they benefit from mindfulness and meditation. If somebody reading this interview becomes concerned, and thinks, I like my meditation practice, but should I be worried now, what would you say to someone like that?

Mariage: So the consensus from the psychologists and psychiatrists and academics I spoke to is that amounts of meditation up to half an hour a day on the whole is usually completely fine.

[The problem is] the extremity of this particular practice. Ten hours a day of meditating without any physical movement. You're sitting on the floor cross-legged with your eyes closed, meditating for 10 hours a day. You're put on a vegan diet. So for a lot of people that's far fewer calories, often at half of what they're usually used to. And there's no dinner. There's an element of sleep deprivation. And your sensory world is being massively diminished. And it's that which I think is driving people to quite extreme outcomes.

Muraskin: Do you think the psychological problems that came up during retreats could be explained by underlying mental health issues that the meditators had before they began meditating?

Mariage: I think that's a really difficult question because how can anyone know whether they have a mental health problem? You're meant to fill out a form before you go to one of these retreats and state whether or not you've ever had any kind of mental health issue or history of drug abuse. And if you've never had a mental health problem, you will of course say no and no, and in you go.

And I've spoken to people who say that they were completely stable prior to doing one of these retreats, had never had a mental or physical problem in their lives, and had never tried drugs, and they have gone in and they have emerged completely broken.

I actually think it's irrelevant whether or not somebody had a mental health issue beforehand, because the evidence that I've seen is that the particular format of these retreats can push people past their limits.

Muraskin: Based on your interviews with participants, is it difficult to leave a Goenka retreat early?

Mariage: Yes, it is difficult to leave a retreat early. [If you express the desire to], you're effectively gaslighted into staying.

You're told, oh, you might just be on the cusp of a breakthrough. The founder of this network died a decade ago, but it's still his voice and his teachings that are imparted at all of the retreat centers ...warning people that doing [this] practice is like undergoing surgery of the mind, and to leave halfway through is like walking out of an operation before you've been stitched up by the surgeon.

There was one man who said that every time he closed his eyes he could see streams of bubbles everywhere. And he didn't want to leave because he kind of wanted to fix that. and he thought, I might be stuck seeing streams of bubbles forevermore if I leave before the end of this.

At a lot of these centers you also hand in your keys and phone at the beginning, and that's quite an overt cue that you're here for the full period. You can of course go and ask someone and insist that you want them back, but several sources told me that when they expressed a desire to leave, they were pressured not to.

Muraskin: What did your sources –the meditators that experienced harm or their families – think needs to change to make these retreats safer?

Mariage: So first and foremost, warn people before they go in that mental health problems or kind of psychological distress is possible. It's a bit like putting warnings on bottles of medication that, you know, a tiny percentage of people with this prescription might have an adverse effect.

Secondly, they would like to see mental health practitioners on site. So rather than telling everybody to keep meditating, they need to be able to figure out better when somebody needs a bit more support and what that support should be.

Thirdly, they need proper emergency protocols. So for the two women who lost their lives after attending retreats, the horse had already bolted by the time their parents were contacted. I think it needs to be a lot more proactive in terms of reaching out to emergency contacts.

Muraskin: I can imagine you've received some pushback on the podcast from people who've really benefited from Vipassana retreats. What's your response to people who say you've painted the Goenka network too negatively?

Mariage: We've had a couple of emails from people who say this is really one-sided, you're not looking at the positive experiences at all, this has changed my life for the better.

But the podcast isn't about the people for whom this works.... The purpose is to scrutinize harm that is being done to people and to question why isn't the organization itself doing more to prevent that harm.

Andrea Muraskin is a contributor to NPR's Shots blog and writes the weekly NPR Health newsletter. She lives in Boston.

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Health Capsule

Comparing Side Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatments

Doctor pointing out something on clipboard to older adult man.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer for men in the United States. Luckily, most men with prostate cancer will still be alive 15 years after diagnosis.

Men with prostate cancer that hasn’t spread outside the gland have several treatment choices. These include surgery, radiation therapy, and active surveillance, where treatment is delayed until a cancer starts to grow.

Men live a similar length of time regardless of the chosen treatment. But it’s been unclear if there were significant differences in the long-term side effects of these treatments. Side effects can include bladder and bowel problems, and difficulty with sexual functioning.

To learn more, researchers followed 2,500 men for 10 years after prostate cancer treatment. As expected, survival rates were similar. But the long-term side effects differed depending on the treatment.

Men who had surgery had a higher risk of leaking urine. But men who had radiation therapy had a higher risk of bowel problems. Certain men had a higher risk of sexual problems soon after surgery. But by 10 years, no significant differences were found between the treatment groups.

“Given the similar survival rates, the choice of treatment for patients may be influenced by the adverse effects of the treatments,” says Dr. Bashir Al Hussein Al Awamlh, of Vanderbilt University, who helped lead the study.

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Days After U.N. Cease-Fire Resolution, Has Anything Changed in Gaza?

The United Nations Security Council passed a resolution on Monday that demands an immediate cease-fire in the Gaza Strip. Here’s a closer look at where the situation stands.

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People sit on the ground in the midst of rubble and destroyed buildings.

By Matthew Mpoke Bigg

  • March 29, 2024

Although the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution on Monday that demands an immediate cease-fire in the Gaza Strip, it remains to be seen whether ​i​t ​w​ill have a concrete effect on the war or prove merely to be a political statement.

The measure, Resolution 2728, followed three previous attempts that ​t​he United States ​had blocked. It passed by 14 votes, after the United States abstained from voting and did not employ its veto.

The resolution also calls for the unconditional release of all hostages and the end to barriers to humanitarian aid.

Israel’s government condemned the vote, and early indications are that the U.N.’s action has changed little on the ground or spurred diplomatic progress.

Days after the vote, here’s a look at what has changed and what might happen next:

Has the resolution affected fighting?

Senior Israeli officials said that they would ignore the call for a cease-fire, arguing that it was imperative to pursue the war until it has dismantled the military wing of Hamas, the militant group that led the Oct. 7 attack on Israel.

Since Monday, there has been no apparent shift in the military campaign . Israel’s air force continues to pound Gaza with strikes, and Hamas is still launching attacks.

Israel’s military is pressing on with a raid at Al-Shifa Hospital in northern Gaza, the territory’s biggest medical facility, as well as its offensive in Khan Younis, the largest city in the south, where fighting has been fierce.

If Israel doesn’t heed the resolution, what can the U.N. do?

The Security Council has few means to enforce its resolutions. The Council can take punitive measures, imposing sanctions against violators. In the past, such measures have included travel bans, economic restrictions and arms embargoes.

In this case, however, legal experts said that any additional measure would require a new resolution and that passing it would require consent from the council’s five veto-holding members, including the United States, Israel’s staunchest ally.

There may be legal challenges as well. While the United Nations says that Security Council resolutions are considered to be international law, legal experts debate whether all resolutions are binding on member states, or only those adopted under chapter VII of the U.N. charter , which deals with threats to peace. The resolution passed on Monday did not explicitly mention Chapter VII.

U.N. officials said it was still binding on Israel, but some countries disagreed. South Korea said on Monday that the resolution was not “ explicitly coercive under Chapter VII,” but that it reflected a consensus of the international community.

Crucially, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, Linda Thomas-Greenfield, maintained that the resolution was nonbinding . The United States, which holds significant power on the Security Council because of its permanent seat, likely views the passage of the resolution as more a valuable political instrument than a binding order, experts said.

The U.S. abstention sends a powerful signal of its policy priorities even if, in the short term, the Security Council is unlikely to take further steps, according to Ivo H. Daalder, a former American ambassador to NATO.

“Neither Israel or Hamas is going to be swayed by a U.N. resolution,” Mr. Daalder said.

What about aid?

Israel controls the flow of aid into Gaza, and after five months of war, Gazans are facing a severe hunger crisis bordering on famine, especially in the north, according to the United Nations and residents of the territory.

Aid groups have blamed Israel, which announced a siege of the territory after Oct. 7. They say officials have impeded aid deliveries through inspections and tight restrictions.

Israel argues that it works to prevent aid reaching Hamas and says that its officials can process more aid than aid groups can distribute within the territory. Growing lawlessness in Gaza has also made the distribution of aid difficult, with some convoys ending in deadly violence.

Little has changed this week. The number of aid trucks entering Gaza on Tuesday from the two border crossings open for aid roughly matched the average daily number crossing this month, according to U.N. data. That figure, about 150 trucks per day, is nearly 70 percent less than the number before Oct. 7.

How has the resolution affected diplomacy?

Israel and Hamas appear to still be far apart on negotiations aimed at brokering a halt in fighting and an exchange of hostages for Palestinian prisoners.

Mediators have been in Qatar to try to narrow the gaps. But late Monday, Hamas rejected Israel’s most recent counterproposal and its political leader, on a visit to Tehran this week, said the resolution showed that Israel was isolated diplomatically.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel has argued that the resolution set back negotiations, emboldening Hamas to hold out for better terms.

The biggest sticking point in the cease-fire talks had recently been the number of Palestinian prisoners to be released, in particular those serving extended sentences for violence against Israelis, U.S. and Israeli officials have said.

Matthew Mpoke Bigg is a correspondent covering international news. He previously worked as a reporter, editor and bureau chief for Reuters and did postings in Nairobi, Abidjan, Atlanta, Jakarta and Accra. More about Matthew Mpoke Bigg

Our Coverage of the Israel-Hamas War

News and Analysis

Seven aid workers  with World Central Kitchen were killed when their convoy was hit by an Israeli strike in Gaza . Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel called the strike “a tragic case of our forces unintentionally hitting innocent people.”

After the deadly strike on World Central Kitchen workers, other aid groups in Gaza said they were more concerned than ever about the safety of their staff members .

Thousands of Israelis have taken to the streets to call for early elections to oust Netanyahu . Many of them believe he has put his political survival  ahead of the broader interests of the Israeli people.

Internal Roil at TikTok: TikTok has been dogged for months by accusations that its app has shown a disproportionate amount of pro-Palestinian and antisemitic content to users. Some of the same tensions  have also played out inside the company.

Palestinian Detainees: Israel has imprisoned more than 9,000 Palestinians suspected of militant activity . Rights groups say that some have been abused or held without charges.

A Hostage’s Account: Amit Soussana, an Israeli lawyer, is the first former hostage to speak publicly about being sexually assaulted  during captivity in Gaza.

A Power Vacuum: Since the start of the war, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel has done little to address the power vacuum that would appear after Israeli forces leave Gaza. The risks of inaction are already apparent in Gaza City .

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    Step 1: Choose the Essay Topic. Begin by choosing a topic that has significance and relevance. Look for subjects with clear cause-and-effect relationships to ensure your essay has a solid foundation. Consider both personal interests and the potential appeal to your target audience.

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    4. Identify The Causes/Effects And Your Supporting Points. If your topic will be cause-focused, identify the effects and its main supporting points or vice versa for the alternative viewpoint. Write these down, and then choose the three strongest points which will fit into your essay body. 5.

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    Writing a Cause-and-Effect Essay. Choose an event or condition that you think has an interesting cause-and-effect relationship. Introduce your topic in an engaging way. End your introduction with a thesis that states the main cause, the main effect, or both. Organize your essay by starting with either the cause-then-effect structure or the ...

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    Course Name and Number. Month Day Year. The Effects of Dropping Out of High School. (1) Every year thousands of teenagers drop out of high school. Some of these teenagers are wage earners who need to contribute to the family income. For them, the immediate need of helping out financially overrides their need for a diploma.

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    Five Takeaways From Nikole Hannah-Jones's Essay on the 'Colorblindness' Trap. How a 50-year campaign has undermined the progress of the civil rights movement. Share full article.

  25. Meditation can have dangerous effects on mental health, an ...

    Meditation and mindfulness have many known health benefits, including helping to process trauma and manage anxiety, improve eating habits, and ease chronic pain. While many participants say Goenka ...

  26. Opinion

    How the SAT Changed My Life. Ms. Nietfeld is the author of the memoir "Acceptance.". This month, the University of Texas, Austin, joined the wave of selective schools reversing Covid-era test ...

  27. NYC Congestion Pricing and Tolls: What to Know and What's Next

    Fares will go up by $1.25 for taxis and black car services, and by $2.50 for Uber and Lyft. Passengers will be responsible for paying the new fees, and they will be added to every ride that begins ...

  28. Comparing Side Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatments

    Side effects can include bladder and bowel problems, and difficulty with sexual functioning. To learn more, researchers followed 2,500 men for 10 years after prostate cancer treatment. As expected, survival rates were similar. But the long-term side effects differed depending on the treatment. Men who had surgery had a higher risk of leaking urine.

  29. After U.N. Cease-Fire Resolution, What's Changed in Gaza War?

    The U.S. abstention sends a powerful signal of its policy priorities even if, in the short term, the Security Council is unlikely to take further steps, according to Ivo H. Daalder, a former ...