essay questions biology

KCSE 2023 Biology Essay Questions and Answers (KCSE 2023 Prediction Questions)

Here are KCSES 2022/2023 Biology Essay Questions and Answers (KCSE 2022 Prediction Questions). Content: 31 pages with 60 questions and answers.

BIOLOGY (231/2) Revision Questions (Essays): Expected Responses

Q1. Explain the various ways in which a typical cell is adapted to its functions

   Has a cell membrane; with pores; that regulates substances entering and leaving the cell; cytoplasm; contain sugars and salts; for maintaining its osmotic pressure; also has a liquid medium; for all biochemical reactions; nucleus; contain chromosomes having hereditary material; and controls all the activities of the cell; ribosomes; are sites for protein synthesis; golgi bodies/apparatus; for secretion of hormones and enzymes; formation of lysosomes; lysosomes; contain lytic enzymes for breaking down worn-out organelles; secretory vesicles; formed from golgi apparatus for secreting substances; smooth endoplasmic reticulum; synthesizes and transports lipids; rough endoplasmic reticulum; transport proteins; nucleolus; controls the activities of the nucleus; produces ribosomes; mitochondria; form sites for energy production; centrioles; formation of cilia and flagella; forms spindle fibres used in cell division; plant sap vacuoles; store salts and other dissolved substances; controls osmotic pressure and turgidity of cells; food vacuoles involved in digestion of engulfed food; chloroplasts; form sites for photosynthesis in plant cells;  Max. 20 mks

Q2. Explain how the various specialized cells are modified to carry out their functions in plants and animals

   Animal cells: Sperm cell; has acrosome containing lytic enzymes; that digest the egg membranes for penetration during fertilization; has a long tail; containing numerous mitochondria; to generate maximum energy for propulsion/swimming in the vaginal fluid after ejaculation; Red blood cells; are flattened, circular/spherical biconcave in shape; to increase the surface area for packaging of haemoglobin; has haemoglobin; that combines with respiratory gases; for transport to and from body tissues; White blood cells; are amoeboid in shape hence able to change shape; to engulf pathogens through phagocytosis; lymphocytes produce antibodies to fight pathogens; Nerve cell; has extensions/dentrites; to receive and send information for sensation; Ciliated epithelial cells; have cilia for propulsion of mucus that traps dust and micro-organisms in the respiratory tract; Muscle cells; elongated, striated and contractile; to bring about movement; Plant cells: Guard cells; bean-shaped; to regulate the size of the stomata allowing gaseous exchange; and control water loss; has chloroplasts with chlorophyll; for photosynthesis; Root hair cell; elongated; thin-walled; with dense cytoplasm for absorption of water and mineral salts; Epidermal cell; thin; for protection of inner tissues from mechanical and micro-organism attack; Palisade cell; contains numerous chloroplasts with chlorophyll; for photosynthesis; elongated; to increase surface area for trapping maximum amounts of light energy; Meristematic cell; thin-walled; with dense cytoplasm; for primary and secondary growth; Max. 20 mks

Q3. Describe how the mammalian body protects itself against infections

   Pathogenic microbes are found on the skin, respiratory tract, mouth, vagina and the intestinal tract; the skin; has a keratinised and waterproof cornified outer layer; that provides a mechanical barrier to microbes/prevents entry of microbes; sebaceous gland; produces sebum; which has antiseptic properties; the respiratory tract; produce mucus secretions that trap dust; cilia sweep/waft/propel the microbes to the pharynx for swallowing or to be coughed out; reflex actions of coughing/sneezing/vomiting help remove foreign materials from the respiratory tract/digestive tract; lysozymes/enzymes in saliva/nasal secretions/tears; digest walls of bacteria destroying them; gastric secretions such as hydrochloric acid lowers the pH in the stomach killing micro-organisms; clotting of blood; prevents entry of microbes after damage of blood vessels; phagocytosis; by phagocytes engulf and destroy microbes and other foreign bodies; lymphocytes are stimulated to produce antibodies; by proteins present in microbes protecting the body; antibodies destroy/kill micro-organisms through various ways: agglutinins; bind to pathogens making them clump together; killing them; Lysins; bind to pathogens and make them burst or disintegrate; opsonins; bind to pathogens making them easily recognized hence be engulfed/destroyed by other lymphocytes; anti-toxins; bind and neutralize toxins produced by micro-organisms; vagina is acidic; hence making it not conducive for growth and reproduction of micro-organisms; Max: 20 mks

Q4. How are the leaves of higher plants adapted to their functions?

    Broad and flattened lamina; to increase surface area; for absorption of light; thin blade; to reduce distance for diffusion of gases and penetration of light waves; transparent epidermis and cuticle; to allow light to penetrate to tissues; cuticle layer absent on stomata; to allow for gaseous exchange; one-cell thick epidermal layer; to reduce the distance over which sunlight penetrates; palisade cells have numerous chloroplasts containing chlorophyll; to trap maximum amounts of light energy; have stomata on the epidermis; to allow for gaseous exchange; and control of water loss through transpiration; palisade layer have elongated cells located at right angles to the leaf surface; for maximum absorption of light energy; spongy mesophyll; consists of spherical and loosely-packed cells; to create air spaces; which communicate with the atmosphere through stomata; for purposes of gaseous exchange and control of water loss; veins have conducting tissues: xylem; for movement of water and dissolved mineral salts; phloem; for translocation of manufactured food; Max. 20 mks

Q5.  Explain how the various teeth adapt mammals for nutrition

   Incisor; sharp; chisel-shaped; for biting; and cutting food; one root for support in the jaw bone; Canines; long; sharp; pointed; for holding prey; piercing; and tearing flesh from prey; single root; for support in the jaw bone; Premolars; large/wide; to increase surface area for grinding food; highly cusped; to increase surface area for grinding food; two roots; for firm support/anchorage in the jaw bone; molars; large/wide; to increase surface area for grinding food; highly cusped; to increase surface area for grinding food; Max. 20 mks

Q6. Describe what happens to a meal of oily beans and maize from the time of ingestion up to the time of absorption

   In the mouth; starch in maize; is digested by salivary amylase/ptyalin/diastase into maltose; food is chewed and mixed by teeth and the tongue; rolled into boluses by peristalsis; it enters into the stomach via the cardiac sphincter; in the stomach, gastric juice containing pepsinogen that is activated to pepsin; digests proteins in the beans; into shorter peptides; food is churned and allowed into the duodenum; via the pyloric sphincter muscle; in the duodenum; bile juice secreted by the gall bladder; emulsifies the oils in the beans into tiny oil droplets; pancreatic juice; secreted by the pancrease; contains pancreatic amylase; that digests starch to maltose; pancreatic lipase; that digests the oil in the beans to fatty acids and glycerol; trypsin; digests proteins into shorter peptides;  food enters into the ileum; where succus entericus is secreted; it contains maltase enzyme; that digests the maltose into glucose; that is absorbed; peptidase; digests peptides into amino acids; lipase digests the remaining lipids (oil) into fatty acids and glycerol; which is absorbed through the lacteals of the villi; Max. 20 mks

Q7. How are the small intestines in mammals adapted to their functions?

Small intestines consists of the duodenum and the ileum; most digestion of food occurs in the duodenum; bile from the gall bladder of the liver is secreted through the bile ducts; and it is used to emulsify fats/break fat particles into tiny droplets; to increase the surface area for enzyme action; the pancreas secretes pancreatic juice to the duodenum; the juice contains pancreatic amylase; that helps to breakdown the remaining starch into maltose; trypsin; (that is secreted in its inactive form, trypsinogen , and activated by enterokinase enzyme); hydrolyses proteins into shorter peptides; pancreatic lipase; converts lipids into fatty acids and glycerol; sodium hydrogen carbonate is also produced; to neutralize the acidic chyme from the stomach; and provide a suitable alkaline medium for pancreatic and other intestinal enzymes; the ileum is long; and narrow; to increase the surface area for complete digestion of food; and maximum absorption of digested food; highly-coiled; to reduce speed of food flow; for maximum digestion; and absorption; presence of villi; and microvilli; to increase surface area; for maximum absorption; dense network of capillaries; to transport blood; for efficient transport of absorbed food; presence of lacteals in the villi; for absorption of fatty acids and glycerol molecules; presence of enzymes: Lipase; for digestion of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol; maltase; for digestion of maltose to glucose molecules; peptidase; for breakdown of peptides into amino acids; sucrase; for digestion of sucrose into glucose and fructose; lactase; for digestion of lactose into glucose and galactose; goblet cells; produce mucus; to lubricate the walls of the ileum; for smooth flow of food; coats the walls of ileum to prevent digestion by peptidase enzyme; Max. 20 mks

Q8. Outline and explain the various homeostatic functions of the liver in mammals

   Deamination; process of removal of an amino group from an amino acid molecule; the process gets rid of excess amino acids in the body; as the body is not able to store them; the amino group enters the ornithine cycle; where it is combined with carbon (IV) oxideto form urea; which is excreted in urine through the kidney; Heat production; many metabolic activities take place in the liver; releasing heat energy; that is distributed by the blood to other parts of the body; this helps in thermoregulation; Storage of vitamins and mineral salts; Vitamins A, B, D, E and K; are stored in the liver; worn-out red blood cells, are broken down to yield iron; which is stored in the liver in form of ferritin; this is used later in case of shortage; Formation of red blood cells; occurs in the liver of the foetus; the liver also breaks down old/exhausted red blood cells; leading to formation of more in the bone marrow to replace the worn-out cells; to enhance oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide distribution; Regulation of blood sugar level; liver cells convert excess glucose into glycogen and fats under the influence of insulin hormone; the stored glycogen is however converted back to glucose; when glucose levels are low; by the liver cells; under the influence of glucagon hormone; Regulation of plasma proteins; plasma proteins such as prothrombin and fibrinogen are manufactured in the liver using the amino acids found in the liver; they play a major role in blood clotting; that prevents excessive blood loss and infection at the injured area; other plasma proteins produced by the liver such as serum and albumen; contribute to the maintenance of osmotic pressure in the body; non-essential amino acids are also synthesized by the liver; for use by the body; Storage of blood; the liver is highly vascularised; hence it is capable of holding a large volume of blood when the blood vessels dilate during hot conditions; when the temperatures are low, the blood vessels constrict under the influence of the endocrine and nervous systems; hence less blood is stored in the liver; this contributes to thermoregulation; Detoxification; this is the process where harmful compounds such as drugs and poisons; are converted to less toxic compounds in the liver; toxicity is caused by medication, drugs and microorganisms; the toxic compounds are later excreted in urine; detoxification prevents the accumulation of toxins in body cells; which could lead to death or malfunctioning of the body cells; Max. 20 mks

Q9. Explain why the following conditions are necessary for photosynthesis

  • Carbon (IV) Oxide

Required in the dark stage of photosynthesis; it combines with the hydrogen ion from the light stage; to form glucose, proteins and lipids; low concentrations reduces the rate of production of energy and food; while high concentrations leads to an increase in the amount of energy and food formed;

It is used to break down water molecules (through photolysis); into hydrogen ions, oxygen and energy; the energy and hydrogen ions formed are used in the dark stage;

  • Chlorophyll

Green pigment that traps light energy from the sun; that is used in photolysis of water molecules;

  • Suitable temperature and pH

Temperature affects the enzymes involved in photosynthesis; suitable/optimum temperatures activate enzymes; for maximum production of food; while extremely low temperatures inactivate enzymes; leading to less or no production of food; high temperatures denature enzymes; stopping the process of photosynthesis; photosynthetic enzymes work well in low pH; so the rate is high; while higher pH reduces enzyme activity; lowering the rate of photosynthesis;

Forms a medium for the chemical reactions; it is split to yield hydrogen ions, oxygen and energy for use in the dark stage; solvent for the materials used in photosynthesis; Max. 20 mks

Q10. How is the ileum adapted to its functions?

      Long; and narrow; to increase the surface area for complete digestion of food; and maximum absorption of digested food; highly-coiled; to reduce speed of food flow; for maximum digestion; and absorption; presence of villi; and microvilli; to increase surface area; for maximum absorption; dense network of capillaries; to transport blood; for efficient transport of absorbed food; presence of lacteals; for absorption of fatty acids and glycerol molecules; presence of enzymes: Lipase; for digestion of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol; maltase; for digestion of maltose to glucose molecules; peptidase; for breakdown of peptides into amino acids; sucrase; for digestion of sucrose into glucose and fructose; lactase; for digestion of lactose into glucose and galactose; goblet cells; produce mucus; to lubricate the walls of the ileum; for smooth flow of food; coats the walls of ileum to prevent digestion by peptidase enzyme; Max. 20 mks

Q11. a) What is homeostasis?

         (Mechanisms of) control and maintenance of a constant internal environment regardless of the external conditions; 2 mks

  • b) Name any three factors that must be maintained constant in mammalian bodies

          Temperature; Water; Salt or ion content; Carbon (IV) oxide; Glucose; amino acids; Max. 3 mks

  • c) Explain how endotherms respond to heat and cold conditions in their environment

         Heat/hot conditions: Increased sweating; to lose heat through latent heat of vaporization; dilation of arterioles under the skin; to bring more blood to the skin surface to lose heat to the atmosphere; decreased body metabolism; to reduce heat generation; erector pili muscles relax; making hair follicles to relax hence hair lies flat on skin, no air is trapped; to lose heat; slow/reduced muscular activity due to slow metabolism; to reduce heat production; panting to expose tongue and mouth; to release heat; moving to shades to avoid direct heat; aestivation; to escape the extreme heat; flapping of ears to create currents to carry away heat; Cold conditions: stamping of feet; to generate heat; basking in the sun to gain heat directly; less production of sweat; to reduce water loss through latent heat of vaporization; vasoconstriction of arterioles; hence less blood flow to the skin surface to reduce heat loss; increased metabolism through release of more thyroxine hormone; to generate heat; erector pili muscles contract; pulling hair follicles hence hair is raised; to trap a layer of moist air; to prevent heat loss; shivering/rapid contraction of muscles; to yield heat to warm body; Max. 15 mks

Q12. Describe the route taken by water from the soil up to the evaporating surface of a plant

      Water is drawn into the root hair cells by osmosis; due to the presence of dissolved substances in the cell sap of root hairs, the concentration of cell sap is greater than that of the surrounding solution in the soil/concentration gradient; this exerts a higher osmotic pressure, thus drawing the water molecules across the cell wall and cell membrane into the root hair cells; more water drawn into the root hair cells dilutes the cell sap; making it less concentrated than that in the adjacent cortex cell of the root; due to osmotic gradient, water moves from the adjacent cells to the next by osmosis; until it enters the xylem vessels located in the center of the root; the xylem vessels of the root then conduct the water up into the xylem vessels in the stem into the leaves; there is a force in the roots which pushes water up the stem; this force is known as root pressure; and can be considerably high in some plants; energy from the endodermal cells of the root is responsible for driving this force; in the xylem vessels, water would rise up by capillarity; to some extent because the vessels are narrower and there is  a high attractive force between the water molecules and the cell walls; the cohesive; and adhesive forces are important in the maintenance of a continuous and uninterrupted water column in the xylem vessels up the tree to the leaves; water vaporizes from the spongy mesophyll cells; their cell sap becomes concentrated than the adjacent cells. This increases the osmotic pressure of the spongy mesophyll cells; as a result of this, water flows into the cell from other surrounding cell, which in turn takes in water from xylem vessels within the leaf veins; this creates a pull/suction force that pulls a stream of water from xylem vessels in the stem and roots. This force, known as transpiration pull; helps in maintaining a continuous column of water from the roots to the leaves; water flows from the midrib into leaf veins from where it enters leaf cells; from the mesophyll cells, it enters the airspaces; then the substomatal air chambers; from where it evaporates through the stomata; to the atmosphere; Max. 20 mks

Q13. How is the mammalian heart adapted to its functions?

Heart is enclosed in a pericardial membrane/pericardium; that produces a fluid; to lubricate it; the membrane also keeps the heart in position; It is covered in a fatty layer; that acts as a shock absorber; made up of cardiac muscles; which are interconnected/interacted hence contract and relax without fatigue or nervous stimulation/myogenic; for continuous pumping of blood throughout the lifespan of the animal; the muscles are supplied by nutrients and oxygen; by the coronary arteries; and the coronary veins take away wastes and carbon (IV) oxide; heart is divided into 4 chambers; for efficient double circulation/ avoid mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood/carry large volume of blood; has interventricular septum; to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood; ventricles are thick/muscular; to generate high pressure to pump blood out of the heart; left ventricle has thick muscles/more muscular; to pump blood to all body tissues; heart has bicuspid; and tricuspid valves; to prevent back flow of blood to left auricle; and right auricle respectively; valves have tendinous cords/valve tendons; to prevent them from turning inside out; semi lunar valves located at the beginning of major arteries; prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles; has sino-artrio node located in the muscles of the right auricle; to initiate heart beat/contractions of heart muscles/cardiac muscles, rate of heart beat is controlled by nerves; vagus nerve; slows down heartbeat; while sympathetic nerve; speeds up the heartbeat; has aorta; to transport oxygenated blood to all body parts; has pulmonary artery; that transports deoxygenated blood from right ventricles to lungs for oxygenation; has pulmonary vein; that transports oxygenated blood from lungs to the left ventricles; for distribution to all body parts; has the venacava; that  receives deoxygenated blood from all body parts to right ventricles; Max. 20 mks

Q14. Describe double circulation in mammals

 Deoxygenated blood from body tissues (except lungs); enters the heart via the right auricle; through the venacava; it flows to the right ventricle; via the tricuspid valve; the right ventricle contracts; pumping blood; via the semi lunar valves; through the pulmonary artery; to the lungs for oxygenation; the oxygenated blood from the lungs; flow through the pulmonary vein; to the left auricle; via the bicuspid valve; to the left ventricle; the left ventricle contracts; pumping blood via the semi lunar valves; through the aorta; to the rest of the body tissues; Max. 20 mks

Q15. Describe the process of urine formation in the mammalian kidneys

      The afferent arteriole which is a branch of the renal artery supplies blood to the glomerulus; the afferent arteriole has a wider lumen/diameter than the efferent arteriole; which takes away blood from the glomerulus; the differences in the diameter of the afferent and the afferent vessels causes high pressure; leading to ultrafiltration of blood; the walls of the blood capillaries are one-cell thick; hence glucose, amino acids, vitamins, hormones, salts, creatine, urea and water filter into the Bowman’s capsule; to form glomerular filtrate; white blood cells, red blood cells, plasma proteins such as globulin and platelets are too large to pass through the capillary wall; hence remain in the blood capillaries; useful substances in the human body are selectively reabsorbed; back into the blood stream at the proximal convoluted tubule; the tubule is highly coiled; to increase the surface area for reabsorption of the substances; the useful substances include amino acids, glucose, vitamins, hormones, sodium chloride and water; many mitochondria found at the proximal convoluted tubule; provide energy for reabsorption of these substances against a concentration gradient; the glomerular filtrate flows into the descending and the ascending limb of the loop of Henle; blood in the capillaries and the glomerular filtrate in the loop of Henle move in opposite directions/counter-current flow; this provides a steep concentration gradient that leads to maximum absorption of water through osmosis; sodium chloride is actively absorbed from the ascending limb into the blood capillaries; under the influence of aldosterone hormone; the glomerular filtrate flows into the collecting tubule from where, more water is reabsorbed into the blood stream; antidiuretic hormone influences the amount of water to be reabsorbed depending on the osmotic pressure of the blood; the glomerular filtrate from several collecting tubules now referred to as urine; is emptied into the collecting duct; the urine passes through pyramid, pelvis and ureter into the bladder; where it is stored for some time. The sphincter on the urethra relaxes to allow urine to be released from the body; Max. 20 mks

Q16. Explain the role of the following hormones during homeostasis

  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Secreted by the (posterior lobe/end) pituitary gland; in response to an increase in the osmotic pressure of blood; the hormone stimulates the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts; to increase their permeability to water; this increases the reabsorption of water into the bloodstream; concentrated and less urine is excreted; when the osmotic pressure decreases, less or no hormone is produced; hence the tubules become impermeable to water; less water is reabsorbed into the bloodstream; hence more dilute urine is excreted; fluctuations in the osmotic pressure is detected by the hypothalamus;

Secreted by the pancrease; in response to a rise in blood sugar level; it stimulates liver cells to convert the excess glucose into glycogen and fats for storage in the liver and muscle cells; increases the oxidation of glucose in respiration to yield water energy and carbon (IV) oxide/increases metabolism in the body; this leads to a fall in blood glucose to normal level;

Secreted by the pancrease; in response to a decline in blood glucose level; it stimulates liver cells to convert the stored glycogen and fats back to glucose; stimulates the conversion of amino acids to glucose; and stops the oxidation of glucose in the body cells; the glucose formed is released to the bloodsteream causing a rise of blood glucose level to normal; Max. 20 mks

Q17. a) Distinguish between Diabetes mellitus and Diabetes insipidus

            Diabetes mellitus is a condition/disease caused by failure of the pancrease to produce adequate insulin hormone; leading to excess glucose levels in the body some of which is released in urine while diabetes insipidus is a condition caused by failure/inability of the kidney tubules to control the amount of water in urine as a result of a defect in production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) leading to production of more dilute urine; Max. 2 mks

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240 Interesting Biology Topics for Essays & Research Papers

Biology is often called the science of life . From bacteria to whales, biologists study all kinds of organisms. Have you ever wondered why bees dance? Or how can chickens be the closest modern relatives to dinosaurs? The buzzing world is full of complex wonders like these. That’s why it’s so easy to find a biology research topic of your liking.

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If you need to craft a biology essay, this article is for you. Here you can learn about research areas and fields in biology. Besides, you will find 220 interesting biology topics to write about. Read on to refresh your knowledge of microbiology, epidemiology, and more.

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🔝 Top 10 Biology Research Topics

📚 areas of research in biology, ⭐ top 10 interesting biology topics for essays, 🍎 biological topics for high school.

  • 🦠 Microbiology Topics
  • 💀 Anatomy & Human Biology
  • 🔬 Cell & Molecular Biology
  • ♻️ Environmental Biology
  • 🐬 Marine Biology
  • 🌻 Plant Biology
  • 🧬 Evolutionary Biology
  • 👶🧑 Developmental Biology
  • 😷 Epidemiology & Population Topics in Biology
  • 📜 History of Biology

🔍 References

  • Are viruses alive?
  • How do emotions work?
  • What is the role of hormones?
  • Ways to recover endangered species
  • Are allergies a sign of immune disorder?
  • What is the function of chromosomes?
  • Robert Hooke’s contribution to biology
  • The difference between Darwinism and evolution
  • The process of bacterial invasion of the body
  • Ways to strengthen the human immune system

Biologists operate on a vast scale. Naturally, there are plenty of research areas. Let’s sort them out:

  • Microbiology. Microbiologists examine minute organisms. Many of them, such as viruses, can cause infectious diseases. Because of this, microbiology is strongly linked with immunology.
  • Anatomy. Anatomical research focuses on the structure of tissues and organs.
  • Cell and molecular biology. Cells are the basis for every living being. The key topic in this area is the molecular organization of cells.
  • Environmental biology. Our environment needs support, and environmental biologists provide it. They study ecosystems to find out how humans affect nature. Scientists in this area also observe how organisms react to their surroundings.
  • Marine biology. This branch is concerned with life in the deep seas. Oceanography is a crucial part of marine biology.

Paul Watson quote.

  • Botany. This study is also called plant biology. It studies the properties of organisms that need sun and water to survive. Common categories of plants include trees, shrubs, and flowers.
  • Evolutionary biology. All that lives is always evolving. Organisms create, merge, and delete genes. Evolutionary biologists monitor these changes.
  • Developmental biology. Research in this area includes studying tissue regeneration and cell growth.
  • Epidemiology. Epidemiologists investigate diseases and health conditions. Key questions include: Where does a disease originate from? How does it transmit? What risks are there?

With this overview in mind, you’re ready to choose an interesting biological topic.

  • 4 types of biotechnology
  • Main branches of biochemistry
  • Pros and cons of gene therapy
  • Exobiology vs. astrobiology
  • Biological functions of the DNA
  • Levels of biological organization
  • Properties of the phylogenetic tree
  • Classification of invertebrate animals
  • History of modern light microscopes
  • The early modern period of plant systematics

From peas to platypuses: high school biology covers a wide range of topics. In your biology essay, you’ll have the chance to familiarize yourself with any of them. Your options are almost endless! Consult our list of 20 popular ideas to get your research started:

  • Compare the types of cell reproduction.
  • How did Gregor Mendel discover heredity?
  • Cell structure: prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes.
  • Enzymes: what do we need them for?
  • Explain how photosynthesis converts CO2 into O2.
  • How does the human metabolism work?
  • What are the differences between meiosis and mitosis?
  • How do you predict the probability of inheriting a gene?
  • Describe the structure of DNA.
  • What is PCR used for?
  • Biotechnology: the mechanisms behind cloning.
  • Survival of the fittest: what does natural selection mean?
  • Discuss the latest evidence for Darwin’s theory of evolution.
  • The tree of life: how does this concept depict the relationships between species?
  • What kind of strategies do organisms use to get nutrition?
  • Dinosaurs and their modern relatives: what do we know about them?
  • How does our nervous system transport information?
  • Explain the mechanisms behind the carbon cycle.
  • Examine the human impact on biodiversity.
  • What factors regulate population dynamics?

🦠 Microbiology Research Topics for Students

The world of microbiology consists of tiny organisms. Researchers study microbes and other simple life forms such as bacteria and fungi. This way, they aim to solve environmental as well as medical issues.

  • How do microbes develop resistance?
  • Give an overview of our immune system’s defense mechanisms.
  • Contrast the types of microbiomes.
  • What are the industrial applications for microbiology?
  • How do you degrade soil pollutants using microbes?
  • Investigate examples of agents that kill bacteria.
  • What makes yeast versatile?
  • The differences between virions and viroids.
  • What are acellular agents?
  • Give an overview of the biochemical properties of fungi.
  • What are possible causes for asthma?
  • The relationship between stress and our immune system’s performance.
  • How do vaccines work?
  • Examine the structure of archaeal genes.
  • Why is microbial diversity important?

Natural selection.

  • How do microbes contribute to an ecosystem?
  • The role of microbes in food contamination.
  • How do bacteria turn milk into yogurt?
  • Applications of microbial biotechnology.
  • Describe the four groups of protozoa.

💀 Anatomy & Human Biology Topics

Human biology studies people as single organisms and in the context of populations. Two of its essential parts are anatomy and anthropology. The latter studies the evolution of humankind. The former is more concerned with body structure. Combine all three subjects to gain a 360° view of humanity!

  • Describe the functions of the respiratory system.
  • What happens to your body if you’re anemic?
  • Outline the history of the human population.
  • How does medical anthropology help us understand health?
  • Reading bones: what types of information can osteologists gather?
  • Biomechanics: what makes humans move?
  • Compare the proposed effects of various current trends in nutrition.
  • Explore the psychological factors that influence one’s health.
  • How does your brain control your behavior?
  • Synapses: structure and mechanisms.
  • Explain how kidneys filter blood.
  • What regulates muscle contraction?
  • Discuss the new reproductive technologies from an anthropological perspective.
  • Describe the structure of a skeletal muscle fiber.
  • The cerebral cortex: what does it do?
  • Brain, hormones, and emotions.
  • Functions of the sodium-potassium pump.
  • Examine what blood consists of.
  • What happens when your heart skips a beat?
  • Is the growth in the human population out of control?

🔬 Cell & Molecular Biology Research Topics

Your body’s fundamental structure is made up of cells. Their properties are in the center of interest for cell biologists. They investigate a cell’s life cycle and its vital functions. On a molecular level, this includes the role of chemical processes in cell activity.

  • How does cancer affect the body’s cell growth?
  • The protein paradox: what is the right amount of protein?
  • How do cells heal bones?
  • The ethics of stem cell research.
  • Investigate the communication methods between cells.
  • Explore the link between the environment and our DNA.
  • Current trends in molecular biochemistry.
  • Telomerase: will it ever be possible to reverse aging processes?
  • What do we know about axon guidance?
  • Where does our brain keep the memories?
  • Why do cells become sticky?
  • High-resolution microscopy: ways to advance molecular research.
  • How do cilia move cells?

Living organisms.

  • Treating glaucoma: is surgery always necessary?
  • The role of microtubules in the nervous system.
  • Diffusion: means of transport within cells.
  • What does the central dogma of molecular biology state?
  • Trace the steps of DNA translation.
  • Why do cells need to eat their dead counterparts?
  • How does protein biosynthesis work?

♻️ Environmental Biology Topics to Research

Environmental biologists ensure our harmonic coexistence with nature. They are also in charge of monitoring wastewater disposal and pollution levels. This branch is closely related to ecology.

  • Discuss the importance of light in different bodies of water.
  • Aftermath of building the Hetch Hetchy valley dam.
  • The devastating impact of deforestation in the Amazon.
  • Analyze the consequences of desertification.
  • How do genetically modified insects influence the environment?
  • What would happen if all the bees die?
  • Compare several methods of wastewater disposal.
  • What were the ecological effects of Indonesia’s Mega Rice Project?
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch: will we ever get rid of it?
  • How do worms indicate the state of an ecosystem?
  • Why is it important to conserve biodiversity?
  • DDT: how did it affect wildlife in the US?
  • What causes toxic algae bloom?
  • Compare the adverse health effects of common contaminants in the air.
  • The Aral Sea: how did it disappear?
  • How do genetically engineered crops impact the environment?
  • Indoor air pollution: causes and risks.
  • The pros and cons of using natural gas.
  • Trace the ecological footprint of cotton production.
  • What are the ways to ensure food security without harming the environment?

🐬 Marine Biology Topics for a Paper

Fun fact: the vast majority of our oceans are still unobserved. Research in marine biology encompasses all organisms living close to or under water. Do you want to participate in uncovering the mysteries of the deep sea? This section is for you!

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  • How does luminescence in marine vertebrae work?
  • Dolphins: how do they communicate?
  • The impact of military sonar on whales.
  • What makes the Galapagos Islands so unique?
  • Compare different camouflage techniques of marine animals.
  • How do aquatic organisms live together in coral reefs?
  • Causes of high mercury concentrations in fish.
  • Investigate the impact of overfishing in China.
  • Explain how rising sea temperatures affect marine life.
  • Contrast the survival strategies of various penguin species.
  • The ethics of seafood farms.
  • Examine bacteria’s contribution to biological processes in the sea.
  • What are the types of invasive species?
  • The contribution of birds to a stable marine ecosystem.
  • Identify the biggest threats to marine biodiversity.
  • Inspect the predatory behavior of starfish.
  • How do corals form?
  • The importance of phyto- and zooplankton to ponds.
  • Whales: how did they evolve?
  • What are the four types of oceanography?

🌻 Plant Biology Research Topics

Plant biology, you guessed it, investigates plants. These green organisms are incredibly versatile. From redwood trees to algae, plants come in all sizes and shapes. Scientists use botanical knowledge to improve our food and medicine supplies. They also help to conserve forests, parks, and wilderness areas.

  • What causes diseases in plants?
  • What are the benefits of studying algae?
  • Recently, scientists engineered a plant to glow by itself. How does it work?
  • What makes some plants toxic?

Rainforest plants.

  • Compare various defense mechanisms of flowers.
  • Deciduous trees: what are the advantages of leaf loss?
  • How do Butterworts acquire nutrition?
  • Carnivorous plants: methods of luring prey.
  • Types of negative feedback in plants.
  • Give examples of thigmotropism. How does it work?
  • What problems are associated with the definition of kingdoms?
  • Investigate the anatomical structure of plant roots.
  • Phytohormones: how do they influence plant growth?
  • Plants and music: does sound have any measurable effects on plant development?
  • How do plants produce starch?
  • Why do weeds grow excessively?
  • Investigate plant disease management and intervention.
  • Industrial applications of synthesized plant mechanisms.
  • Cacti: how do they survive in the desert?
  • Examine the biological properties of medicinal herbs.

🧬 Hot Topics in Evolutionary Biology to Write About

Evolutionary biologists observe change in all living organisms. If you want to know why life on Earth is so versatile, evolutionary biology has the answer. Research areas cover ecology and genetics, as well as paleontology.

  • How does stabilizing selection ensure the same phenotype for a species during evolution?
  • Discuss Tinbergen’s four questions.
  • What are the benefits of sexual reproduction?
  • Cancer: why does it persist?
  • Society and evolution: are they connected?
  • Southeast Asia and the limited occurrence of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene.
  • Is there a scientific reason to divide humans into races?
  • Track the evolution of aging throughout human history.
  • How does speciation work?
  • Genetic drift and its effects on variation.
  • Describe problems concerning the Modern Synthesis.
  • Selective sweeps: how likely are they to cause disease?
  • What does the Red Queen hypothesis state?
  • How do you determine age in herbaceous plants?
  • Life history theory: how does a species’ life history influence its evolution?
  • What are the ways for a species to achieve its maximum fitness?
  • How did the bees learn to communicate information by dancing?
  • Investigate the evolution of stamina in animal locomotion.
  • How does an animal’s physiology adapt to its geographic range?
  • Compare the evolutionary process of endotherms and ectotherms.

👶🧑 Developmental Biology Research Topics

When animals and plants grow, their features change. It’s no surprise: every living being starts as a single cell. It’s a long way from there to a fully formed organism! Developmental biologists track this process at different levels.

  • Why are men more likely to be colorblind than women?
  • What is phylogenetic niche conservatism?
  • Identify origins of congenital disorders.
  • What causes birds to become territorial?
  • Explain the two types of developmental mechanisms.
  • Why does getting older make humans more susceptible to cancer?
  • Homeotic genes: how do they influence the development of body structures?
  • Describe the advantages of apoptosis.
  • What causes polycephaly?
  • How do stem cells differentiate?
  • Investigate regeneration in hydra.
  • Mechanisms of metamorphosis in frogs.
  • What happened during the Cambrian explosion?
  • How do plants produce new structures?
  • Examine the process of neurulation in fish.
  • What are the types of deformations found in plants?
  • Describe the ABC model of flower development.
  • Why are zebrafish good model systems for developmental studies?
  • Search for the origins of the vertebrate body plan.
  • What does the concept of morphogen gradient say about the fate of cells?

😷 Epidemiology & Population Topics in Biology

Investigating health-related events is a part of epidemiologic research. The goal is to find out what causes diseases in a specific population. Epidemiology analyzes other health issues such as natural disasters and injuries. Population biology focuses on the interaction between populations and their environment.

  • How does evolutionary game theory describe the development of a population?
  • When is a strategy evolutionarily stable?
  • How does phenotypic variety in plants help manage disease?
  • What diseases are caused by heavy metal pollution?

Cell in the human body.

  • How did the Coronavirus pandemic contribute to a rise in cases of domestic violence?
  • Reasons for an increased rate of congenital disabilities in a specific area.
  • Asian carp: a harmful disruption of the marine population in American rivers.
  • Compare the three kinds of population distribution.
  • Examine the consequences of the 1783 Laki eruption.
  • Examine various policies to moderate population growth.
  • How do predator-prey dynamics work?
  • Avoidance mechanisms of resource competition.
  • Describe the three types of symbiotic relationships.
  • How does a species regulate its abundance?
  • What happens if the equilibrium state of a community is disturbed?
  • Factors that encourage human population growth.
  • Contrast the survivorship curves of humans, birds, and trees.
  • Obesity: causes and solutions.
  • Depression: how does it affect society?
  • The role of causal inference in epidemiological studies.

📜 History of Biology Topics to Write About

Even before the emergence of scientific studies, humans had basic biological understanding. They were able to spot edible plants and domesticate animals. Assyrians and Babylonians were the first to implement biological knowledge. If you’re looking for a theoretical research project, this is the right research area for you.

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  • Explore the medical knowledge available in ancient China.
  • The history of agriculture in India.
  • How did the Greek philosophers theorize about the origin of life?
  • Investigate the theory of the four humors.
  • Aristotle’s classification of animals.
  • Give an overview of discoveries in Galen’s medical writings.
  • What caused the stagnation in scientific progress during the Middle Ages?
  • Al-Jahiz’ discovery of the relationships between organisms.
  • Albertus Magnus: what was his contribution to botany?
  • How did Italy become the center for biological studies?
  • What factors impacted the development of biology during the Renaissance?
  • Trace the origins of modern anatomy.
  • What led to the establishment of the cell theory?
  • Jump starting biological progress: the invention of the microscope.
  • Louis Pasteur and the dismissal of spontaneous generation.
  • How did the discovery of heredity influence modern biology?
  • What led to the discovery of blood circulation?
  • How did the Royal Society of London impact scientific development in Europe?
  • What technology helped advance biological research in the 20th century?
  • The rise of bioinformatics: boosting progress in genetic data analysis.

We hope our article gave you some useful ideas for your biology paper. Good luck with your assignment!

You might also be interested in:

  • A List of 212 Brilliant Research Proposal Topics to Investigate
  • 220 Best Science and Technology Essay Topics to Write About
  • 501 Research Questions & Titles about Science
  • 300 Interesting Chemistry Topics & Writing Tips
  • 150 Best Environmental Essay Topics & Questions
  • 165 Health-Related Topics & Essay Ideas
  • 281 Best Health & Medical Research Topics
  • What is Biology?: NTNU
  • High School Biology: Khan Academy
  • Microbiology: University of Pittsburgh
  • Human Biology: University at Albany
  • Explore Topics Related to Cells: NIH
  • What Is Marine Biology?: MarineBio Conservation Society
  • Developmental Biology: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Introduction to Epidemiology: Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
  • The History of Biology: Encyclopedia Britannica
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150 Actual Biology Research Paper Topics

05 May 2022

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❔What Is Biology?

✍️How to Choose a Topic?

✒️Biology Research Paper Topics :

  • Developmental
  • Immune System
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Neurobiology
  • Abortion, Human cloning, Genetic Researches
  • Environmental and Ecology
  • Plant Pathology
  • Biotechnology
  • Evolutionary

Biology is one of the most magnetic fields of study these days. If you want to be a biologist or scientist in the future, there is no better time to start than right now. Biology research topics covered in this article will keep you busy and interested. Writing a research paper is one of the best ways to dip your toes into the field. Before doing that, you need to know some good topics for the research paper . They should be suitable for biology students rather than cutting-edge researchers. On , we provide as many biology research paper examples as possible so that you have a huge choice. 

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What Is Biology? What Topics Might Biologists Study?

Biology is simply the study of everything that has a form of life. It includes investigations on plants, animals, and everything found in the environment. It is about studying how life forms grow, develop, and interact with each other. Biology essay topics for research encompass all these and more.

This science uncovers many fields where various life forms are studied. It makes sense to look through these fields to help you decide which suits you the best.

Plant Biology research topics are about studying the plants around us. They disclose information about their existence as a part of the ecosystem, their life cycle, resources they can give us, their ability to preserve them from climate changes, and so on. There are many ideas to choose from, but you must focus on a specific one.

Human Biology research topics are all about us. These topics focus on different body parts, such as the human brain, the human immunological system, the nervous system, etc. In addition, you can discuss DNA modifications in humans and explain why genetic disorders occur in your research projects. Various cell research is also common today.

Biology research topics on the environment are in great demand too. For example, climate change is becoming a more significant threat every day. By studying environmental topics in biology for projects and research, we can come up with ways to combat them and preserve ecosystems.

Microbiology research topics delve into things we can’t see. There are trillions of microbes and bacteria all around us. Knowing about them is essential to understanding what makes us sick and how to fight against them. All microbiology research paper topics are pretty complicated yet very engaging to include in your paper research.

Molecular biology topics dive even deeper into the level of atoms and molecules. The various medicines and drugs we take were all created through molecular-biology research. It is one of the areas full of ideas, but there is yet to be much evidence. Science is advancing in this realm but still needs a lot of time. Topics of molecular biology will need days for research only.

Keep in mind that there are more ideas and variations of this science. We offer more examples in further sections of the article about developmental biology, marine biology, evolutionary biology, etc. Explore them and make your writing appealing and meaningful in the eyes of a professor.

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How to Choose a Topic for Biology Research Paper?

When choosing a biology project topic, you must be aware of one or more fields of science. Biology research is critical to the present world. By doing research, we can learn more about genetic disorders, immune disorders, mental health, natural disease resistance, etc. Knowing about each of these could save lives in the future.

For those who may not have the time or resources to do their own research, there are research paper writing services that can provide assistance with the project. And we are always here to help you find your own topic among interesting biology research topics. Here we prepared some useful tips to follow.

  • Tip 1: The level of interest matters Pay attention to one that interests you, and you might have ideas on how to develop the topic. Passion is fundamental in research, after all.
  • Tip 2: Explore the topic Try to narrow things down a bit. If the topic is too broad, you may not be able to cover all aspects of it in one research paper. If it is too narrow, the paper could end up too short. Analyze the topic and the ways to approach it. By doing so, you can strike a balance between the two.
  • Tip 3: Discover the recent developments To make your research paper touchable with the present day, you must explore the latest developments in the field. You can find out what kind of research has been done recently by looking at journals. Check out research papers, topics, research articles, and other sources.
  • Tip 4: Ensure to get enough resources When choosing a topic, make sure it has plenty of resources available. For example, a research paper on xenobiology or cutting-edge nanobiology might sound attractive. Still, you might have difficulties getting data and resources for those unless you are a researcher at a government lab. Data, resources, complex numbers, and statistics are all invaluable to writing a paper about these topics.

That is why we have selected a range of biological topics. The topics on this list are all hopefully exciting topics for research you could write an excellent paper on. We should also add that easy biology topics to research are rare, and a writer usually needs days to prepare and start writing. Yes, biology research topics for high school students are a bit easier, but still, they need time to explore them.

On the other hand, biology research topics for college students are far more complex and detailed. Some people prefer evolutionary biology research paper topics, and we can agree with this claim. These research areas do have a lot of potential and a lot of data to support the claims. Others prefer cell biology research topics that are a bit specific and fun. Anyway, with this article's list of easy biology research topics, you will surely find the one matching your interest.

For those who may not have the time or resources to do their own research, there are provide assistance with the project.

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Top Research Biology Paper Topics

This section contains a large selection of research biology paper topics. You will be able to find one that will suit you the best. The only thing left is to decide what variation of science you prefer. Whether you're interested in microbiology, genetics, or any other type of science, you'll find a topic to get you started. If you’re ever stuck or need some extra help, you can always pay someone to write your paper for you. So, take a look, and choose the perfect topic for your project!

15 Developmental Biology Topics For Research

Exploring the processes of how cells grow and develop is exciting. The human body contains millions of cells, and it’s interesting to research their behavior under different conditions. If you feel like writing about it, you can find some interesting biology topics below.

  • How do stem cells form different tissues?
  • How are tumors formed?
  • Duplication of genomes
  • Plasticity of development
  • Different birth defects
  • Interactions between genes and the environment
  • Anticancer drugs mixtures
  • Developmental diseases: Origin
  • Drosophila Oogenesis
  • Most deadly viruses
  • Most deadly bacteria in the world
  • How do germs affect cells?
  • How does leukemia start?
  • Development of the cardiovascular system in children
  • How do autoimmune diseases start and affect the human body?

15 Immune System Biology Research Topics

For decades, many scientists and immunologists have studied the human immune system and tried to explain its reaction to various pathogens. This area allows you to deepen into it and reveal how a body protects itself from harmful impact. Look over the biology research questions below and find your match-up.

  • How does the human body’s immune system work?
  • The human immune system: How to strengthen it?
  • What makes the immunological system weaker?
  • The notion of auto-immune diseases and their effect on the body’s immune system
  • The global HIV/aids epidemic
  • What methods are used to prevent the spread of hives?
  • Living with auto-immune diseases
  • Genetics and the immune system: effects and consequences
  • How do immune disorders affect the body, and what causes them?
  • Are allergies signs of worrying about an immune disorder?
  • DNA modification in solving immune disorders
  • Stress as the biggest ruiner of the immunological system
  • Vaccines as strong supporters of the immunological system
  • The perception of vaccines in society
  • Why do some people refuse vaccines and put others around them in danger?

15 Cell Biology Research Topics

Cell study might seem challenging yet very engaging. It will be a good idea to compare various types of cells and compare them in animals and plants. Make your choice from the list of cell biology research topics below.

  • The structure of an animal cell
  • Mitochondria and its meaning in cell development
  • Cells classification and their functions
  • Red blood cells and their function in transporting oxygen
  • White blood cells and their responsibility to fight diseases
  • How are plant cells different from animal cells?
  • What would it be if animals had a function to photosynthesize?
  • Single-celled organisms: What is it, and how do they work?
  • What processes do cells go through in division?
  • Invasion of bacteria into the body
  • Viruses – alive or not?
  • Fungi: their reproduction and distribution
  • Cancer cells: Why are they so dangerous?
  • What methods are used to kill cancer cells?
  • The role of stem cells and their potential in a body

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15 DNA Research Topics

The variety of biology research topics for college students might impress you a lot. This is a science with a large field of investigation, disclosing much scientific information to use in your project. The notion of DNA and its gist are also excellent options to write about.

  • The structure of the human DNA
  • The main components of a DNA chain
  • Why does DNA have a double-helix spiral structure?
  • The purpose of chromosomes
  • MRNA and its relation to DNA
  • Do single-celled organisms have DNA?
  • Do viruses have DNA?
  • What happens if you have too many or too few chromosomes?
  • Analyzing the structure of DNA using computers
  • Uses for the DNA of extinct organisms like mammoths and dinosaurs
  • Storing non-genetic information in DNA
  • Can you write a computer program into human DNA?
  • How does radiation affect DNA?
  • Modifying DNA to treat aids
  • Can we fight cancer through DNA modification?

15 Molecular Biology Research Topics

Do you prefer to research molecules' chemical and physical composition? We gathered some molecular biology research topics to make your choice easier.

  • The structure and components of a gene
  • How do molecules move in and out of a cell?
  • The basic building blocks of life
  • How are drugs designed for humans?
  • How is a vaccine designed to target a specific disease?
  • Dominant genes vs. recessive genes
  • Prion disease – why is it so dangerous?
  • Hormones and their function in the body
  • Developing artificial hormones from other animals
  • How to carry out a western blot?
  • Testing and analyzing DNA using PCR
  • The three-dimensional structure of a molecule
  • What is DNA transcription, and how is it used?
  • The structure of a prion
  • What is the central dogma of molecular biology?

15 Neurobiology Research Topics

The more you dive into science, the more exciting things you find. That’s about biology. Here, you can choose biology research topics for high school and try to reveal more simply.

  • Nervous system: its structure and function
  • Neurons as unique cells playing a central role in the nervous system
  • What is the maximum reaction speed in a human?
  • Reaction speed: how to improve it?
  • Research on Organic Farming
  • What are the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease?
  • Why do we feel happy or sad?
  • Headaches in terms of Neurobiology
  • What are the reasons for neurobiological degeneration?
  • Myths and reality of Amnesia
  • What causes Alzheimer’s Disease, and what are the consequences of the disease?
  • What is the treatment for Spinal Cord Injury?
  • Studies on Narcolepsy and Insomnia: What are the causes?
  • Is there a connection between Mental Health and Neurobiology?
  • Emotions in terms of their reflection in the brain

15 Abortion, Human cloning, and Genetic Researches Topics

There are so many scientific researches and theories that society accepts or neglects. You can operate different notions and try to explain them, reflecting their advantages and downsides for a human being. We gathered some enticing life science research topics for high school students that might interest you.

  • The controversy around abortion: legal or not?
  • Can abortion be safe?
  • Human cloning – reality vs. science-fiction
  • The goals of cloning humans
  • Are human cloning and transplantation ethical?
  • Having a “perfect child” through gene therapy: Is it a myth?
  • How far has gene therapy gone in genetic research?
  • Advantages and disadvantages of gene therapy
  • How gene therapy can help beat cancer
  • How gene therapy can eliminate diabetes
  • The opportunity to edit genes by CRISPR
  • DNA modifications in humans to enhance our abilities – an ethical dilemma
  • Will expensive gene therapy widen the gap between the rich and the poor?
  • Cloning: the good and the Bad for a Generation
  • The disadvantages of cloning

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15 Environmental and Ecology Topics for Your Research

The nature around us is so enormous and includes many branches to investigate. If you are keen on the environment and how ecology affects it, the list of follow-up biology paper topics might be helpful to you.

  • The theory of evolution
  • How does natural selection work?
  • How do living organisms adapt to their environment?
  • The concept of divergent and convergent evolution
  • Building a sustainable environment
  • Development of environment-friendly cities
  • How to control population growth?
  • Why have recycling resources become so essential in the modern world?
  • The effect of plastic on the environment
  • What are the global consequences of deforestation?
  • What can we expect when losing biodiversity?
  • Ecological damage: How to prevent it?
  • How can GMO products affect ecology?
  • Cloning endangered or extinct species: Is it a good idea?
  • Is climate change the main reason for disrupting ecology?

15 Plant Pathology Biology Research Topics

Many factors impact human health and the quality of food products matters. These easy biology research topics will be useful if you want to describe the connection between those two concepts.

  • How do plants protect themselves from diseases?
  • How to increase the plant’s resistance to diseases?
  • Diseases distribution among plants
  • The banana pandemic
  • How do herbicides influence plants?
  • Corn blight
  • Can any plant diseases affect humans?
  • The issue of stem rust and its impact on wheat
  • What approaches are used to struggle against invasive plants and affected weeds?
  • Fertilizers: their pros and cons on plants
  • Plant disease genetics: its system and structure
  • What is the connection between ecological changes and plant diseases?
  • Modifications on food production because of plant diseases
  • How do fungal and viral diseases appear in plants?
  • The sweet potato virus

15 Animals Biology Research Topics

It’s hard to find someone who doesn’t like animals. If you are curious about animals scientifically, here you are with biology research paper topics in this field.

  • Classification of animals
  • Land-based life: its evolution history
  • Controversies about keeping animals as pets
  • Is it ethical to test drugs and products on animals?
  • Why do nature reserves against zoos?
  • Evidence on prehistoric aquatic animals growing giant
  • What species of animals are vegan?
  • Animals and their social behavior
  • Primate behavior
  • How intelligent can other primates be?
  • Are wolves and dogs intelligent?
  • Domesticating animals
  • Hibernation in animals
  • Why animals migrate
  • Should we bring back extinct animals?

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15 Marine Biology Research Topics

The marine theme is engaging as it reveals so many interesting facts about life forms dwelling under the water. You can make your paper look captivating using biology topics in marine below.

  • How acidification affects aquatic environments
  • Evolution in the deep sea
  • What’s the meaning of camouflage mechanism in sea life?
  • Consequences of oil spills on marine life
  • Oldest marine species
  • How do whales communicate with each other?
  • How blind fish navigate
  • Are marine shows and aquariums ethical?
  • The biology and life cycle of seabirds
  • How jellyfish are immortal
  • Plankton ecology
  • Difference between freshwater and seawater marine life
  • Coral reefs: their importance and evolution
  • Saving and restoring coral reefs
  • Life in the deep-sea ocean trenches

15 Zoology Research Topics

Zoology can be an excellent choice to write about if you are close to animal studies. Look at biology topics to research and choose the one that fits your interest most.

  • Asian elephants and human speech patterns
  • Oyster genomes and adaptation
  • Darwin’s work in the Galápagos Islands
  • Asian carp: Invasive species analysis
  • Giant squids: Fact vs. fiction
  • Coyote and wolf hybrid species in the United States
  • Parasites and disease
  • Migration patterns of killer bees
  • The treatment of species in Melville’s Moby Dick
  • Biodiversity and plankton
  • The role of camels and the development of Africa and the Middle East
  • Muskellunge and adaptive creek mechanisms to small water
  • Ants and cooperative behavior among species
  • Animal communication and the origin of language
  • Speech in African Gray Parrots

15 Genetics Research Topics

Writing about modifications caused on the gene level is pretty challenging but very fascinating. You can select one among the biological questions for research and bring up a meaningful paper.

  • Genetics and its role in cancer studies
  • Can genetic code be confidential?
  • Is it possible to choose the sex of a person before birth?
  • Genetics as a ray of hope for children with an intellectual disability
  • What factors in human genetics affect behavior?
  • Is it somehow possible to improve human personality through genetics?
  • Are there any living cells in the gene?
  • Fighting HIV with gene mutations
  • Genetic mutations
  • How addictive substances affect genes
  • Genetic testing: is it necessary?
  • Cloning: positive or negative outcome for future generations
  • Pros and cons of genetic engineering
  • Is the world ready for the bioethics revolution?
  • The linkage between genetics and obesity

15 Biotechnology Research Topics

The way scientists conduct research today is magnificent. Implementing high-tech innovations in biology research brings new opportunities to study the world. What are these opportunities? Explore biotechnology research topics for college students and disclose the best options for you.

  • Biotechnology used in plant research
  • What is the contribution of biotechnology to food?
  • Pharmacogenetics: What is it, and how it works?
  • How are anti-cancer drugs produced to be effective?
  • Nanotechnology in DNA: How to isolate it?
  • Recent nanotechnology used in HIV treatment
  • What biotech apps are used to detect foodborne pathogens in food systems?
  • Genotypes research: Why are they tolerant and sensitive to heavy metal?
  • High-tech solutions in diagnosing cancer
  • Forensic DNA and its latest developments
  • Metabolic changes at the level of cells
  • Nanotechnology in improving treatments for respiratory viruses
  • The latest biotech discoveries
  • Digital evolution: bioresearch and its transformation
  • The concept of vaccine development

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15 Evolutionary Biology Research Topics

Knowing how life forms started their existence is fundamental. And more interesting is to look through the evolution of many processes. If you find this trend of research more engaging, we outlined evolutionary biology research paper topics to diversify your choice.

  • Darwin’s concept's impact on science
  • The evolution concept by Lamarck
  • Origins of the evolutionary theory
  • Evolution acceptance: a belief vs. a theory?
  • Evolutionary in microbiology
  • Development of robotics
  • Revealing differences: human brain & animal brain
  • Preservation of biological resources
  • Transformations in aging
  • Adaptive genetic system
  • Morphometrics’ history
  • Developmental theory and population genomics
  • Bacteria ecology’s evolution
  • Biological changes: impact and evolution
  • Infectious diseases and their profession

The world of science and biology is vast, making research tedious. Use our list of interesting biology research topics to choose the best issue to write your own paper.

However, it is still hard to prepare a high-quality biology research paper, even with a brilliant topic. Not all college students can do it. Do you feel like you need some help? Then buy biology paper from our professional writers! Our experts will choose the best biology experimental research topics for you and can bring up top-level papers within the shortest time. Additionally, if you need help with a statistics project related to biology, our team of experienced professionals is equipped to provide you with the utmost quality of research and analysis.

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Biology Essay Topics

100 best biology essay topics in 2023.

Sciences arise neither by themselves nor because someone invents them simply “out of interest.” Any science appears as a result of the need for humanity to solve certain problems that have arisen in the process of its development. Biology is not an exception, it also arose in connection with the solution of very important problems for people. The main tasks of modern biology are the study of the relationship between man and the environment, the diversity of living organisms and their interaction with each other, the study of the possibilities of prolonging human life, and the cure of various serious diseases. The list is endless.

That is why your biology essay is a great chance to figure out something curious about your environment or even yourself and gain a better understanding of the world. No wonder the choice of the topic may perplex you. That’s why we are here – after reading some hints on how to select the best biology essay topic and looking through various examples you will find the suitable one.

Tips on How to Select the Best Biology Essay Topic?

To begin with, biology is a complicated discipline and there surely are numerous aspects of it you are not aware of well. It is for this reason that you should pick a topic keeping your basic knowledge in mind. You can be interested in whatever you are but preparation for some topics may take an enormous amount of time and effort.

Next, while searching for a scope of specialization, remember that biology is ubiquitous. Just look around and you will find ready-made topics! You can write about the evolution of your pet species, the structure of your home plant, the process of fertilizing soil if you’re into gardening, or examine which processes were taking place in your body during last year’s flu. Use your imagination!

After all, if you still feel frustrated about what to write, your instructor can help you. It is a great idea to consult with your biology teacher because he is able to consider every aspect of your assignment – requirements, given time, your understanding of the subject, and most importantly, he knows how a successful topic should be composed. Such guidance will inspire you.

Who Curates Our List of Biology Essay Topics?

Our biology essay topics are curated by professionals who have extensive experience in writing different types of works. They are thoroughly selected and sorted to ease your topic decision. Above that, they are all checked for the availability of the materials on every question. Feel free to pick any topic you like!

20 Key Biology Essay Questions in 2023

  • What are the key properties of life?
  • What is a cell theory ?
  • What are the domains and kingdoms of life?
  • How is hereditary information transmitted to future generations?
  • What is natural selection?
  • Why is water necessary for life?
  • How is a cell structured?
  • What is metabolism?
  • How does photosynthesis work?
  • Mitosis and meiosis: how do cells divide?
  • What is DNA?
  • What is genetic drift?
  • Why do biologists use phylogenetic trees?
  • What is bacteria?
  • What are archaea?
  • How do fungi function?
  • How do substances cycle in nature?
  • What is the main breakthrough in biology in the XXI century?
  • What is the structure of connective tissue?
  • The experiments of Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur

20 Controversial Biology Essay Topics

  • How did life on Earth emerge?
  • Can plants feel pain?
  • Do animals have consciousness?
  • Biological breakthroughs are impossible without animal testing
  • What regulates gene expression?
  • Who are the modern relatives of dinosaurs?
  • What is the last universal common ancestor (LUKA)?
  • Where did eukaryotes originate from?
  • Are viruses alive ?
  • Development and manufacture of transgenic products
  • Basic theories of human origins
  • The process of cloning
  • Why hasn’t the secret of brain functioning been discovered yet?
  • What is the paradox of the plankton?
  • Opposing concepts in cell theory
  • A fetus can’t feel pain
  • The status of nanobacterium
  • How does vaccination work?
  • Why is it legal to harvest embryonic stem cells?
  • Genetic testing and ethical issues

20 Good Biology Essay Topics

  • The earliest roots of biology
  • The development of biology with the improvement of the microscope
  • Sugar in the process of cell respiration
  • Cell communication
  • What are the main laws of inheritance?
  • Biological features of animal migration
  • Characterization of DNA biosynthesis
  • Biogeocenosis as an important biological process
  • Features of the practical application of algae
  • Genetic engineering and its main issues
  • Types of races: specifics of their origin
  • Enzymes: functions and determination of their activity
  • The evolutionary process of a flower
  • Invertebrate symmetry
  • Parasites: general characteristics, significance for humans
  • Biogeochemical cycles and their disruption by humans
  • Competition as the most important form of the struggle for existence
  • Biological production of aquatic ecosystems and ways to increase it
  • Features of the embryonic development of rodents
  • The global carbon cycle and human-induced change

20 Human Biology Essay Topics

  • The mouse as a model for human biology
  • The secular trend in human physical growth
  • Proteins: chemical composition, properties, and significance for the human body
  • Anthropogenesis: essence and features
  • The role of medicinal plants in human life
  • Hereditary human diseases: prerequisites for the occurrence
  • How do people age?
  • Characteristics of human biorhythms
  • The specificity of the development of immunity
  • Vitamins: types and their role in the human body
  • Circles of human blood circulation, the interdependence of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems
  • The interaction of neurons in the nerve centers
  • The main functions of the body system, their relationship
  • The influence of smoking, alcohol, and drug abuse by parents on the embryonic development of a child
  • Mechanisms for maintaining intracranial pressure
  • Anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptation in the process of restructuring the body in connection with the disease
  • Evolutionary gains and losses of a man
  • Age characteristics of biological adaptation in humans
  • Hormones, their function, and influence on human behavior
  • Organ systems of the body and their brief characteristics

20 Best Biology Essay Ideas

  • The development of a multicellular organism
  • Characteristic features of the regeneration process
  • Biological eras and their characteristics
  • Guided natural selection and its implications for the evolution of species
  • Mammals: features, structure, comparative anatomical analysis on the example of two representatives
  • Genetic engineering techniques
  • Catastrophe theory and the progress of living nature
  • Biological aspects of pathogenesis in animals and plants
  • Apomixis and its meaning
  • Self-regulation in biology
  • The principle of optimality in biology and the theory of transformation
  • Reproduction and development of living systems
  • Basics of organization and sustainability of the biosphere
  • Panspermia theory
  • Macro and microelements: their role in the structure of living matter
  • What tasks are being solved at the molecular level?
  • Forms of movement at the subcellular, cellular, and organism levels
  • Symbiosis as a supraorganism system
  • Reproduction forms: asexual, vegetative, and sexual

Writing Biology Essay Topics Too Stressful? Get Help From Essay Writer!

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160 Biology Essay Topics

For most science courses, assignments are generally lab-based and rarely require much writing. However, all of that changes in biology courses when detailed essays must be written to highlight a student’s understanding of the subject. These essays are highly technical, with specific comments required to meet the factual nature of the subject.

In addition to meeting the factual requirements needed to complete the assignment, biology essays must also be written in a writing style that is informative and authoritative rather than subjective and personal.

These detailed specifics of writing a biology essay can make completing the writing difficult from the very beginning. Fortunately, we’ve created this guide to help students learn how to write a biology essay. In addition, we’ve also included 160 biology essay topics to help inspire the creative writing process.

How to Write a Biology Essay?

Writing a biology essay starts with choosing a topic. If your teacher has not already assigned a specific topic, then students must choose one that is broad enough to find credible resources and specific enough that the research won’t overtake the writing process.

To select a suitable topic for a biology essay, consider the type of biology class you are taking, the current and previous chapters studied, and the overall context of the course. These factors will help you select a topic that is likely to be relevant to your teacher’s needs and to the passing of your course.

Once students have selected a suitable topic, it’s time to research credible resources that will support the subject. To do this successfully, students need to consider the following:

  • What information is already known about this topic?
  • What topics are related or similar to this topic?
  • Who are credible authors that can explain this topic?
  • What additional sources will provide me with the information needed to complete this assignment successfully?

For example, if you want to write a biology essay on protein synthesis and its regulation at the transcriptional level, research material would include books, articles, and other written works published by credible authors or publishers. While important, this material isn’t the only type of research that should be completed.

Students may also consider consulting medical and biology dictionaries, textbooks, online research databases such as PubMed or Medline, and professional organizations for biologists to find additional sources. Once the research has been completed, it’s time to create the first draft of the biology essay.

Biology Essay Introduction

Starting an essay is always the same. Students should open with a catchy hook statement that introduces an interesting fact, presents a unique perspective, or raises a thought-provoking question.

Once that sentence has been created, students can use the middle part of the introduction to introduce fundamental concepts and provide background details about the topic.

Once that information has been laid out, and the reader knows the necessary details to make the reading interesting and worthwhile, students should move into the final portion of the introduction that answers the question: WHY is this essay important? This question is answered in the form of a thesis statement that details the essay’s overall purpose.

Biology Essay Body Paragraphs

The body paragraphs of your essay will contain the bulk of your research. Be sure that each body paragraph meets the following requirements:

  • One clear idea represented per paragraph or section
  • Examples that back up the point of the paragraph
  • A clear and logical flow between paragraphs with transition words

Make sure that the body paragraphs only contain information pertinent to the subject or topic. Avoid fluff or filler words and phrases that don’t add any substance or value to the writing.

The number of paragraphs in the body may vary depending on the assignment parameters and the essay style. For example, an essay with a 1000 word limit won’t have as many body paragraphs as an essay with a high word count.

Additionally, a compare and contrast essay that examines the similarities and differences between two or more biology concepts may have more body paragraphs than an argumentative essay.

Biology Essay Conclusion

The final section of a biology essay is the conclusion. In this section, students need to summarize the major points of the essay and the overall purpose for writing it. The thesis should also be re-stated to recap what has been learned from the writing.

In addition to these sentences, students should include a final remark about their research and findings. This might be a thought that ties into the intro or another interesting angle that presents a new way of looking at your topic.

Once the conclusion is completed, students should edit and review their work. Make sure that the essay is free of grammar and spelling mistakes before submitting it for grading.

When it comes to choosing a biology essay topic, it is not always as easy as it seems. For students looking for help with writing a biology essay, we have compiled a list of 160 biology essay topics that will hopefully give you some great ideas.

Biology Essay Topics About Animals

  • What is the importance of bats in our ecosystem?
  • What is the difference between a domesticated cat and a wildcat?
  • How do animals adapt to their environments?
  • What are the various types of symbiotic relationships found in nature?
  • Which animals have been known to show altruism towards other species?
  • What impact does human activity have on animal behavior?
  • What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of zoos?
  • How do animal brains work?
  • What is an animal’s anatomical structure like?
  • What are some symbiotic relationships between humans and animals?
  • What is the difference between herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and insectivores?
  • Why are having pets important to humans?
  • What are the positive and negative impacts of commercial farming on animals?
  • Do you think it is acceptable to keep pets in zoos? Why or why not?
  • What are some common misconceptions about cats, dogs, rodents, cows, sheep, horses, reptiles/fish/insects?
  • How do animal bones support their body structure?
  • What are the effects of humans on the natural habitats of animals?
  • What are some ways in which animal anatomy is similar to human biology?
  • What are some symbiotic relationships found in the animal kingdom?
  • Can humans and animals communicate with each other?
  • How do different types of animal cells function differently than human cells?
  • Why do some animals see better in the dark?
  • Explain the circulatory system of cold-blooded animals and how it differs from that of warm-blooded animals.
  • What are some examples of mimicry in nature?

Biology Essay Topics About Cellular Biology

  • How does cell theory apply to cellular biology?
  • What is mitosis, and where does it take place?
  • What are the different parts of a cell?
  • What is a nucleolus?
  • What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
  • How do viruses affect our cells?
  • How does photosynthesis work?
  • Why is it important to study cellular biology as a foundation for other disciplines of biology?
  • What are the functions of organelles in cells?
  • What is anabolism and catabolism?
  • How do plants use photosynthesis to produce sugar while animals break down food for energy?
  • Describe the process of homeostasis and explain how the human body maintains its internal environment.
  • What are the important parts of a cell?
  • How do cells reproduce?
  • What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
  • What is the importance of cellular research to humans?
  • Explain mitochondria, chloroplasts, and vacuoles in plant cells.
  • What are some of the problems with using stem cells in medical research?
  • What are the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms?
  • How do humans reproduce sexually?
  • Why is it different to clone plants than animals?
  • What are some important functions of membranes in cells?
  • What is the significance of mass spectrometry to molecular biology and genetics?
  • How do viruses reproduce?
  • What are mitochondria responsible for in eukaryotic cells?
  • What is the difference between a plasmid and a virus?
  • Do you think cloning animals should be allowed? Why or why not?
  • What is a cell cycle?
  • How do diseases affect the structure and function of cells?
  • What are some ethical issues with genetic engineering?
  • What is cell division, and how does it work?
  • Where does meiosis occur in the body, and what does it accomplish?
  • Explain the structure and function of ribosomes in eukaryotic cells.
  • What is a cell membrane made up of, and what are its important structural components?
  • How do antibiotics affect bacterial cells?
  • Do you think cloning humans should be allowed? Why or why not?
  • What makes up the cytoskeleton?
  • How are molecular structures related to the functions of cells?
  • What are some examples of biomolecules necessary for cell function and survival?
  • What types of molecules make up an organism’s genome?

Biology Essay Topics About the Ecosystem

  • What does the term food web mean?
  • Why is it important to study population dynamics in an ecosystem?
  • How do humans affect other species and their environments?
  • How can we prevent and control invasive species, and why are they so dangerous?
  • What effects does pollution have on animals and their habitats?
  • How do global warming and climate change affect the ecosystem?
  • What are the different types of animals found in ecosystems?
  • What happens to an ecosystem when one species becomes extinct?
  • What is the difference between biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem?
  • How do humans feed off other species to survive?
  • Describe how the r-selected life strategy works.
  • What are some examples of symbiosis found in nature?
  • How does biodiversity affect the structure, function, and survival of ecosystems?
  • How does the stability of an ecosystem depend on biodiversity?
  • What are trophic levels, and how do they function to maintain the structure of ecosystems?
  • Why are invasive species dangerous?
  • How do global climate changes and human activities affect the biodiversity of ecosystems?
  • What types of organisms thrive in wetlands?
  • How do humans benefit from studying ecosystems?
  • What ecosystems are best suited to rapid climate change?

Biology Essay Topics About Evolution

  • Is evolution strictly a scientific theory, or is it also valid spiritually?
  • Why is research about the evolution of life important to our understanding of the past?
  • What are some examples of convergent evolution?
  • How does natural selection contribute to evolution?
  • Why is it important for people to understand evolution and its role in biology?
  • What are some benefits that humans enjoy thanks to evolution?
  • How do mass extinctions impact the evolution of different species?
  • How does a mutation affect a population’s gene pool and diversity?
  • Explain the core principles of Darwin’s theory of evolution.
  • How does an organism’s ability to respond to environmental changes contribute to its rate of evolution?
  • What is polyphyletic evolution?
  • What are some examples of vestigial traits in humans and other species?
  • How do eco-evolutionary dynamics play a role in evolution?
  • Do you think that past mass extinction events had an impact on evolution? Why or why not?
  • What are some benefits humans enjoy thanks to evolution by natural selection?
  • How could modern-day diets affect the evolutionary growth of humans?
  • What animals have had evolutionary changes based on threats to their diets?
  • What evolutionary response makes for the best camouflage?
  • What types of traits can be used to differentiate between closely related species?
  • What are the main factors that prevent a population from evolving?
  • How is artificial selection different from natural selection?
  • Why do scientists still debate about evolutionary theory despite overwhelming evidence supporting it?
  • What are some examples of convergent evolution in nature, and how do they function as an adaptation?
  • Why is research about the evolution of life important to understanding the past?

Biology Essay Topics About Genetics

  • What is genetic drift, and how can it lead to changes in a population over time?
  • How do the different parts of DNA interact with each other?
  • How are dominant and recessive traits identified?
  • What are some examples of genetic disorders?
  • What causes Down syndrome, and how is it diagnosed in children?
  • How does natural selection act on mutations to create variation in a population?
  • Can scientists use DNA testing to learn about our ancestors’ migratory patterns and where they lived?
  • How can animal migration help us to better understand genetics?
  • Define molecular genetics and explain how it relates to classical and Mendelian genetics.
  • What is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and why is it important in population genetics?
  • Do you believe that scientists should clone human beings? Why or why not?
  • Why are dominant traits sometimes called masking genes?
  • Why is genetic diversity important for long-term species survival?
  • How are epigenetic changes related to evolution?
  • What is the difference between gene expression and gene activity with regards to genetics?
  • How do developmental genes affect the appearance of an organism throughout its life cycle?
  • How have animal and plant breeders used genetic engineering to produce certain types of hybrids?
  • What are the ethical implications of human cloning?
  • What are the latest technologies in genetic engineering?
  • What new technologies are needed to make human cloning a reality?
  • How are living organisms adapting to the presence of plastics in our environment?
  • Why are some individuals resistant to certain genetically programmed diseases?
  • What are three common misconceptions about genetic engineering?
  • What is transgenic technology, and how can it be used for disease prevention or treatment?
  • How do microorganisms impact human health and the environment?
  • What are some examples of a genetically modified organism?
  • How does natural selection impact microorganisms?
  • What is DNA profiling, and how can it help to solve crimes or return missing persons to their families?
  • Why do scientists need more research surrounding epigenetics before drawing conclusions on its effects on evolution?

Biology Essay Topics About the Human Body

  • What is the purpose of skeletal and respiratory systems?
  • How do hormones affect our body on a daily basis?
  • How does the endocrine system work as part of an overall regulatory system in the human body?
  • What are some different types of cells found in the human body?
  • What are the differences between exocrine and endocrine glands?
  • What are stem cells, and why are they important to biological research?
  • How do muscles work together to create movement in our bodies?
  • How do bones help us to maintain balance while walking, standing up straight, and running?
  • What are some ways that human behavior can impact our bodies?
  • How do foods with high sugar content affect the digestive system?
  • What organs are no longer necessary in the human body, and why?
  • What blood types offer better protection from the elements?
  • What are mosquitoes attracted to some humans and not to others?
  • What pheromones do humans give off?
  • What are the different types of blood cells?
  • How does healthy eating help to maintain digestive health?
  • Why do some people get migraines that others don’t seem to be bothered by?
  • What is the pH level of human blood, and how can it be carefully regulated?
  • How does altitude affect respiration in humans?
  • What is the most complicated system in the human body?
  • Explain the biological purposes of “Fight or Flight.”
  • What role does the immune system play in human health?
  • What is the difference between human anatomy and physiology?

Choosing any of these 160 biology essay topics will help students craft an informative and authoritative essay that is sure to earn them a passing grade.

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Biology EE Topics: How to Choose, Plus Good Examples

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by  Antony W

September 3, 2022

biology extended essay topics

Have you scoured the web for Biology EE topics but came out empty? Or maybe you’ve considered writing an EE in the subject but you still have no idea what to focus your research on?

You’ve come to the right place.

In this guide, you’ll learn how to choose the best biology extended essay topic to explore in your assignment. In addition, we’ll give you some topic ideas as well as teach you how to treat the topic you choose.  

What’s the Purpose of a Biology Extended Essay? 

An extended essay in biology allows you to apply biological knowledge while conducting research on a topic of personal interest within the area of biology.

A concentration on biology within the framework of a broader scientific research is what defines the nature of a biology extended essay.

How to Choose Biology EE Topics

The following are important considerations to make when selecting a topic for your biology extended essay:

1. Select a Topic Focusing Strictly on Biology

Biology is the scientific discipline concerned with living beings and biological processes. Therefore, a biology extended essay should contain biological theory and underline the subject's fundamental character.

It is essential that the emphasis of the extended essay be clearly biological and not more closely connected to another subject.

Although identical grading criteria apply to all extended essays in the experimental sciences, the topic you choose for a biology extended essay must provide a distinct biological perspective.

2. Avoid Topics That May Cause Harm

Certain topics are inappropriate for research due to ethical concerns. Investigations based on trials that are likely to cause pain or needless stress to living beings are ineligible for submission.

Investigations that are likely to have a negative impact on health, such as microorganism cultivation at or near body temperature, or that may require access to or release of personal medical information are inappropriate.

Some topics may not be acceptable for examination due to safety concerns.

You need to avoid experiments involving the use of poisonous or hazardous chemicals, carcinogenic compounds, or radioactive materials, unless proper safety equipment and trained supervision are available.

3. Avoid Obvious Topics

Other topics may be inappropriate because the conclusion is already well known and documented in standard textbooks.

Biology Extended Essay Writing Help

Are you finding Biology Extended Essay topic selection process tedious? Have you selected a topic but have no idea how to proceed?

Or maybe you have other overwhelming assignments waiting for you and you can’t find the time to complete an EE in this subject?

We’re here to help. 

You can  buy an EE in Biology online   from Help for Assessment and get professional writing help within your time limit Whether you have a week left before submitting your first draft or you’re planning to attend the last reflection meeting to present your final draft, our writers are here to help.

Our writing service involves topic selection, preliminary research, development of a research issue, and writing and editing.

The topic we select is strictly within Biology, and we come up with research issues that we can address within the scope of the Biology Extended Essay assignment. 

10+ Biology Extended Essay Topics

The following are 20+ examples of Biology Extended Essay topics. You can pick a topic from the list, modify it further, and share it with your supervisor for review.

Or you can use this list as an inspiration to help you come up with a topic that would suit your research.  

  • Determine the link between the growth hormone indole acetic acid and the growth of X.
  • How much do living cultures in dairy products such as milk, yoghurt, and cheese lower the lactose content after 2 hours of incubation?
  • The connection between photoreceptor cells in the human retina, “age, and gender."
  • Are commercial techniques of oral rinse (mouthwash) more efficient at preventing the growth of Micrococcus luteus than traditional methods of oral hygiene?
  • Which of hand sanitizer, hand soap, or antibacterial wipes inhibits the development of E. coli the most effectively?
  • Investigating the time necessary for two distinct species of tadpoles to attain metamorphic climax from the pre-metamorphosis stage at four different temperatures
  • How much does a 2-hour incubation at 37°C lower the lactose content in yogurts containing live cultures?
  • The effect do different light combinations on the movement of red-eared sliders, in relation to the position of the light sources.
  • What is the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among kids at Tanglin Trust School, and what are the related risk factors?
  • Investigate the antibacterial effects of copper, barium, and silver on bacterial growth.
  • Photo acclimation is the capacity of diverse symbiodinium-hosting coral species to endure aberrant light circumstances.
  • Is it feasible for plants in the same ecosystem to act differently?
  • The risk of painkillers and similar medications to the human brain
  • Near hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor are indications of life's development on Earth.
  • Current ideas and evidence concerning the molecular reasons responsible for the rising prevalence of allergy disorders in industrialized nations
  • Blood group relative frequencies in distinct geographic locations used to trace ancient migrations of humans.
  • How millennia of breeding have caused domesticated dogs to respond to eye contact through bonding (by producing oxytocin hormone)
  • An examination of malnourished children in Indonesia and the degree of their recovery following a period of supervised increased nutrition.
  • The competitive and evolutionary nature of Paramecium Bursaria’s symbiotic connection

Related Reading

  • The Complete Guide for Biology Extended Essay
  • Learn About Chemistry EE From This Guide
  • A List of Mathematics Extended Essay Topics

How to Analyze Your Biology Extended Essay Topic

You should explain early in the essay how you formulated the research topic and, if applicable, how you narrowed it by briefly elaborating on any relevant elements.

You should develop one or more hypotheses, especially since a single, well-formulated inquiry can generate a handful of specific hypotheses.

It’s possible to base your biology extended essays on data obtained through experiments, survey, microscopic observations, biological sketching, fieldwork, or any acceptable biological method.

Alternately, you can base the essay on facts or information collected from literature, ideally from primary sources, then alter or analyze in an innovative way. 

If you’re working on an essay that requires laboratory or fieldwork test, you should provide a clear and brief description of the experimental methodology.

Explain how you chose the research technique and methodology, as well as any options that you investigated but rejected.

Final Thoughts

Now that we’ve given you a list of 10+ Biology extended essay topics, it should be easy for you to identify an area to explore.

It can be an area you’re always interested in or a topic that you’ve always wanted to explore.

You should do research for your essay under the direct supervision of a supervisor.

Regardless of where or under what conditions you conduct studies, you must demonstrate your personal contribution to the research methodology and selection of methodologies in the essay.

Generating and presenting data should not be a goal in and of itself. Remember, proper scientific analysis is vital.

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Biology topic by topic questions and answers , you can download all the biology questions and answers for all topics for form 1, form 2, form 3 and form 4., the list includes all biology questions with their answers. use  the links below. click on  a link to a specific material., form 4_heredity questions, form 4_heredity answers, form 4_cell divsion questions, form 4_cell division answers, form 4_applied genetics questions, form 4_applied genetics answers, form 4_4. support and movement in plants and animals q, form 4_4. support and movement in plants and animals a, form 4_3. reception response and co ordination q, form 4_3. reception response and co ordination a, form 4_2. evolution q, form 4_2. evolution a, form 4_1. genetics q, form 4_1. genetics a, form 4 - support and movement in plants and animals questions -, form 4 - support and movement in plants and animals a -, form 4 - reception, response and co-ordination questions -, form 4 - reception, response and co-ordination a -, form 4 - genetics questions -, form 4 - genetics a -, form 4 - evolution questions -, form 4 - evolution a -, form 3_plant reproduction questions, form 3_plant reproduction answers, form 3_personal health questions, form 3_personal health answers, form 3_human reproduction questions, form 3_human reproduction answers, form 3_asexual reproduction questions, form 3_asexual reproduction answers, form 3_4. growth and development q, form 3_4. growth and development a, form 3_3. reproduction in plants and animals q, form 3_3. reproduction in plants and animals a, form 3_2. ecology q, form 3_2. ecology a, form 3_1. classification ii q, form 3_1. classification ii a, form 3 - reproduction in plants and animals questions -, form 3 - reproduction in plants and animals a -, form 3 - growth and development questions -, form 3 - growth and development a -, form 3 - ecology questions -, form 3 - ecology a -, form 3 - classification ii questions -, form 3 - classification ii a -, form 2_transport plants questions, form 2_transport plants answers, form 2_skin temperature questions, form 2_skin temperature answers, form 2_food diet questions, form 2_food diet answers, form 2_excretion questions, form 2_excretion answers, form 2_digestion questions, form 2_digestion answers, form 2_breathing questions, form 2_breathing answers, form 2_blood circulation questions, form 2_blood circulation answers, form 2_5. excretion and homeostasis q, form 2_5. excretion and homeostasis a, form 2_4. respiration q, form 2_4. respiration a, form 2_3. gaseous exchange q, form 2_3. gaseous exchange a, form 2_2. transport in animals q, form 2_2. transport in animals a, form 2_1. transport in plants q, form 2_1. transport in plants a, form 2 - transport in plants questions -, form 2 - transport in plants a -, form 2 - transport in animals questions -, form 2 - transport in animals a -, form 2 - respiration questions -, form 2 - respiration a -, form 2 - gaseous exchange questions -, form 2 - gaseous exchange a -, form 2 - excretion and homeostasis questions -, form 2 - excretion and homeostasis a -, form 1_respiration questions, form 1_respiration answers, form 1_photosynthesis questions, form 1_photosynthesis answers, form 1_diffusion osmosis questions, form 1_diffusion osmosis answers, form 1_cells tissues questions, form 1_cells tissues answers, form 1_cell chemistry questions, form 1_cell chemistry answers, form 1_6. nutrition in animals q, form 1_6. nutrition in animals a, form 1_5. nutrition in plants q, form 1_5. nutrition in plants a, form 1_4. cell physiology q, form 1_4. cell physiology a, form 1_3. the cell q, form 1_3. the cell a, form 1_2. classification i q, form 1_2. classification i a, form 1_1. introduction to biology q, form 1_1. introduction to biology a, form 1 - the cell questions -, form 1 - the cell a -, form 1 - nutrition in plants questions -, form 1 - nutrition in plants a -, form 1 - nutrition in animals questions -, form 1 - nutrition in animals a -, form 1 - introduction to biology questions -, form 1 - introduction to biology a -, form 1 - classification i questions -, form 1 - classification i a -, form 1 - cell physiology questions -, form 1 - cell physiology a -

essay questions biology

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