Journalism and ethical journalism: the importance of journalism.
The importance of journalism has always been defined by the inherent value of information. To possess information is to possess power, and without it a society can effectively be rendered mute. The essential functions of a journalist, to be both the watchdogs of the elite and the providers of factual and unbiased reporting to the public, have begun to decline in recent decades. Although the news is integral to the fabric of democracy, the current market imperatives of sustaining a profitable business
Journalism Today the term journalism is applied to prestigious publications such as The New York Times, and to television news operations such as 60 Minutes and NBC Nightly News. “ First amendment rights and the democratic political environment of the united states have contributed to the uninhibited growth of the news media in public and private communication.”1 the world of journalism has changed dramatically from the colonial days. When newspapers were just channels or devices of commercial
Now journalism is one of the fastest most competitively growing job markets and with college students clamoring for internships at vogue and rolling stone it’s difficult to get your foot in the door. Being a reporter isn’t a nine to five job with a normal salary and a weekly pay check its being stressed over deadlines and spending hours on the phone checking sources. Critics have said that journalists simply exploit human emotions, writers without ideas for books. They are wrong for journalism spreads
When journalism is chosen as a career, society tends to have a stereotypical image of a group of photographers chasing celebrities. If not, then an image of an anonymous person writing biased comments about current affairs, trying to manipulate the truth. However, their real work earns them every cent they deserve unlike the heartless lawyers who earns millions for defending criminals. The work of journalism, on the hand, consists of interviewing and attending events in all conditions in order to
Journalism has become a job carrying enormous personal rewards. Indeed, it is difficult, chalenging (e.g. physically, emotionally, ethically, politically), yet again - it is fun. Journalism requires mastering a multiple range of knowledge and skills (Hicks: 2008; Brighton: 2007; Randall: 2007). This essay has the task to identify the key sources and methods I have used gathering information for my 332MC News and Features (aka. 332MC) articles portfolio, as well as give a comment to what I have
Public Journalism vs. Traditional Journalism
two distinct sides to the debate of journalism, their journalists, and the consumers: traditional journalism and public journalism. In the current digital age there is a greater number of public journalism being practiced. However, journalists and their consumers run into several issues concerning that matter. To express more clearly, there are particular roles and characteristics in which journalism standards are being gauged. The four dimensions of journalism, as mentioned by Don Heider, Maxwell
A Career in Journalism
Journalism is type of writing that investigates and includes lots of research of good and bad stories and some events. Journalists tend to write news stories that people should know about and haven’t already heard. Journalism comes in different categories; some are reporters, writers, editors, and photographers. People who tend to like journalism are those who love language and enjoying writing and reading, are called journalist; they work as reporters at newspapers, magazines, websites, TV stations
Elements of Journalism
not the case and even in today's society journalists are making a solid effort to fight that stereotype that so many bad journalists have left. One of the ways that journalists are trying to fight back is through instituting the nine elements of journalism: journalism's first obligation is to the truth, its first loyalty is to citizens, its essence is a discipline of verification, its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover, it must serve as an independent monitor of power
up to the public, which is the Citizen Journalism. Citizen journalist is a person who works alone from his house by his phone or his personal pc to get the news and publish it by using blogger or social media like Facebook or Twitter. While Citizen Journalism helps society by giving variety and good kind of information, it still have lacked freedom because of the government and traditional media. Usually Governments do not like support the Citizen Journalism because it is difficult to be controlled
Is Journalism a Profession?
Wilson, 1995) elucidated appropriately, "a recurrent journalistic controversy has involved the question whether journalism is a true profession or merely a craft." Sparked primarily by Lippmann and Dewey, extending into the age of the penny press (mid 1980s) and later, the attempt to commercialise the news (late 1980s) to our present era, there has existed a contentious debate on journalism being distinguished as a profession (Wilson, 1995). Encapsulated in a democratic homeland since the advent of
International Journalism International news coverage in the United States has declined dramatically in the last two decades, leaving the American public lacking in awareness of the world's diversity and beauty. This is unacceptable. The public has access to many forms of media-radio, network and cable television, newspapers, magazines and the Internet-yet lack a basic literacy in international issues. The media no longer provides comprehensive coverage of world news. However, as a far-reaching
Objectivity in Journalism
Objectivity in Journalism Merriam Webster defines objectivity as expressing or dealing with facts or conditions as perceived without distortion by personal feelings, prejudices, or interpretations. Objectivity, as defined by the school of media ethics, means standing so far from the community that you see all events and all viewpoints as equally distant and important, or unimportant for that matter. It is employed by giving equal weight to all viewpoints--or, if not, giving all an interesting
Norm in American Journalism. Journalism, Theory Practice and Criticism, Vol 2(2), p. 149-170. Shelter England. (2013). Our History. Shelter England: The housing and homelessness charity. Available: http://england.shelter.org.uk/about_us/who_we_are/our_history [Accessed 09 December 2013] Siebert, Fred et al. (1956). Four Theories of the Press. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Ward, S. (2009). Journalism Ethics For the Global Citizen. Researching Ethics: History of Journalism Ethics. Available:
The Future of Journalism
based on the Internet and will replace these mediums forever changing the face of journalism, media and politics. In this paper I will attempt to explain the transition of print media to one of the internet, how the shift to an internet based media environment will impact journalism and mass media, and how this migration will benefit society and forever change the dynamic of news and politics. Changes in Journalism The Internet’s influence on our lives has spread throughout. According a 2009 US
The Importance of Journalism
reporting and war journalism in the media? War media has certainly changed in the past 40 years. Gone are the days when CNN was the only news channel able to dedicate 24 hour of news coverage to a live war. Thanks to deregulation and improvements in communication - satellite and cable channels the war against Iraq has received saturated coverage across all major networks. Despite this magnitude of information, America may not be any better informed. The nature of war journalism has also changed;
The Importance Of Journalism
Journalism: Deemed Obsolete Journalism has been around for a long time, and many people believe that the standard version of journalism has gone obsolete now. Newspaper, magazines, and tabloids were all at their time a source of information or entertainment, but now people believe they have no place in the technology age. Some people say that the degree in journalism at colleges is an obsolete one, and should be avoided or completely taken out of the curriculum because it just doesn’t amount to
Is Brand Journalism?
Journalism involves researching, reporting, collecting, writing, editing, and spreading news for the worldwide audiences. But is brand journalism the same as journalism? Absolutely. From what we see everyday, political journalism is journalism, sport journalism is also considered journalism, blogs about local or international issues are journalism, even face book or Twitter posts are also journalism. Brand journalism is a company investing in content and becoming a provider of news. It is more, much
Elements Of Journalism
An argument can be made that Journalism is one of the very few professions in the world of media that is handled with some sort of dignity and pride. After reading “The Elements of Journalism” by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel, I realized how important journalism is to each and every one of us. Whether you’re a writer or a reader, the back and forth exchange between provider and consumer is extremely important in pushing society forward. Journalism after all is designed to challenge society, promote
Journalism On The Internet
Journalism on the Internet The common forms of media in today's world each have both advantages and disadvantages. The Internet has been around for an almost equal amount of time as most of them, but only recently has it become a popular way of retrieving information. The Internet takes the best of all other medium and combines them into a very unique form. The Internet is the best way to retrieve information. This combination of paper publishing, TV, radio, telephones, and mail is the
Ethics in Journalism
Ethics in Journalism Nancy Durham is a freelance video journalist for CBC, cable news, and British Channel 4, to name a few. Her journalistic objective is to "make viewers care about ordinary people trapped in wars". While investigating the Balkan area, she met an 18 year old girl named Rajmonda that was recovering in a hospital from the trauma of seeing her sister, Quendressa, killed in a Serb attack. She expressed to Durham how she was thinking about joining the KLA. By the request of
Essay On Journalism
Introduction: ‘Journalism’ means the works of a journalist regarding news, views, reports, etc. It is apparent writing on any issue of an affair. The word journalism was originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, but with the advent of radio, television, and the Internet in the 20th century the use of the term broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.
Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not fully independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases.
History and Professionalism of Journalism: While publications reporting the news to the general public in a standardized fashion only began to appear in the 17th century and later, governments as early as the Han dynasty China made use of regularly published news bulletins. Similar publications were established in the Republic of Venice in the 16th century. These bulletins, however, were intended only for government officials, and thus were not journalistic news publications in the modern sense of the term. England took the publication of newspapers towards the end of the 16th century. The daily newspaper sponsored by Defoe appeared at the beginning of the 18th century.
The modern newspapers really developed with the invention of the telegraph which made the possible swift transmission of news across the world. Reuter, the famous News Agency, started the work first. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a “fourth estate”, acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication (such as a newspaper) contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats. Each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience.
Journalism in the 20th century was marked by a growing sense of professionalism. There were four important factors in this trend:
(1) the increasing organization of working journalists,
(2) specialized education for journalism,
(3) a growing literature dealing with the history, problems, and techniques of mass communication, and
(4) an increasing sense of social responsibility on the part of journalists.
By the late 20th century, studies showed that journalists as a group were generally idealistic about their role in bringing the facts to the public in an impartial manner. Various societies of journalists issued statements of ethics, of which that of the American Society of Newspaper Editors is perhaps best known.
Functions of Journalism: A modern newspaper is something very much more than a mere purveyor of the news; it is also a store-house of current information, an instrument of public criticism, a creator of public opinion. It is, indeed, a potpourri (admixture) of many things in a variety box. It has, therefore, to be served by a large and varied staff. There are the editor and his assistants who write leading articles and editorial comments and edit news.
Their influence on forming a public opinion is very great. They may be said to do political thoughts on behalf of the man in the street. Then there is the news-editor and his staff. They receive news from different agencies, staff reporters and correspondents. They edit, arrange, and display them. They can flash a headline and create a sensation. The staff-reporters interview people elicit views by “scooping” news in advance.
A modern newspaper must also have on its staff competent artists, cartoonists, photographers, etc. There must be advertisement managers and circulation managers. All these people who are on the staff of a newspaper are known by the general name of journalists, or newspapermen.
Codes of Ethics in Journalism: There are over 242 codes of ethics in journalism that vary across various regions of the world. The codes of ethics are created through an interaction of different groups of people such as the public and journalists themselves. Most of the codes of ethics serve as a representation of the economic and political beliefs of the society where the code was written. Despite the fact that there are a variety of codes of ethics, some of the core elements present in all codes are: remaining objective, providing the truth, and being honest.
Journalism does not have a universal code of conduct; individuals are not legally obliged to follow a certain set of rules like a doctor or a lawyer does. There have been discussions for creating a universal code of conduct in journalism. One suggestion centers on having three claims for credibility, justifiable consequence, and the claim of humanity.
The Role of Journalist: Journalism has improved much of its methods with the passage of years. “It is no longer ponderous instructive, formal. “A good journalist creates his own peculiar style. He knows the art of creating the taste and demand for what he offers. One aspires to literary excellence; another sets greater store by propaganda.
The reader is drawn to the style which is attractive to himself. So it comes about that every journal has its own set of readers. That is why a daily paper and the particular columnists are so much in demand. Too much of the opinion station has, however, to be avoided.
Present-Day Journalism: Although the core of journalism has always been the news, the latter word has acquired so many secondary meanings that the term “hard news” gained currency to distinguish items of definite news value from others of marginal significance. This was largely a consequence of the advent of radio and television reporting, which brought news bulletins to the public with a speed that the press could not hope to match. To hold their audience, newspapers provided increasing quantities of interpretive material articles on the background of the news, personality sketches, and columns of timely comments by writers skilled in presenting an opinion in a readable form.
Modern journalism is organized on a commercial scale. There are international news agencies which collect and broadcast news all over the world. Wealthy and influential newspapers always maintain their own correspondents, home and abroad. The modern world could not exist without such an elaborate organization and agency of information gathered from various sources.
Conclusion: Journalism has many competitors today. Chief of all is the radio and the televisions which not only broadcast and televises but have the added advantages of arranging talks of prominent leaders of the society and establish visual contact with them. But they cannot supersede the newspaper. Remaining glued to Radio or TV at a precise time is not always possible.
Besides, coverage of news by the radio and TV is limited; items must be cut down to the minimum so that the time-limit is not exceeded. But a newspaper can be read at any time, suiting one’s convenience. Its coverage is very wide, and its scope for improvement is unlimited. But the journalist should guard against the present tendency for trivializing and fragmenting news items, imposing the editor’s opinions upon readers.
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Essay on journalism
Analysis: the baltimore riots.
News organizations that report on stories in a fair, balanced and ethical manner are essential to the functionality of this nation. A citizen’s ability to make well-informed decisions hinges on a news organization’s ability to relay the most accurate information regarding the state of the nation, the changing condition of communities, and adjustments in the government. Journalism is no longer a one-sided conversation. Journalism is an interactive process that allows for readers and viewers to create a dialogue with journalists by utilizing mediums such as social networking sites and comment sections. Audiences have a say in what stories get reported and how news stories are presented to the masses. When news organizations fail to cover all
Newspapers And Thinking The Unthinkable Analysis
Clay Shirky who wrote Newspapers and Thinking the Unthinkable (1993) argues that society doesn’t need newspapers society needs journalism to save society. Shirky supports this argument by giving a historical background to the problems newspapers face and how the problems have developed over time and the solutions society has came up with. The blogger concludes that in order for journalism to go farther new models must be created in place of past molds. Shirky directs this blog toward the current and future generations in attempt to motivate new models and methods of journalism.
Operation Mockingbird: The Role Of The CIA
It being the leading source of news since the printing press. We put our faith in the media to report accurate facts unbiasedly. Between 1983 and now the media industry has consolidated from 50 individual companies to 6. That means that though the impression given is that there are a multitude of sources to attain information, the messages being communicated are all one in the same. The limitation of media sources cause a ripple effect of limited information, allowing these companies to control the public’s perception on
Media Influence On Public Policy Essay
Consequently, the political sphere is now being colonised by the media, and politics has begun re-orientating itself to satisfy the logic of media organisations (Meyer, 2002, p. 71). Therefore, the media are active participants in the policymaking process and the ability to stimulate change or maintain the status quo depends on their choice of subject or policy issue and how they frame it. Active investigative reporting attempts to shape policy outcomes, but this does not necessarily mean that it always represents the most successful approach for gaining policy changes (Spitzer, 1993, p. 7). In fact, sometimes passive, straight reporting can have a greater influence on policy choices. When this occurs, media independence is largely bypassed, as the news generated depends solely on the information released (as public relations material) from legitimate news sources. For example, in the United States, White House staff routinely make ‘leaks’ - expressively to influence policy decisions (Davis, 1992, p. 143; Robinson, 2001, p. 948). Robinson noted that journalists regard “leaks… as indispensable to their work” and that they are aware of their use by officials in return for scoops (2001, p. 949).
The Case Of Mason Jet Lee Essay
The purpose of this report is to analyse journalism practices employed in newspaper reporting across different outlets and to analyse if the practice was in line with the media
The Impact of Propaganda Essay
Newspapers and other forms of news are very vital communication methods in the world today. The goal of news is to sell us their ideas by being biased and talking about how their idea is best. News can give us biased information although, the viewer could do further research on the
Essay on Shattered Glass Analysis
In the case of the New Republic, they were lucky that Stephen Glass’ unethical behavior was exposed or else the magazine could have suffered a great deal more than they already did having to admit that most of his articles were fabricated. Unethical journalism as a whole causes society to feel as if they can trust no one, which then leads people to feel as if they need to do their own research in order to obtain the truth. Falsifying information only further disrupts the trust between the media and society.
Bill Of Rights Case Summary
Free press plays a important role in our democratic society. It facilitates an open flow of information, it informs citizens, it acts as vessel to hold the government accountable. Free press is also protected under the First Amendment because it has a duty to expose corruption within the government. The government could not offer enough proof that making the report public posed a real threat to national security. Yet they achieved the opposite and it was thought that publishing the report could help inform and educate citizens on policies in
A Speech On American Journalism Essay
In his article “A Farewell to Journalism?: Time for a rethinking,” media critic Robert McChesney focuses on the idea that professional journalism in America has been in a major decline—and if a solution is not agreed upon to save it, our democracy itself will be in peril. More specifically, McChesney attempts to convey the idea that government intervention is imperative in order to salvage professional journalism as a whole and save democracy in America. He argues that government intervention in the form of subsidization and nationalization of the media is required; he writes, “The future of journalism left to the market will likely approach what education would be like if all public subsidies were removed…. It would be a nightmare for any credible democratic or humane society…” (McChesney 619-620). It is apparent that McChesney believes that in order to have a functional democracy, a robust Fourth Estate must also be present. Throughout the article, McChesney defends his claim and warrant through credible research and analysis—yet he falls short at critical points, especially when he assumes transferability between European and American policies, attempts to quantify freedom, and fails to realize the true relationship between the free-press and the government. These discrepancies within the flawed research that he presents render his argument for a national media system unsuccessful.
Cold War Propaganda
Nowadays journalists have the responsibility to report facts as accurately, objectively, and disinterestedly as is humanly possible. ‘’The, honest, self-disciplined, well-trained reporter seeks to be a propagandist for nothing but the truth’’ (Casey, 1944b).
The Media Helps to Construct National Identity and Loyal National Subjects. Discuss.
Therefore, it can be seen that media in Singapore are essential tools to promote national identity while supporting the ruling party political regime. Singapore then Prime Minister proposed that the press should support national goals and he states that: “we want mass media to reinforce, not undermine, the cultural values and social attitudes being inculcated in out school and universities” (Lee, 1971). For that reason, most of Singapore media today is under control of the government or government-linked corporations and are the principal instrument in creating social and political stability as well as advocating government policies and instilling nationalism (Leong, 2001).
Impact Of Globalization On The Media
It is without a doubt that the Globalisation of the media has increased our access to information about people and events around the world. However, during the process it has also shifted issues on what should or should not be in the public domain due to media ownership led by Western media corporations. The media shape is reconstructing itself, forming a singular global body playing an essential part in our democracy socially, politically, economically and culturally. Due to this, the effects of globalisation towards Journalism have become very debatable to whether it is benefiting the practice of journalism or hindering it. During the course of this essay, it will explore the affect globalisation has on the media (especially journalism), the affect of media ownership and how new technologies have influenced journalism.
The Duty Of Journalists And The Public Interest
The duty of journalists is to tell the truth. Journalism means you go back to the actual facts, you look at the documents, you discover what the record is, and you report it that way. — Chomsky 2008
Why Democracy Needs an Investigative Journalism
“A free, aggressive, open and bold press is part of the spiritual core of our Democracy”.
The Decline of Journalism as a Profession
The belief that journalism is in decline has triggered major alarms, because society needs an informational environment that is easily available to all citizens such as newspapers. There is a large body of journalist that suggests that if television has taken over from the press as our main source of news this may limit our capacity to learn about public affairs; newspapers are believed to be far more effective than television at conveying detailed information necessary to understand complex and detailed issues. There is also widespread concern that if journalism fails as a profession it will not be able to reach large sections of the community, particularly younger or less educated readers. This may reinforce a growing gap among citizens between the information that they receive.
- Watergate scandal
- President nixon
- Code of ethics
579 Words Essay on Journalism
Journalism is that part of social activity which is concerned with the dissemination of news and views about the society. Modern journalism feeds five departments of mass communication-(1) Newspapers and Periodicals, (2) Radio, (3) Television, (4) Films, and (5) Advertising.
In modern societies, journalism has become the media of mass education providing supplementary education to students at all stages and to the general masses-educated and uneducated.
All activities concerned with the communication of mass media is not journalism but the part of that activity involving writing, preparation and production of the communication messages is journalism. Thus, essentially journalists are writers, authors, reporters, correspondents, editors, sub-editors, interviewers, story writers, script writers, scenario editors and allied specialists.
The mass media are capable of reaching vast widespread audiences, thanks to fast’ moving newspapers, radio broadcasts, TV telecasts and the celluloid films. A single broadcasting network today can reach millions of people at the same time.
The world stands at the threshold of new communication systems which enable large number of citizens to regularly and effectively interact with each ‘other.
To make full use of the interactive information systems made possible by the computer technology, citizens can remain so well informed that they will be able to perform their duty adequately and efficiently and accelerate the process of development in different social fields.
Modern communication systems reflect the philosophy and achievements of society in all spheres by fast flow and pave the way for the homogeneity of culture-not only within its geographical unit but also beyond.
Journalism and Education
With the mass communication at its disposal, the journalist can spread literacy so that citizens can be taught the skills needed for their respective fields of activity. The basic need of a developing country is literacy.
Literacy is a must if a nation has to aspire for wide participation of all citizens in nation building activities of different sort. With the help of a crash programme in teaching adults to read and an expansion of institutions until every child has a school to attend, journalists are trying the audio-visual media to leap over the barriers of illiteracy and provide knowledge and awareness about social problems to citizens.
Journalism is the publication of news and views on various aspects of human activities in newspapers and periodicals. In a broader sense, the functions of journalism are to convey national policies to the public, and to keep the Government, at Local State and Central levels, informed of public needs.
It also brings to the notice of the Government public reaction to Government policies and decisions. In addition, it keeps the public and the Government informed of events and happenings at home and abroad.
On the one hand it performs the utilitarian purpose of information and on the other it provides entertainment to its readers by publishing short stories, poems, sports, cinema features, etc. A clever journalist by his penmanship creates interest in day-to-day political happenings. He presents the drab events and incidents in an artistic way, which provides the reader information as well as entertainment.
In modern times, the horizon of journalism has widened and it has transcended the limits of mere reporting of political and economic news. As it is a vehicle of mass communications, it is performing the function of social intercourse between the people having more or less identical interests.
Hence we find literary, political, economic and scientific magazines as also household or industrial magazines, which cater to the interests of their respective readers.
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Free Journalism Essay Examples & Topics
A journalism essay is a type of paper that combines personal records and reports. Besides news and facts, it should contain a story. An angle that creates a unique narrative of the events you are describing is crucial. However, let’s start with the definition.
No matter how often people hear about journalism, they still might get confused about what it is. It is an act of informative writing about news stories. It can be digital and non-digital, print and non-print. Journalists strive to present information in an interesting way while staying true to the source.
If you have seen journalistic article examples, you know there are two types. News can cover “hard stories”, meaning world events and politics, and “softer stories” about celebrities, science, etc. Journalism as a profession is multidimensional in nature. It can include texts, photography, interviews, and more. Content varies between different categories, such as literary reportage and yellow journalism.
Here, our experts have combined tips about how to write a good journalistic essay. We gathered information that will be useful for starting research and completing it. Moreover, you will find journalism topic ideas. You can use them for inspiration or to practice. Finally, underneath the article you will discover some stellar journalistic essay examples written by other students.
How to Write a Journalistic Essay
In this section, you’ll find tips that can help you start writing. However, nothing is more vital than choosing an appropriate journalism essay topic beforehand.
Before picking the subject, ask yourself several questions:
- What themes do I want to explore?
- What will my story be about?
- What points do I want to make?
- What is my attitude towards the topic?
Answering these questions can allow you to improve your storytelling. What’s more, look for one that can allow you to write intimately. Personal touches and views will influence your paper immensely. With all that in mind, try our free topic generator to get more ideas.
To write an outstanding journalistic essay, you should try these tips:
- Gather facts and references first.
Collect all the information you may need for your paper. For a story in journalism, you may be required to interview people or visit a location. Most importantly, you’ll have to research online. Also, you can read stories written by other people on the Internet to gain a better perspective.
- Organize your ideas and arguments before writing.
A good story is always organized. The structure of a journalistic should represent an inverted pyramid. The most crucial facts appear on the top, less important details go further, and extra information stays on the bottom. You can reflect in your writing. Organize all your arguments before writing, sticking to a logical structure.
- Rely on storytelling.
The story should become the main focus of your work. The writing should serve it and grab the reader’s attention from the start. Think about storytelling techniques that can keep your reader interested till the very end.
- Work on your style and language.
Another essential technique to keep your work both logical and engaging is to write in short sentences. If you search for any journalistic writing examples, you’ll see that’s how journalists write. The main goal of your paper is to deliver a clear and strong message. So, working on your style is going to help you further this agenda.
21 Journalism Essay Topics
There are so many journalism topics you can write about, and it can sometimes be challenging to stick to one. If you are still unsure what to describe and explore in your paper, this section can help you make this choice.
Here are some original journalism topic ideas:
- The way race impacts the news in different states in the US.
- Super Bowl as a phenomenon is more important than the game.
- Why people refuse to believe in climate change.
- How have sports changed international politics?
- Is creative writing in high school an essential subject?
- How vital is transparency in broadcast journalism?
- Is media responsible for the Covid-19 crisis in the US?
- Journalism as a profession can help change the world.
- A privacy issue between British journalism and the royal family.
- Are social media and blogging the future of journalism?
- The role of religion and race in Hollywood.
- Why has the Chinese economy risen so much over the past decade?
- How can media help in battling poverty in developing countries?
- Can music be used as political propaganda?
- Connections between social media and depression.
- Should mobile phones be allowed in educational institutions?
- Has the Internet impacted the way how newspapers and articles are written?
- Should fake news be banned on social media?
- What are the biggest challenges of investigative journalism?
- Can reality television be viewed as a type of journalism?
- How can athletes impact social awareness?
Thank you for reading the article! We hope you will find it helpful. Do not hesitate to share this article or a list of journalism essay examples with others. Good luck with your assignment!
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Journalistic Culture and Journalism
Journalism is the method of assembling, generating and presenting data. In every community, people have an substantial thirst for breaking news. The thirst is quenched by journalism through the writing of magazines, periodicals, and tv news stories. The humans who satisfy this desire are journalists. Therefore, the position of a journalist is to report news and events. Notably, journalism and the verbal exchange process go hand in hand. Communication can be verbal, non-verbal or written. Communication studies as an educational discipline deal with the process of conversation. Therefore, there is a symbiotic relationship between journalism and communication because each methods involve conveying data to an audience. In other words, both concepts aim at completing the task of exchange of information with an audience. The paper will create an outline of journalism and journalistic culture. Also, it will examine different communication studies perspective.
Over the years, journalism has developed, and the gradual change has helped to improve the image of reporters. In other words, time has ascertained that only professional journalists can participate in journalism. The fact that only professional journalists can indulge in journalism has developed a unique culture associated with reporting (Borden, 2013). The culture has expectations and standards that journalists should meet and observe. Also, empirical research has dug into the concept of journalism and journalistic culture. Researchers have found that one of the things that make media reporting unique from other forms of communication is the culture that has norms and values for journalists (Borden, 2013). The culture is also referred to as the code of conduct of journalism. Journalists are not lone rangers, therefore, they are unified by a common culture that determines how information is created and distributed (Brown, 2011).
The first concept of the larger culture of journalism is objectivity (Kristensen, 2017). This concept revolves around reporting things the way they are. In other words, journalists are supposed to collect and distribute accurate facts. Moreover, objectivity requires a reporter to examine different sides of the story to enable them to separate facts from fiction (Borden, 2013). Exploring different sides of a piece of information helps media personalities to figure out how their audience will react to the story. Objectivity is one of the major things that separate journalism from another form of communication especially in the social media. For example, in social media, news stories from the members of the public are usually biased. Social media users most of the time tells on the side of the story that favors their ideology (Madison, 2017)
The other distinct character of the larger journalistic culture is accuracy (Borden, 2013). Every journalist has the responsibility of reporting accurate information. Also, information should be derived from credible sources. Information from the sources should be crosschecked to ensure that whatever was derived from the source is matched to the news story (Brown, 2011). In social media, most of the information is frequently speculative, a fact that separates it from journalism (Madison, 2017). The other distinction is that journalism must portray high levels of integrity at all times (Sigh, 2016). In other words, a journalist must avoid cases that would put them in a situation of conflict of interests. Therefore, a reporter must not extort or accept tokens from people who are interested in the story.
In the wake of social media, journalists have a major problem of time and deadline. Information in the Social media is distributed faster than how it is passed by media houses (Madison, 2017). Therefore, media houses are forced to look for sources and report them within a period. Deadlines mean that a journalist must work within a restricted time frame and at the same time pay attention to details. The concept of deadlines is a depiction of the unique journalistic culture (Brown, 2011).
Finally, journalistic work is surrounded by a sense of greater good. Many reporters believe that their job is a calling and it is not centered on money. Many people pass information for their benefits or their peers. For instance, many people in social media pass information to remain relevant or to conform to certain standards. On the other hand, journalists give information for the benefit of the society (Brown, 2011). Journalistic culture is also unique or different in various regions. Empirical research has shown that journalism culture is distinct in the various countries and geographical areas (Alonso & Ibanez, 2013). To explain the differences in media norms in different countries, researchers came up with the concept of intermediate journalistic cultures (Alonso & Ibanez, 2013). The following is the breakdown of how journalism is regulated and how roles of journalists are defined in different parts of the world:
The state of journalism in Europe has evolved in the last couple of decades. Various political and economic factors have influenced the landscape of journalistic culture in the continent. For example, in cases of countries in the Eastern Europe, the transition from dictatorial to democratic forms of government brought about a sense of journalism freedom (Alonso & Ibanez, 2013). However, in some countries such as Ukraine, the culture of journalism is usually depicted with constant conflicts between journalists and political players (Bohrmann, Balčytienė & Copper, 2007). In Western Europe, research showed that there is a distinction of journalistic culture in various countries. However, media models in the Eastern Europe countries are usually crafted around diversity and freedom of media (Bohrmann, Balčytienė & Copper, 2007).
In Asian countries, there is a general culture of obeying people in authority (Alonso & Ibanez, 2013). Also, Asia is rich in culture, and this complicates the whole aspect of journalism. The broad range of culture has led to the creation of a unique type of media that is different from the form in Europe. For instance, many researchers believe that Asian media firms concentrate more on finding the virtues rather than finding news (Alonso & Ibanez, 2013). Also, in China, the media is used to enhance the concept of single party democracy. Media houses in this continent have tried to emulate the models in Western Europe, but the complexity of the cultures in the region has been a major stumbling block.
African countries were colonized by European countries for almost a century. Therefore, journalism in these countries is largely influenced by the Western Culture (Alonso & Ibanez, 2013). However, the independence of journalists has been compromised by lack of stable governments. Therefore, political players influence the process of collecting and distributing information. In other words, political systems usually divert the media towards their directions (Alonso & Ibanez, 2013).
Arab journalism is depicted by the influence of Islam and political system of the time. Information conveyed in various media firms has elements of political bias. Also, the media in Arab countries is not self-regulatory, and it is closely monitored by political institutions. Therefore, the journalistic culture in these countries is determined by Islam culture as well as political affiliations (Alonso & Ibanez, 2013)
Latin American Journalism
The culture of Latin American countries is very diverse. In fact, researchers have indicated that in Latin America, it is hard to come up with a common theoretical framework that examines journalism in these countries. However, media in these countries is slowly gaining ground due to the political paradigm shift. In Argentina and Chile, the media has started to cover societal snags such as poverty and crime (Alonso & Ibanez, 2013)
Communication Studies Perspectives
Communication study is the educational process that deals with the study of conveyance and interpretation of meaning in various contexts. The academic discipline is also referred to as media studies, communication, and mass communication in some educational institutions. Communication studies have elements of social sciences and humanities (Sigh, 2016). Communication integrates social sciences disciplines such as anthropology and political science. On the hand, the study encompasses humanities subjects such as history because it examines historical events in Greece. Communication studies perspectives are different points of view in the study of encoding and decoding of meaning (Little & Foss, 2011). The following is a breakdown of the different perspectives in the study of communication:
The functional perspective believes that communication is the instrument that helps a member of a community to make decisions (Little & Foss, 2011). The approach answers the question how and why communication is related to the process of decision making. Studies conducted under this perspective must take into account the fact that without communication, society members could not accomplish their goals. In journalism, the approach examines how different audiences use mass communication, and the benefits they get from the consumption of journalistic materials (Blanco & Marin, 2010). In communication studies, functional approach determines why people consume certain TV shows. Further, the theory examines the target audience of journalistic materials, and the approach if the society learns anything from what they consume (Blanco & Marin, 2010).
The critical approach revolves around the fact that media is a means of transmission and interaction. The theory has two concepts; the transmissive and the ritual society. Transfer theory explains the process of communicating messages with the aim of persuading (Little & Foss, 2011). Further, the transmission part inspects whether messages are being conveyed clearly between the sender and the receiver. The ritual concept, on the other hand, examines the process through which given society formulates or creates a shared meaning. Therefore, in communication studies, the cultural perspectives create an outline of meaning that people derive in journalistic materials. Also, the models examine if a specific news story depicts the meaning it is supposed to portray (Blanco & Marin, 2010).
The social approach can be assessed from the Marxist social perspective. Marx believed that the people who own the means of production controlled the social and economic culture of the society (Hammer & Kellner, 2009). Therefore, the ruling class of the society determines what is run in the media houses. In other words, the media works to sustain the interests of people on top of the food chain (Blanco & Marin, 2010).
The empirical approach in communication studies incorporates the concepts and techniques of social sciences in communication. Therefore, research methods used in social sciences are integrated into the communication discipline (Little & Foss, 2011). The empirical theory uses different systems of the social sciences subjects such as the research methods uncover the effects of mass communication (Bauer & Buchi, 2010). The empirical concept is based on the fact that truths can be exposed to human interactions.
The primary goal of the empirical perspective is to create theoretical frameworks that examine and govern communication among members of the society. The empirical theory in communication studies helps to understand and predict the outcome of journalistic material in the community. Also, the model contributes in exposing communication patterns of an individual community (Bauer & Buchi, 2010).
Correlation between Communication perspectives with Journalistic Culture
Communication perspective influences the way people think about communication patterns. The models help communication scholars to organize and interpret different aspects of the experience in the conveyance of meaning (Little & Foss, 2011). In other words, communication can be understood and construed in a variety of ways if it is examined through different perspectives. Therefore, theoretical perspectives provide an essential framework for examining the distinction of various journalistic cultures (Luthra, 2009).
The functionalist perspective helps researchers to know why some countries are covered by a series of bad political decisions. The model explains why journalistic culture in some countries does not influence decision making in the political world. For instance, if the media does not highlight the evils that are happening in the government, the members of the society will always remain ignorant about their government. In Western Europe where journalists are independent, the political process of decision making is usually inclusive and efficient. The efficiency heightens because journalists in these states are allowed oversight of the decision makers (Bohrmann, Balčytienė & Copper, 2007).
Using the critical approach, researchers can determine why journalistic culture in some countries is influenced by political players. For example, journalism norms in Arab countries are usually influenced by the culture of Islam and the political institutions (Hammer & Kellner, 2009). The messages from media firms frequently contain elements of political bias. The critical approach is derived from the Marxist social perspectives that explain why the rich exploits the poor. The Marxist approach explains why the media will always protect the interests of the influential people in the society. Also, the approach explains why funding of media by rich in the society influence the culture of independence among journalists (Hammer & Kellner, 2009).
The empirical perspective is the scientific and theoretical framework that allows communication researchers to identify different journalistic cultures in various societies (Little & Foss, 2011). In other words, the model has helped researchers to indulge in the compound subject of journalistic culture in communication studies. For instance, empirical research in journalist has helped many researchers to examine the distinction of journalistic cultures all over the world. The researchers came up with the intermediate journalistic culture and were able to group them according to their respective regions (Bauer & Buchi, 2010).
To sum up, journalism is the process of assembling, generating and presenting information. Therefore, a journalist is the person who creates and distributes this information. Communication is the act of interpreting messages in different contexts. There is a unique relationship between journalism and communication because journalism is a form of communication. However, journalism is different from other types of communication because it is associated with a distinct culture. One of the major elements of the culture is the code of conduct. The code of conduct is the overall guide to all journalists. For instance, all reporters are required to be objective in reporting. The journalistic culture can also be broken down into intermediate cultures that include African journalism, European journalism, and Arab journalism. For instance, media culture in Arab countries is influenced by political institutions. In journalistic studies, different perspectives offer a theoretical framework for studying various journalism aspects. For instance, the functional approach examines the influence of media and communication in the process of decision making.
Alonso, M.O, and Ibanez, D.B. "Intermediate Journalistic Cultures. International Comparative Studies in Journalism." Medijska Istrazivanja. 19.1 (2013): 39-60. Print.
Bauer, M., & Bucchi, M. (2010). Journalism, science and society: Science communication between news and public relations. New York u.a.: Routledge.
Blanco, G. M. L., & Marín, A. J. I. (2010) . Discourse and communication: Cognitive and functional perspectives. Madrid: Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Servicio de Publicaciones.
Bohrmann, H., Balčytienė, A., & Kopper, G. G. (2007). Media industry, journalism culture and communication policies in Europe: [Festschrift für Gerd G. Kopper]. Köln: Von Halem.
Borden, S. (2013). Journalism as Practice: MacIntyre, Virtue Ethics and the Press. Routledge.
Brown, F. (2011) Journalism Ethics: A Casebook of Professional Conduct for News Media. Portland: Marion Street Press. Print.
Hammer, R., & Kellner, D. (2009). Media/cultural studies: Critical approaches. New York: Peter Lang.
Kristensen, N.N. (2017). Cultural Journalism and Cultural Critique in the Media. Routledge.
Littlejohn, S. W., & Foss, K. A. (2011). Theories of human communication. Long Grove, Ill: Waveland Press.
Luthra, R. (2009). Journalism and mass communication: Vol. 2. Oxford: Eolss Publishers Co Ltd.
Madison, E. D. (2017). REIMAGINING JOURNALISM: How social media, comedians, and even reporters are transforming ... the news media: Praeger.
Singh, J. K. (2016). Journalism and mass communication. New Delhi. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
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Journalism: What is News?
There seems to be so much happening in life that we all want to know about. Every day, there is a jumble of events, falling over each and affecting our normal living. And journalists struggle through this chaos, trying to ensure the public receives time news. They keep creating sorted out and neatly packaged news for the benefit of the public. Hence, people hear the same story on the radio, the television, the newspaper, and even online channels. The world needs such stories because we depend on information for developing.
And when the news starts coming in, the most important stories appear in the news bulletin. For the newspaper, it will be the story holding the cover page. And looking at the way headlines are framed, the reader of the viewer will be easily attracted to read more. The lesser news appears in the middle of the coverage, and they are often given less importance.
But the question is, how do journalists decide which stories should feature in the bulletin? Or still, which stories are worth appearing in the presentation as news? How do they determine the newsworthiness of a story? And how do they give some stories priority over the others? Well, these are judgments that anybody can do. In fact, we all face these situations in our daily lives. It can, therefore, be easy to tell what is more important in life. Consider the following:
- A girl through primary school to the university level.
- A 30-year-old man gets married to a 25 years old lady, and a 50-year-old marring a 15 year-year-old.
- A car knocks dead a chicken or a child
Each of these stories qualifies to be news. However, some carry more weight than others. Only a journalist can tell which story will make more sense on the cover, and which ones feature in the supporting sections. As a journalism student, it is essential to understand the concept of effective reporting. And that leads us to discuss news in detail.
What is news?
News can be defined as an unpublished tale of human activity that offers information, education, or interest to the reader. Hence, the first requirement of a news story is that it should not appear in any publication. No one has heard about or shared the information. The news comes to the reader for the first times time a hot cake straight from the over. Therefore, anything that appears in a previous print does not stand as a news item. Then there is the element of human activity. This means the news story should touch on human experiences. It does not have to talk directly about people, but it affects social activities. Also, news must draw some interest to the reader; it can be physical or emotional. In other words, news seeks to evoke a reaction from the audience. And the last but not least prerequisite for news is that it must some impact, knowledge-wise, on the audience.
The most important factor to note is that news has to be current and carry educational value. It must have some value to the reader or listener. At the same time, it should be presented with respect to the audience’s specific field. This is to say; news has to be geo-specific, as close to the audience as possible. They may receive other information about other areas, but that will have little to no relevance to their current state. Hence, news has to focus on the tides of human aspirations and what is happening in their immediate environment.
Actual news has to be concise and accurate. And this is why professional journalists always seek to verify their sources before publishing a story. News is an account of events or some action happening in a specific era. It is written easily and comprehensively, mostly from the reader's point of view; hence it should meet the need of the target audience. And then, news should provoke some reaction in the reader. It qualifies to be news because it tells a story that no one else has told, and it is for the readers/viewer/listener.
Criteria for news
There is a criterion that journalists use to determine the newsworthiness of a story. It answers the following questions:
If the events unfolding in the story happening a long time ago, then it is not news? For instance, the assignation of J.F Kennedy was a tragic event. But it cannot be reported in tomorrow's newspapers. This is why news story writers try as much as possible to use the present tense. If the story is happening right now, then it qualifies as a news feature.
It is unusual
Many things are happening all around us. But they are now new. A person waking up every day, making breakfast, going to work, and coming back in the evening is normal. A story of a dog biting a man cannot be news in any situation, but a man biting a dog is news. Therefore, there are some events that we don’t see every day, that qualify as news.
Is it significant?
As stated above, a good news story must have value to the audience. If a type of bug has been living and feeding on bushes changes its menu to human crops, such becomes news because it affects the people directly. Note, however, that what is significant in one society may not be so in another.
Is it about the people?
In our definition of news, we talked about people. It is human activities that create a story; hence news should be automatically about people. Even though it can be made of non-human sources, chances are it touches human lives to make it news. For instance, a cyclone, a bush fire, or a drought are natural occurrences that impact human activities.
Author: James Hamilton
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