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Chicago Style Format for Papers | Requirements & Examples
Published on September 25, 2019 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 5, 2022.
The information in this article is largely drawn from Turabian style —a version of Chicago style aimed at students and researchers. When writing a paper in Chicago style, these are the guidelines to follow; for the sake of simplicity, the term “Chicago” is used here.
Chicago Reference Generator
To apply Chicago format:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt. Times New Roman.
- Double-space the text.
- Use 1 inch margins or larger.
- Indent new paragraphs by ½ inch.
- Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.
Note that any specific formatting advice from your instructor or faculty overrules these guidelines. Template documents set up in Chicago style are available to download below. Just select the one with the citation style you’re following.
Author-date Notes and bibliography
Table of contents
General formatting, block quotes, numbers and acronyms, in-text citations and notes, bibliography or reference list, frequently asked questions about chicago format.
Chicago doesn’t require a specific font or font size, but recommends using something simple and readable (e.g., 12 pt. Times New Roman). Use margins of at least 1 inch on all sides of the page.
The main text should be double-spaced, and each new paragraph should begin with a ½ inch indent. Text should be left-aligned and not “justified” (meaning that the right margin should look ragged).
Page numbers can be placed either in the top right or the bottom center of the page—one or the other, not both.
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A Chicago title page isn’t required—often it’s sufficient to just include your title at the top of the first page—but if you’re asked to include one, Turabian provides guidelines for how to present it.
All text on the title page should be center-aligned and double-spaced, and written in the same font as the rest of your text. The title should appear about ⅓ of the way down the page, in headline capitalization and in bold.
If you have a subtitle, the main title ends with a colon and the subtitle appears on the following line, also in bold and the same size as the main title.
About ⅔ of the way down the page, add any information your instructor requests you to include—your name, student code, the course name and code, the date, etc. Each new piece of information appears on a new line.
The title page should not have a page number, but should be included in the page count—in other words, the page numbering starts on page 2.
Headings should use headline capitalization:
- Summary of results
- Summary of Results
If you use different levels of heading (e.g., chapters, sections, subheadings), make sure your presentation makes clear which type of heading each one is.
All headings of one level should be presented the same way, and higher-level headings should stand out more from the text. For example, you might use a larger font for chapter headings, bold for section headings, and italics for subheadings:
Prose quotations of five or more lines (or more than 100 words), as well as poetry quotations of two or more lines, are presented as block quotes .
Block quotes do not use quotation marks . Instead, a blank line separates them from the surrounding text on both sides and they are indented by an additional ½ inch. Unlike the rest of the text, they are not double-spaced.
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Chicago recommends using words, not numerals, for numbers lower than 100. For example, you would write “ninety-five,” not “95.” But numerals should still be used when you’re referring to a specific measurement (e.g., “15 cm”) and when using decimals (e.g., “1.5”).
Acronyms should be introduced the first time you refer to the thing they stand for:
After this point, you can use the acronym alone.
Neither numerals nor acronyms should be used at the beginning of a sentence. Either rewrite the sentence so that the numeral or acronym appears elsewhere, or write out the full phrase or number:
- 100 people responded to the survey.
- One hundred people responded to the survey.
- The survey received 100 responses.
Chicago provides guidelines for not one but two citation styles : author-date and notes and bibliography.
In author-date style , citations are placed directly in the text in parentheses . In this style, you have some flexibility about how exactly to integrate the citation:
In notes and bibliography style, citations appear in Chicago footnotes or endnotes (the format is identical either way), and the reader is referred to them by superscript numbers in the text.
Footnote and endnote numbers appear at the end of the relevant clause or sentence, after any punctuation except a dash .
Endnotes appear on their own page just before the bibliography ; footnotes appear at the bottom of each page. Footnotes should be separated from the text by a short rule and be presented in the same font size as the main text, or smaller. Word’s footnote function automatically creates footnotes like this:
At the end of your paper, you’ll likely include a bibliography (for notes and bibliography style) or a reference list (for author-date).
Bibliographies and reference lists are not double-spaced, but leave a blank line between entries.
If an entry extends onto a second line, a ½ inch indent should be applied to all but the first line of the entry.
If you have to create a Chicago style annotated bibliography , follow the same format as a normal bibliography, but indent and double-space the annotations under each source reference.
Turabian style is a version of Chicago style designed specifically for students and researchers. It follows most Chicago conventions, but also adds extra guidelines for formatting research papers , theses and dissertations .
More information can be found in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian, now in its ninth edition.
- A reference list is used with Chicago author-date citations .
- A bibliography is used with Chicago footnote citations .
Both present the exact same information; the only difference is the placement of the year in source citations:
- In a reference list entry, the publication year appears directly after the author’s name.
- In a bibliography entry, the year appears near the end of the entry (the exact placement depends on the source type).
There are also other types of bibliography that work as stand-alone texts, such as a Chicago annotated bibliography .
In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list . It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.
In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.
Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page. Endnotes appear in a list at the end of the text, just before the reference list or bibliography. Don’t mix footnotes and endnotes in the same document: choose one or the other and use them consistently.
In Chicago notes and bibliography style , you can use either footnotes or endnotes, and citations follow the same format in either case.
In APA and MLA style , footnotes or endnotes are not used for citations, but they can be used to provide additional information.
Chicago format doesn’t require you to use any specific font, as long as you choose something readable. A good standard choice is 12 pt Times New Roman.
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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
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This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), which was issued in 2017.
Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations.
To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.
A Note on Citations
Unlike many citation styles, CMOS gives writers two different methods for documenting sources: the Author-Date System and the Notes-Bibliography (NB) System. As its name suggests, Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page that concludes the document. In these regards, Author-Date is very similar to, for instance, APA style.
By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document. Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.
If you are using CMOS for school or work, don't forget to ensure that you're using your organization's preferred citation method. For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers:
Author-Date Sample Paper
NB Sample Paper
General CMOS Guidelines
- Text should be consistently double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.
- A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
- CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
- A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.
- A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
- Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool.
- Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
- For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below.
Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines
- Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
- Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
- Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.).
Major Paper Sections
- The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
- Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
- For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
- Double-space each line of the title page.
CMOS Title Page
- Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8 th ed.].
- Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
- Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
- Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
- The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
- Titles of plays should be italicized.
- For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
- A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To offset the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to offset the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.
- Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).
- Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
- Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
- List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece..
- For two to three authors, write out all names.
- For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
- When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
- Write out publishers’ names in full.
- Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
- If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
- Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
- If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
- If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).
CMOS Bibliography Page
- Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
- Note numbers are superscripted.
- Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.
- Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
- In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
- Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range.
For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper .
While The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations.
- Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
- Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
- Subheadings should begin on a new line.
- Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
- Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
- Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
- Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
- Avoid ending subheadings with periods.
Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.
Turabian Subheading Plan
Here is an example of the five-level heading system:
Tables and Figures
- Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
- For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
- Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
- Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by...).
- If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period.
How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS
On the new OWL site, contributors’ names and the last edited date are no longer listed at the top of every page. This means that most citations will now begin with the title of the resource, rather than the contributors' names.
Footnote or Endnote (N):
Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):
“Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.
“General Format.” The Purdue OWL. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.
Author Date In-text Citation:
("General Format" 2017).
Author Date References Page Citation:
Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.
2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL . https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.
Chicago/Turabian Citation Guide
- Notes/Bibliography Style
- Author/Date Style
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Get Help Now
Why is Formatting Important?
You want your essay to be easily read and understood by your audience. Using consistency in format enables your readers to focus on your content, instead of the presentation of your paper. Errors can distract the reader, cause misinterpretations, and make your work look less credible.
Always use the specifications determined by your instructor in addition to these guidelines.
Use either Times New Roman 12 or Arial 10. Be consistent with the font you choose.
Your text should be aligned with the left margin. Indent the first line of each paragraph.
Double-space all text except:
- Bibliographies and reference lists*
- Footnotes or endnotes*
- Block quotations
- Table titles and figure captions
- Lists in appendixes
*Bibliographies, reference lists, and notes are single-spaced but have a space separating entries from each other.
The title of your essay should be 1/3 of the way down the first page. Use title case, bold font, and put any subtitles on a separate line.
Your name, course information, and due date should be 2/3 of the way down the page and in regular font.
Do not include a page number on your title page.
It should look similar to the formatting example below:
Title of Your Paper: Subtitle Student Name Course Number: Course Title Due Date
Start page numbering on your first page of text. Begin with the number 1.
Headings are used to make your paper more readable and to separate your points into logical categories (such as an introduction, background, conclusion, etc.). There are five levels of headings in Chicago/Turabian style, though you are unlikely to use all five. See how to format the various levels of headings below.
1 First Level Headings are in Bold, Centered, and in Title-case Text for the first paragraph begins on a new line and is indented. Text is double-spaced and in a consistent font. Second Level Headings are Centered and in Title-case Text for the next paragraph begins on a new line and is indented. Third level headings are on the left side, italicized, and in sentence case Text for the next paragraph begins on a new line and is indented. Fourth level headings are on the left side, in regular font, and in sentence case Text for the next paragraph begins on a new line and is indented. Fifth level headings are on the left side, in bold, and in sentence case. Text for the next paragraph starts immediately after the heading on the same line. Fifth level headings are the only level of heading in Chicago style to end in a period and have text start immediately afterwards.
The title page and headings are the same for both notes/bibliography style and author/date style. After that, there are some differences. Use the tabs on the left to format the remainder of your paper according to which style you are using.
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Chicago Style Format: A Step-by-Step Manual
The Chicago Manual of Style, a literary authority that has significantly shaped the world of writing and publishing, boasts a legacy that spans well over a century. Since its establishment in 1906, this venerable style guide has played a pivotal role in maintaining the highest standards of writing and publishing across various disciplines. Its enduring influence is nothing short of remarkable, leaving an indelible mark on the realms of academia, journalism, and professional publishing.
Chicago Style Format: Short Description
In this article, our experts, who handle your ' write my paper ' requests, will embark on a journey through the corridors of this iconic guide, delving into its rich history, indispensable guidelines, and the profound impact it continues to exert on the world of written communication. Whether you're a student striving for academic excellence, a seasoned writer crafting prose, or an editor refining manuscripts, the Chicago Manual of Style remains an indispensable companion in your quest for precision and eloquence in language and presentation.
What Is the Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual of Style, often affectionately referred to as 'Chicago,' stands as a formidable pillar of authority in the realm of writing and publishing. First published in 1906 by the University of Chicago Press, this venerable guide is much more than a rulebook; it is an enduring testament to the meticulous artistry of language and presentation.
At its core, the Chicago Manual of Style serves as a comprehensive reference for writers, editors, and publishers, offering guidance on everything from grammar and punctuation to citation styles and manuscript formatting. Its authority extends across an array of disciplines, making it a trusted companion for academics, journalists, historians, and authors alike.
The difference between MLA and APA and Chicago Styles :
While the goal of all major style guides is to ensure clarity, consistency, and credibility in writing, each has its own unique approach.
Chicago is renowned for its flexibility, making it a preferred choice for disciplines like history and the humanities. It utilizes both footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography to cite sources, allowing for detailed referencing and extensive historical context.
In contrast, the Modern Language Association (MLA) style is commonly adopted in the fields of literature, arts, and humanities. MLA is known for its straightforward, in-text citation style and Works Cited page.
The American Psychological Association (APA) style, favored in the social sciences, psychology, and education, employs a concise in-text citation system and a references page, which highlights the publication date and emphasizes the currency of research.
Distinguishing Chicago from Turabian Style
Is Chicago the same as Turabian? It's a question that often leaves students scratching their heads in confusion. Chicago and Turabian are like two branches of the same family tree, both descended from the hallowed halls of the University of Chicago.
Chicago Style format comes in two flavors: notes and bibliography, often favored in humanities, and the author-date system, more prevalent in the sciences. Turabian, created as a student-friendly adaptation of Chicago, primarily employs the notes and bibliography system. Thus, if you're a student or navigating the social sciences and humanities, Turabian might be your go-to choice.
Another key difference lies in the level of detail. Chicago is comprehensive, bordering on exhaustive, making it ideal for complex research projects. Turabian, in contrast, provides clear and concise guidelines suitable for most academic endeavors. While Chicago exudes a sense of scholarly tradition, Turabian is seen as more practical and approachable. Ultimately, your choice between these two styles depends on your academic journey and the expectations of your scholarly audience, akin to selecting the right wine from the same vineyard with distinct flavors.
Chicago Style citation, renowned for its versatility and rigorous standards, provides a structured framework for scholars to create their intellectual canvases. Our expert service, where you have the option to buy essay , delves into the fundamental principles that underpin this renowned style, ensuring your academic work shines with precision and clarity.
Chicago Style Cover Page
The title page, often considered the gateway to your scholarly journey, holds the key to making a striking first impression. While specifics may vary per your instructor's preferences, here are the foundational principles to craft a compelling Chicago cover page:
- Title Placement: The title of Chicago-style papers should take center stage, situated one-third of the way down from the top of the page.
- Comprehensive Information: Following the title, provide essential details such as the author's name, class information, and the date, each on separate lines and all generously double-spaced.
- Subtitle Synergy: Should your work demand a subtitle, elegantly incorporate it by ending the title line with a colon, followed by the subtitle on the subsequent line.
Understanding the difference between Chicago and Turabian styles is crucial. In Chicago Style, having a title page is typically the norm. However, Turabian provides more flexibility, similar to the choice you have when learning how to write an essay introduction in Turabian.
In Turabian, you can either opt for a title page or simply start your document with the title on the first page before your main content. If your professor requests a title page in Turabian, apply the same rules discussed earlier. Keep in mind that whether you're following Chicago or Turabian, your title page plays a role akin to an introduction in your academic work. Hence, it's essential to format it correctly and adhere to the guidelines.
Whether you're writing a synthesis essay or any other Chicago-style paper, the main body is where scholarly communication and rigorous research intersect, requiring clarity, precision, and adherence to citation standards.
- Structured Organization: Divide content into sections or headings for clarity.
- Citational Rigor: Follow strict citation rules, aligning with Chicago's guidelines.
- Clarity and Precision: Emphasize clear language, grammar, and syntax.
- Evidence Integration: Seamlessly incorporate evidence and data into the narrative.
- Depth of Analysis: Encourage in-depth exploration and critical engagement.
- Scholarly Voice: Balance academic rigor with accessible language.
- Interdisciplinary Flexibility: Adapt to various academic disciplines effectively.
Headings in the Chicago Manual of Style play a pivotal role in guiding readers through the complexities of academic writing.
Here's a succinct overview:
1. Hierarchy Matters: Chicago Style recognizes several levels of headings, each serving a distinct purpose. These include:
- Level 1: Centered, bold or italicized, headline-style capitalization.
- Level 2: Centered, regular font, headline-style capitalization.
- Level 3: Flush left, bold or italicized, headline-style capitalization.
- Level 4: Flush left, regular font, headline-style capitalization.
2. Clarity Is Key: Headings should be clear and informative. They should give the reader a sense of the section's content without the need to delve into the details.
3. Consistency Rules: Maintain a consistent hierarchy throughout your work. If you start with a Level 1 heading, continue in the same fashion for subsequent sections. Consistency enhances readability.
4. Avoid Overuse: Don't clutter your text with too many headings. Use them judiciously to highlight major sections or key points within those sections.
5. Capitalization Rules: Pay close attention to capitalization style within headings. In headline-style capitalization, major words are capitalized, while minor words are in lowercase unless they are the first or last words in the heading.
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In-Text Citations and Notes
In Chicago Style format, the judicious use of in-text citations and notes is a hallmark of academic rigor. Here's a helpful guide on how to employ them effectively, even when learning how to write a nursing essay :
1. Notes and Bibliography vs. Author-Date: Chicago Style offers two primary citation systems—Notes and Bibliography (used predominantly in the humanities) and the Author-Date system (commonly employed in the sciences). Ensure you understand which system is appropriate for your field of study.
2. Notes and Bibliography System: If using this system, employ footnotes or endnotes to cite sources. Place a superscript numeral (1, 2, 3, etc.) in the text where the citation is needed. The corresponding citation details appear at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the document (endnotes).
3. Author-Date System: In this system, the author's last name and the publication year are placed in parentheses within the text, e.g., (Gerber, 2022). The full citation details are listed in the reference list at the end of the document.
4. Abbreviations: Familiarize yourself with common abbreviations used in Chicago Style, such as 'ibid.' for 'the same source' and 'et al.' for 'and others.' These abbreviations aid in concise and consistent note and citation formatting.
5. Bibliography or Reference List: Conclude your document with a comprehensive bibliography (Notes and Bibliography system) or a reference list (Author-Date system). Ensure that all sources cited in your text are included in this section, and follow Chicago Style guidelines for formatting.
Block quotes, a distinctive feature of the Chicago Manual of Style, serve as a powerful tool for amplifying the wisdom of experts and honoring the sources that enrich your academic work. Here's a succinct guide on how to effectively employ block quotes:
- Block Quote Length: Use block quotes for substantial text excerpts, usually 100 words or more in Notes and Bibliography or 50 words or more in Author-Date.
- Block Quote Format: Chicago Style indents block quotes 0.5 inches from the left margin. No quotation marks are needed, just a single space before and after.
- Cite in Block Quotes: Always include proper citations in block quotes, either within the quote or immediately following it, with author, date, and page number.
- Consistent Usage: If using block quotes, apply them consistently throughout your document, following Chicago Style guidelines.
- Integrate with Context: Seamlessly integrate block quotes into your text, providing context before and after. Explain their relevance to your argument.
- Citation Style Consistency: Ensure block quote citations match the chosen Chicago Style system (Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date) and place citations correctly.
- Shortening Block Quotes: Use ellipses (...) to shorten block quotes when necessary, ensuring the original meaning is preserved.
- Adding Clarity: If you insert your own words within a block quote for clarity, enclose them in square brackets ([...]) to differentiate them from the original text.
- Punctuation Placement: Final punctuation (period, question mark, exclamation point) goes inside the quotation mark unless it's part of the original quote.
Numbers and Acronyms
In Chicago Style Format, it's generally advisable to express numbers below 100 in words rather than numerals. Therefore, it's preferable to write 'seventy-five' instead of '75.' However, when referring to specific measurements, such as '15 pounds,' you should still use numerals.
Regarding acronyms, it's essential to provide an explanation the first time you introduce them, along with their full expansion in parentheses.
Example: The House Price Index (HPI) reveals...
Subsequently, you can use the acronym alone. Avoid starting sentences with numerals or acronyms. You should either rephrase the sentence to place the numeral or acronym elsewhere or spell out the complete phrase or number. Instead of '200 people answered the question' or 'Two hundred people answered the question,' use 'We received 200 responses.'
Chicago Style Bibliography: Footnotes and Endnotes
In Chicago Style, the use of footnotes and endnotes is a distinctive feature of the Notes and Bibliography system. These notes serve a dual purpose: providing additional information or explanations while also citing sources.
Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page where a reference or explanation is needed. They are marked with superscript numbers in the text, corresponding to the note at the bottom of the page .
- Placement: Place footnotes at the bottom of the page where the reference or explanation is needed.
- Superscript Numbers: In the text, mark the location for a footnote with a superscript numeral, usually placed after punctuation marks.
- Content: Footnotes can include additional information, explanations, or citations. Provide enough detail to support your argument or provide context.
- Citations: When citing a source in a footnote, use the full citation format, including author, title, publication details, and page number. Follow Chicago Style citation guidelines.
Endnotes in Chicago style, on the other hand, are placed at the end of the document, often before the bibliography section. They follow the same numbering system as footnotes but are collected in one place.
- Placement: Place endnotes at the end of the document, often just before the bibliography section.
- Numerical Continuity: Use the same numbering system as footnotes throughout the document for consistency.
- Content: Similar to footnotes, endnotes can contain additional information, explanations, or citations. They serve the same purposes as footnotes but are collected in one location.
- Citations: When citing a source in an endnote, use the full citation format, following Chicago Style guidelines.
Chicago Style Citations
Prior to embarking on an essay outline , it's crucial to understand the correct usage of Chicago-style citations. Below, you'll find illustrative examples of Chicago Style citations for different types of works and authors, utilizing both the Notes and Bibliography (NB) system and the Author-Date (AD) system:
Books - Single Author:
Notes and Bibliography System:
Author's First Name, Last Name, Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
- Jane Doe, The Art of Writing (Chicago: University Press, 2020), 45.
(Author's Last Name Year, Page Number)
Example: (Doe 2020, 45)
Books - Multiple Authors:
Author 1's First Name Last Name and Author 2's First Name Last Name, Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page Number.
- John Smith and Sarah Johnson, The Craft of Collaboration (New York: Academic Press, 2019), 72.
(Author 1's Last Name and Author 2's Last Name Year, Page Number)
Example: (Smith and Johnson 2019, 72)
Author's First Name Last Name, 'Article Title,' Journal Title Volume, no. Issue (Year): Page Range.
- Mary Brown, 'The Role of Biodiversity in Ecosystem Stability,' Ecology 45, no. 2 (2018): 123-135.
(Author's Last Name Year, Page Range)
Example: (Brown 2018, 123-135)
Author's First Name Last Name, 'Title of Webpage,' Name of Website, Publication Date, URL.
- Mark Johnson, 'The Impact of Climate Change,' Climate News, last modified July 10, 2021, https://www.climatenews.com/impact .
(Author's Last Name Year)
Example: (Johnson 2021)
Author's First Name Last Name, 'Chapter Title,' in Book Title , ed. Editor's First Name Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Page Range.
- Sarah Adams, 'Feminism in the 21st Century,' in Women's Voices: Essays on Gender Equality , ed. Emily White (Chicago: Academic Press, 2017), 56-71.
Example: (Adams 2017)
Mastering the Chicago Style paper is essential for academic excellence. Whether you're navigating citations, formatting your text, or crafting compelling block quotes, attention to detail is key. Chicago Style empowers you to present your ideas with precision and credibility, enhancing your scholarly journey. So, embrace its guidelines, elevate your academic writing, and excel in the world of scholarship.
Lost in the Labyrinth of Chicago Style?
Fear not, for our skilled wordsmiths are ready to craft your paper with the finesse and flair it deserves!
Chicago Style Guide - 17th Edition
- Chicago Style
- Title Page and Pagination
- Quotations and Signal Phrases
- Chicago's Citation Parts
- Articles - Online
- Articles - Print
- Blogs and Social Media
- Government Publications
- Elders & Knowledge Keepers
- Other Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Generative AI Tools (e.g., ChatGPT, DALL·E 2)
- Author/Date (Scientific) System
- Need More Help?
The Chicago citation style requires the authors of research papers to include a title page. Alternatively, authors can include the title on the first page of the paper's text; however, most instructors using Chicago style will request a full title page. If you are unsure about which format to use, check with your instructor.
On the title page you should include:
- The title of your paper (centered and placed approximately one third of the way down the page)
- Your name as author of the paper ( centered, following below the title by several lines)
- The course title ( centered, located below your name)
- The course instructor's name ( centered, below the course title)
- The date ( centered, below the instructor's name)
Purdue OWL has created a sample paper in Chicago style which can be helpful to look at . Looking at this sample title page you may notice that the instructor name has not been included . The exact formatting for Chicago style research paper title pages can vary. If in doubt, check with your professor!
Sample Title Page
INVESTIGATING ETHICS IN ARCHEOLOGICAL PRACTICE
Greg Harrington Anthropology 240: Archeological Method and Theory Professor Kanwaljit Gill October 21, 2018
Headers and Page Numbers
In Chicago style:
- The title page does not include a header or page number ( see sample research paper ) .
- The second page (first page of text) includes a header with your surname and a page number (starting with the number one).
- Subsequent pages include headers with your surname and consecutive numbers.
To insert your name and page numbers using MS Word 2007:
- Click on the " Insert" tab on the toolbar.
- In the " Header & Footer " section, click on " Page Number ."
- From the drop-down menu, choose " Top of the Page ."
- Move your mouse down to select " Plain Number 3 ."
- A Header Bar will appear at the top of your page with the cursor on the right-hand side of the page in front of the number 1.
- Type your last name.
- Use the space bar to insert one space between your name and the number 1.
- To ensure your title page does not have a page number, check the " Different First Page " box (the page number will disappear from the first page).
- Click on " Close Header and Footer ."
- From the drop-down menu, choose " Format Page Numbers... ."
- In the " Page Numbering " section, select the " start at " button. The number 1 should appear– change this to the number 0 and select "OK" . This will ensure the first page of your text will start with the number 1.
- Click on the " Header " drop-down menu and select " Edit Header ".
- In the " Options " section, select the " Different First Page " box.; This will make the header/number invisible on the title page and start with your first page of text.
- Select the " Close Header and Footer " button to finish.
- << Previous: Formatting Your Paper
- Next: Quotations and Signal Phrases >>
- Last Updated: Nov 8, 2023 1:25 PM
- URL: https://camosun.libguides.com/Chicago-17thEd
- Citation Generator
- Style Guides
- Chicago/Turabian Format
Chicago Style Paper: Standard Format and Rules
Creating a Chicago style paper can be challenging to figure out at first. However, Chicago does offer a Turabian style designed just for students to simplify things. Learn how to format your Turabian/Chicago style paper from the layout to the images.
Chicago Style Paper Page Layout
Like most style guides, Chicago style paper formatting has a specific plan and page layout. However, since the main Chicago style guide is designed mostly for published work, Chicago offers students a handy guide created by Kate L. Turabian. The Turabian style of the Chicago Manual of Style works well to break down the general formatting guidelines for creating your student research paper in Chicago.
To keep things simple, let’s look at the basic formatting rules first.
- 1-inch margins
- Times New Roman 12 pt. font recommended
- Left justified (means the text on the right will be jagged)
- ½ inch indent for the beginning of paragraphs
- Header with the page number in the right corner
- Double spaced
Formatting Your Chicago Title Page
When it comes to creating your title page in Chicago style, there are a couple of ways you can handle it. You can choose to create a separate title page, or you can add your title to the first page of your paper.
For a separate title page, you need to meet these guidelines.
- The title is ⅓ of the way down.
- The subtitle goes under the title. Place a colon after the main title.
- After 3-4 returns from the title (about ¾ way down), place your name, class, date, and any other instructor requests.
- Everything on the title page should be double spaced.
Creating Headings for Chicago
Throughout your paper, headings are included in the Chicago style to set off chapters and other areas of your essay. Chicago style doesn’t offer a specific format when it comes to headings as APA style does. However, the Chicago style does clarify that you should keep everything consistent within your project. Therefore, if you have a chapter heading using a bold, large font, then use that same format for all your chapter headings. For subheadings, if you use italics, use that same font size and italics, etc. Additionally, all titles use title case.
Example of Headings:
Chapter 2: Civil War
2.1 The Beginnings of the War
2.2. The End of the War
Block Quotations in Chicago Style
When you think about formatting your Chicago style paper, you must think about formatting your block quotes . These are lines of prose that are five or more lines. Rather than using quotations marks for these, you set them off with a ½ inch indent. The title of the work is included in the line above in italics, and the blockquote is set off with a colon in the line leading into the quote.
Chicago Style Numbers and Acronyms
The Turabian format of the Chicago Manual of Style doesn’t have many rules for numbers and acronyms. However, they do want you to introduce an acronym the first time you use it. For example, to introduce the acronym for the Chicago Manual of Style, it would look like the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS).
Figures and Tables in Chicago
When it comes time to include a figure or table in Chicago style, it’s essential to place it directly under the information where you discuss it. Additionally, follow a few different rules like:
- Place the caption flush left under the image or table.
- Start with a label (i.e., Figure 1 or Table 1). These should be in consecutive order, like Figure 1, Figure 1.1, etc.
- Use single spacing for the caption.
- Use at least one blank line between the caption and text of the body of the article.
Perfect Chicago Formatting
Faq chicago style paper: standard format and rules, how do you write a chicago style paper.
To write a paper in Chicago style, you follow the formatting guidelines laid out by the Chicago Manual of Style. This means you include 1-inch margins on all sides, double space, use justified left text, and indent new paragraphs. Chicago style also recommends the use of Time New Roman 12 pt. font.
What does Chicago style paper look like?
The format of a Chicago style paper can look different based on if you use author-date or notes-bibliography styles. The author-date style has in-text citations that include the author-date like (Betts, 1989). However, the notes-bibliography style has superscript numbers and foot- or endnotes.
Do Chicago style papers need a cover page?
No, you do not need to include a title page in Chicago style. However, if you choose not to include a title or cover page, you need to include your name, instructor, and course information on the first page of your essay or research paper.
What is Chicago style used for?
Chicago is a versatile style that can be used for a variety of academic topics for essays and research projects. For example, author-date Chicago style works well for science papers. Notes-bibliography style, on the other hand, works great for humanities papers.
How do you insert page numbers in Chicago style?
To insert numbers in the Chicago style, you need to have a running header that starts on the first page of the body of your paper. It will be in the right-hand corner, 1/2 inch down, and continue throughout your paper and reference list.
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Turabian Bible Citation Examples
Entries to include in chicago/turabian author-date style, how to do a chicago style bibliography, chicago in-text website citation examples.
How to Format Your Research Paper
- APA 7 Paper Format
- MLA Paper Format
Writing Your Paper: Chicago
Chicago style papers.
- Hanging Indents
- Ask a Librarian
Chicago Style Resources
- How Do I Format My Class Paper in Chicago Style? If your instructor has specific requirements for the format of your research paper, check with them before preparing your final draft. The most common formatting is presented here.
Things to know before you begin:
- Font: Times New Roman
- Font Size: 12 point
- Margins: 1 inch
- Paragraphs: All paragraphs should be indented.
- Spacing: All of the text in the body of your paper should be double-spaced.
Typical Chicago style papers have three sections:
See the tabs below for a breakdown of how each portion should be formatted.
- Sample Papers
Below you will find an example of an accurately formatted CMOS paper.
- Sample Paper Chicago Style - PDF Click here to see a sample of an accurately formatted CMOS paper.
- Sample Paper Chicago Style - Word Click here to see a sample of an accurately formatted CMOS paper.
- Your title should be centered and place a third of the way down the page. Use Times New Roman 12-point font.
- Capitalize all the words in your title. If there is a subtitle, place it on the second line.
- Place your course name first, then your name, then the due date of the paper. This should be double-spaced and placed in the bottom third of your paper.
- Start the body of your paper on the first line of a new page.
- Insert the page number in the top right corner of the page using the header function.
- CMS uses footnotes. Place the footnote after any punctuation. Each number must have an entry at the bottom of the page.
- Center the word "Bibliography" on the first line of a new page.
- Your citations should be alphabetical.
- Each entry is single-spaced with one blank line separating entries.
- Be sure to use a hanging indent for any citations that require more than one line.
Need help formatting your Chicago/Turabian style citations using the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style ? Click the image or link below to go to the citation guide.
- Chicago Style Citations
Need help learning what hanging indents are and how to create them using Google Docs or Microsoft Word?
- Hanging Indents This page gives a brief description of what they are, where to find information on when and how to properly use them, and also video tutorials on how to create them.
Need help learning what footnotes are and how to create them using Google Docs or Microsoft Word?
- Footnotes This page gives a brief description of what they are, where to find information on when and how to properly use them, and also video tutorials on how to create them.
- << Previous: MLA Paper Format
- Next: Footnotes >>
- Last Updated: Nov 15, 2023 2:43 PM
- URL: https://necc.mass.libguides.com/formatting
To cite this LibGuide use the following templates:
APA : Northern Essex Community College Library. (Date updated). Title of page . Title of LibGuide. URL
MLA : Northern Essex Community College Library. "Title of Page." Title of LibGuide, Date updated, URL.
Chicago style guide: Chicago style page formatting
- Chicago style page formatting
- Sample pages
- Artificial Intelligence
- Indirect source
- Reference source
- Research center
- Library home page
How to format a Chicago-style paper
Your teachers expect to receive papers that are properly formatted and laid out. Use the following guidelines when setting up your paper. It is easiest if you use the correct settings from the beginning; otherwise you will have to go back and reformat your paper.
Overall page layout
- One inch margins on sides, top and bottom.
- Use Times or Times New Roman 12 pt font.
- Double-space the text of the paper.
- Use left-justified text, which will have a ragged right edge. Do not use fully (newspaper-style) justified text.
- Use a 1/2" indent for paragraph beginnings, block quotes and hanging (bibliography) indents.
- Number the pages in the top right corner of the paper, beginning with the first page of text. It's a good idea to include your last name as well, in case pages become separated. Number straight through from the first text page to the final bibliography page but do not count any pages after the end of the text as part of your page count. (A five-page paper may also have a cover page, two pages of notes and one page of bibliography which is nine pieces of paper.)
- Ask your teacher if it is ok to print two-sided.
- < Center the title of your paper in the middle of the page, halfway down.
- Center your name directly under the title.
- Your teacher's name, course title and block, and date should be written in three lines and centered at the bottom of the page.
- Use Times or Times New Roman 12 pt font for the title page. Do not try to make your cover page decorative by using bold , underline , or creative fonts.
- Do not put a page number on the cover page, and do not count it as part of the total page count.
Assemble your paper in the following order
- Cover/title page
- Body of the paper
- Appendix (if needed)
Names and numbers
- Use full names of people and agencies/legislation the first time you use them. For agencies, include the acronym in parentheses after the full name when first used, e.g. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA).
- After the first time you can refer to people by their last name or agencies/bills by their acronyms for the rest of the paper.
- Write out numbers lower than 100. (“All nine members of the Supreme Court...”)
Footnotes and endnotes
Caution: If you are writing your paper in Google Docs, you MUST use footnotes. Google Docs does not have a way to make Endnotes, and if you use the Endnote Generator add-on it will make a mess of your paper!
- Footnotes go at the bottom of the page where the reference occurs; endnotes go on a separate page after the body of the paper. Both use the same formatting guidelines.
- Within the essay text: put the note number at the end of the sentence where the reference occurs, even if the cited material is mentioned at the beginning of the sentence.
- The note number goes after all other punctuation.
- Be sure to use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) nor Roman (i, ii, iii).
- Put the word Notes (not Endnotes) at the top of the page with your endnotes. Use Times/Times New Roman 10 pt font.
- Single space each entry; double space between entries.
- Indent the first line of each note.
- Never reuse a number - use a new number for each reference, even if you have used that reference previously.
- Be sure to look at shortened form examples for sources you refer to more than once.
- To cite multiple sources in a single note, separate the two citations with a semicolon. Never use two note numbers at the end of a sentence.
- Your bibliography should go on a separate page, with the word Bibliography centered at the top of the page in Times/Times New Roman 12 pt font. Do not use bold or large size font for the heading.
- Be sure to use proper formatting - note and bibliography styles are different.
- Use a "hanging indent" - the first line of the citation begins at the margin, subsequent lines are indented.
- If your source has no author, alphabetize by title within the authors - don't make a separate list.
- Don't separate primary and secondary sources unless your teacher requests it.
Watch out for these common errors:
- Note format uses first name last name, bibliography uses last name, first name.
- In your notes, do not reuse numbers! Each citation gets a new number.
- Pay attention to indents. Notes use a first line indent, a bibliography uses a hanging indent.
- A bibliography goes in alphabetical order by author (or title if there is no author). Notes are numbered and are listed in the order the sources are used.
- Don't put Works Cited at the top of your bibliography - that is MLA style.
Citing your sources
The library subscribes to NoodleTools, a citation management tool. You can get to it in one of two ways:
1. Go to your Menlo gmail and click on the 9-box "waffle" menu. Scroll down to NoodleTools.
2. Go to the NoodleTools home page and log in with Google using your Menlo Gmail username and password.
Can't decide whether your source needs a citation? Click here to hear Dr. Hanson explain when citations are needed. Click here to view a flowsheet that will guide your choices.
Google Docs formatting tips
Formatting page breaks and page numbers in Google Docs
Inserting Chicago style footnotes in Google Docs
Do you want to be sure you've formatted your research paper correctly? Click the link below to download a Chicago style citation and formatting checklist.
- Citation formatting checklist
- Middle school citation checklist
- Next: Sample pages >>
- Last Updated: Nov 1, 2023 10:53 AM
- URL: https://library.menloschool.org/chicago
- Citing a Book
Basic Chapter Citation
Example chapter of a book, example chapter of an ebook, example foreword/preface of a book.
- Citing an Article
- Citing a Webpage
- Additional Resources
Visit the Writing Center for help with brainstorming, organization, revising, citations, and other writing assistance!
- Every Monday: Saurwein 232
- Tuesday-Sunday in Campus Center 313: The Owen Center
Regular Writing Center Hours:
- Monday-Friday 12:00PM-7:00PM
- Sundays 12:00PM-5:00PM
Book an appointment with a Writing Center consultant.
Author First M. Last Name, "Chapter or Essay Title," in Book Title , ed. First M. Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, date), page cited.
Short version: Author Last Name, "Chapter or Essay Title (shortened if necessary)," page cited.
Author Last Name, First M. "Chapter or Essay Title." In Book Title , edited by First M. Last Name, page range. Place of Publication: Publisher, date.
Eric Charry, "Music and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa," in The History of Islam in Africa , eds. Nehwmia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2000), 550.
Short version: Charry, "Music and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa," 550.
Charry, Eric. "Music and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa." In The History of Islam in Africa , edited by Nehwmia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels, 545-573. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2000.
Alan Liu, "Where is Cultural Criticism in the Digital Humanities?," in Debates in the Digital Humanities , ed. Matthew K. Gold (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013), accessed January 23, 2014, http://dhdebates.gc.cuny.edu/debates/text/20.
Short version: Liu, "Where is Cultural Criticism."
Liu, Alan. "Where is Cultural Criticism in the Digital Humanities?." In Debates in the Digital Humanities , edited by Matthew K. Gold. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013. A ccessed January 23, 2014. http://dhdebates.gc.cuny.edu/debates/text/20.
Strobe Talbott, foreword to Beyond Tianamen: The Politics of U.S.-China Relations 1989-2000 , by Robert L. Suettinger (Washington, D. C.: Brookings Institute Press, 2003), x.
Short version: Talbott, foreword, x.
Talbott, Strobe. Foreword to Beyond Tianamen: The Politics of U.S.-China Relations 1989-2000 , by Robert L. Suettinger, ix-x. Washington, D. C.: Brookings Institute Press, 2003.
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- Last Updated: Sep 30, 2022 12:44 PM
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FAQ: How should a title page be formatted in Chicago Style?
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Formatting a title page.
Here are some tips for formatting a title page in Chicago style:
- The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
- Your name and class information should follow several lines later.
- For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
- Include your name, class information, and date.
Example Title Page
- Citation Quick Guide (Chicago Manual of Style)
- Chicago Style Guide (Shapiro Library)
- Chicago Style Sample Paper (SNHU Academic Support)
This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite sources in your class assignments and projects.
To access Academic Support, visit your Brightspace course and select “Tutoring and Mentoring” from the Academic Support pulldown menu.
To access help with citations and more, visit the Academic Support via modules in Brightspace:
- Academic Support Overview: Getting Help with your Schoolwork This link opens in a new window
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- MJC Library & Learning Center
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Ready, Set, Cite (Chicago)
- Formatting the Paper
- Chicago Style Basics
Paper Formatting Basics
Major paper sections, sample papers.
- Citation Basics
- Notes-Bibliography System
- Citations: Author-Date References System
- Annotated Bibliography
Using Word to Format Your Paper
The video below gives you step-by-step instructions for using Word to format your paper.
Please note: Your teacher is the final authority for how you should format your paper. For example, Chicago Manual of Style provides for variations in where you place the page numbers for your paper. Turabian recommends that you pick a format and use if consistently. Therefore, the video may show you some style variations that you will not use in your paper.
Margins: Should be set at no less than 1" and no greater than 1.5" on all four edges of the page
Font: Uniform typeface and font size. 12 point, roman, proportional serif font (such as Times or Palatino). Except for footnotes which should be in a smaller font (usually 10 pt.)
Line-spacing: Double-space throughout the paper, except for the following items which should be single-spaced
- block quotations
- table titles and figure captions
The following items should be single-spaced internally but with a blank line between items:
- certain elements in the front matter, including the table of contents and any lists of figures, tables, and abbreviations
- footnotes or endnotes
- bibliographies or reference lists
Paragraphs and indentation: Indent all paragraphs consistently. Use tabs rather than spaces for indentation, columns of text, and other content requiring consistent alignment. Block quotations have their own rules for indentation, depending on whether they are prose or poetry.
Page numbers: Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. Do not number the title page. Page numbers are usually placed in one of three locations. Choose one of these locations and follow it consistently:
- centered in the footer (at the bottom of the page),
- centered in the header (at the top of the page), or
- flush right in the header.
For more details check out these paper guidelines:
- General CMS Guidelines From the OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue
Class papers will either include a title page or will include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines to format your title page if your paper includes one:
- The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
- Your name and class information should follow several lines later.
- For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
This is the text of your paper.
- Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized "headline-style," meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
- Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name.
- A prose quotation of 5 or more lines should be "blocked." Block quotations are single spaced and use no quotation marks, but leave an extra space before and after. Indent the entire quotation .5".
- Label this page Bibliography (for the notes and bibliography system).
- Label this page References (for the author-date system).
- Leave two blank lines between "Bibliography" or "References" and your first entry.
- Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
- Use "and" not "&" for multiple author entries.
- Write out publishers' names in full.
- If there is no publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation "n.d."
- Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
- Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
- Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout your paper.
- Chicago has an optional system of five heading levels. Usually only used for longer papers.
Tables and Figures
- If you have any
To see what your paper should look like, check out these sample papers with built-in instructions .
- Sample Paper (with built-in instructions) Example of a paper written using the Notes and Bibliography system. From the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University
- Sample Paper (with built-in instructions) Example of a paper written using the Author-Date References system. From the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University
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- Next: Citation Basics >>
- Last Updated: Nov 21, 2023 12:56 PM
- URL: https://libguides.mjc.edu/chicago
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 and CC BY-NC 4.0 Licenses .