DkIT Logo

Harvard referencing quick guide: Sample assignment

  • Introduction
  • General guidelines
  • Citing and referencing material

Sample assignment

  • Referencing software

Citing and reference list example

The text to the right shows how citations and the reference list are typically written in the Harvard referencing style.

Note: the text itself is not designed to be a proper example of academic writing and does not use information from the sources cited; it is for illustrative purposes only.

The purpose of this assignment is to show common elements of the Harvard style of referencing in Dundalk Institute of Technology. It is not intended to be an example of good quality academic writing, and indeed may not make sense in general, but it should show you how citations and a reference list are formed in the Harvard style of referencing (Cameron 2021). If you include a “direct quotation from a book you have read” (Giddens and Sutton 2021, p.117) you should include the relevant page number.

You don’t always have to write the author and year in brackets. Cameron (2021) explains that if the author’s name occurs naturally in the text then the year follows it in brackets. If there are two authors you should include both of them in the citation (Levine and Munsch 2021). If there are three or more authors you don’t have to list all of the names in the citation but you should include them all in the reference list (Robbins et al. 2020). The reference list should appear at the end of your assignment and be in alphabetical order based on the first author’s surname (Bruen 2022) rather than the order in which they appear in your assignment ( Papagiannis  2022). If you are using a citation for a second time you do not need to include it twice in the reference list (Cameron 2021).

Referencing an academic journal that you find online requires more information in the reference list but uses the same format for citing as other sources (Tesseur 2022). If referencing a source from a library database you say from which database you found it (Mayombe 2021).

Don’t forget that websites need to be cited too (Dundalk Institute of Technology 2022). We recommend you look at the full version of DkIT’s Harvard referencing guidelines, and contact the Library if you have any questions. Good luck.

Reference list

Bruen, M. (2020). River flows. In: Kelly-Quinn, M. and Reynolds, J., eds.  Ireland’s rivers . Dublin: University College Dublin Press, pp.39-59.

Cameron, S. (2021). The business student's handbook: skills for study and employment . 7th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

Dundalk Institute of Technology. (2022).  Research support  [online]. Available from: [accessed 25 March 2022].

Giddens, A. and Sutton, P.W. (2021).  Sociology . 9th ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Levine, L.E. and Munsch, J. (2021).  Child development: an active learning approach  [online]. 4th ed. London: SAGE Publications. Available from: [accessed 25 March 2022].

Mayombe, C. (2021). Partnership with stakeholders as innovative model of work-integrated learning for unemployed youths.  Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning  [online], 12(2), pp.309-327. Available from: Emerald Insight [accessed 25 March 2022].

Papagiannis, N. (2020).  Effective SEO and content marketing: the ultimate guide for maximizing free web traffic  [online]. Indianapolis: Wiley. Available from: EBSCOhost eBook Collection [accessed 25 March 2022].

Robbins, S.P., Coulter, M.A. and De Cenzo, D.A. (2020).  Fundamentals of management . 11th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

Tesseur, W. (2022). Translation as inclusion? An analysis of international NGOs’ translation policy documents.  Language Problems and Language Planning  [online], 45(3), pp. 261-283. Available from: [accessed 25 March 2022].

  • << Previous: Citing and referencing material
  • Next: Need help? >>
  • Last Updated: Dec 4, 2023 12:22 PM
  • URL:

example of harvard referencing in essay

Example essay extract with citations and references list: Home

Example essay extract with citations and references list.

Below is an example essay, complete with citations and references.

Please remember this is a fictional essay purely designed to demonstrate how and when to reference. 

Embedding experiences and voices in research can “challenge [the] studied ignorance” around race (Arday and Mirza, 2018, p.v) and the academy’s role as gatekeeper of what is considered “relevant knowledge” (Lillis, 2003). Academic conventions around skills such as writing can be excluding, forming “constructions of difference […] that deepen misrecognitions and inequalities” (Burke, 2018, p.366). Lillis (2003) and Arday et al. (2021) both use narrative to listen to the ways in which black students’ experiences are ignored and the marginalising effect of a refusal to validate multiple ways of knowing.


Arday, J., Belluigi, D. Z. and Thomas, D. (2021) Attempting to break the chain: reimaging inclusive pedagogy and decolonising the curriculum within the academy.  Educational Philosophy and Theory .  53 (3), pp.298-313.

Arday, J. and Mirza, H. S. (eds.) (2018) Dismantling race in higher education:  racism, whiteness and decolonising the academy . London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Burke, P. J. (2018) Trans/forming pedagogical spaces: race, belonging and recognition in higher education. In: Arday, J. and Mirza, H. S. (eds.) Dismantling race in higher education: racism, whiteness and decolonising the academy . London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.365-382.

Lillis, T. (2003) Student writing as ‘academic literacies’: drawing on Bakhtin to move from critique to design. Language and Education. 17 (5), pp.192-207.

  • Last Updated: Sep 22, 2023 12:51 PM
  • URL:

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, automatically generate references for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Referencing
  • Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples

Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples

Published on 30 April 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 5 May 2022.

An in-text citation should appear wherever you quote or paraphrase a source in your writing, pointing your reader to the full reference .

In Harvard style , citations appear in brackets in the text. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author,  the year of publication, and a page number if relevant.

Up to three authors are included in Harvard in-text citations. If there are four or more authors, the citation is shortened with et al .

Table of contents

Including page numbers in citations, where to place harvard in-text citations, citing sources with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard in-text citations.

When you quote directly from a source or paraphrase a specific passage, your in-text citation must include a page number to specify where the relevant passage is located.

Use ‘p.’ for a single page and ‘pp.’ for a page range:

  • Meanwhile, another commentator asserts that the economy is ‘on the downturn’ (Singh, 2015, p. 13 ).
  • Wilson (2015, pp. 12–14 ) makes an argument for the efficacy of the technique.

If you are summarising the general argument of a source or paraphrasing ideas that recur throughout the text, no page number is needed.

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

When incorporating citations into your text, you can either name the author directly in the text or only include the author’s name in brackets.

Naming the author in the text

When you name the author in the sentence itself, the year and (if relevant) page number are typically given in brackets straight after the name:

Naming the author directly in your sentence is the best approach when you want to critique or comment on the source.

Naming the author in brackets

When you  you haven’t mentioned the author’s name in your sentence, include it inside the brackets. The citation is generally placed after the relevant quote or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence, before the full stop:

Multiple citations can be included in one place, listed in order of publication year and separated by semicolons:

This type of citation is useful when you want to support a claim or summarise the overall findings of sources.

Common mistakes with in-text citations

In-text citations in brackets should not appear as the subject of your sentences. Anything that’s essential to the meaning of a sentence should be written outside the brackets:

  • (Smith, 2019) argues that…
  • Smith (2019) argues that…

Similarly, don’t repeat the author’s name in the bracketed citation and in the sentence itself:

  • As Caulfield (Caulfield, 2020) writes…
  • As Caulfield (2020) writes…

Sometimes you won’t have access to all the source information you need for an in-text citation. Here’s what to do if you’re missing the publication date, author’s name, or page numbers for a source.

If a source doesn’t list a clear publication date, as is sometimes the case with online sources or historical documents, replace the date with the words ‘no date’:

When it’s not clear who the author of a source is, you’ll sometimes be able to substitute a corporate author – the group or organisation responsible for the publication:

When there’s no corporate author to cite, you can use the title of the source in place of the author’s name:

No page numbers

If you quote from a source without page numbers, such as a website, you can just omit this information if it’s a short text – it should be easy enough to find the quote without it.

If you quote from a longer source without page numbers, it’s best to find an alternate location marker, such as a paragraph number or subheading, and include that:

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).

You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.

When you want to use a quote but can’t access the original source, you can cite it indirectly. In the in-text citation , first mention the source you want to refer to, and then the source in which you found it. For example:

It’s advisable to avoid indirect citations wherever possible, because they suggest you don’t have full knowledge of the sources you’re citing. Only use an indirect citation if you can’t reasonably gain access to the original source.

In Harvard style referencing , to distinguish between two sources by the same author that were published in the same year, you add a different letter after the year for each source:

  • (Smith, 2019a)
  • (Smith, 2019b)

Add ‘a’ to the first one you cite, ‘b’ to the second, and so on. Do the same in your bibliography or reference list .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, May 05). Harvard In-Text Citation | A Complete Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 5 December 2023, from

Is this article helpful?

Jack Caulfield

Jack Caulfield

Other students also liked, a quick guide to harvard referencing | citation examples, harvard style bibliography | format & examples, referencing books in harvard style | templates & examples, scribbr apa citation checker.

An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!

example of harvard referencing in essay

example of harvard referencing in essay

Harvard Style Citation and Referencing: a Detailed Guide from Experts

example of harvard referencing in essay

Defining What is Harvard Citation Style and Referencing

From the first time we put our pen on paper, we're taught how important it is to give credit where it's needed. Whether a research paper outline or a doctoral dissertation, proper references, and citations are the foundation of academic work in any field. And when it's time to cite sources, there's one style that stands out: Harvard style. In this article, we will explore the nuances of Harvard style citations and help you navigate the complexity of this important academic tool.

Developed by the Harvard Graduate School for Education, the Harvard style citation is a Ferrari of citations designed for the ultimate advantage of your research. Harvard Style, like a sports car, is streamlined, precise, and designed for speed. From its inception at Harvard at the beginning 20th century, this style has become a standard of academic reference and has been praised for its clarity and sophistication.

Intended to be simple and accessible to all, the Harvard style quickly became popular in the mid-20s and is based upon using the date-author citation in the document text, together with the detailed list of references at the document's end. Nowadays that it has gained universal acknowledgment, Harvard referencing is a critical instrument for scientists in multiple disciplines, owing to its simple yet tasteful design that has endured for many years.

Importance of Using Harvard Style Citation Properly

Using Harvard style citations and references correctly is like putting a hidden weapon in the arsenal of your academics. It'll be more than just following rules; it'll be about proving your credibility and that your work is grounded in solid evidence and reliable sources. Therefore, proper citations and references are crucial for a wide range of purposes:

  • First, by acknowledging your sources, you avoid plagiarism and demonstrate that you've taken the necessary precautions and are not attempting to pass on someone else's work as yours.
  • Secondly, Harvard citation style and references allow readers to track their sources and verify their assertions. This is especially relevant in fields in which precision and accuracy are important, e.g., in the fields of science and technology.
  • Thirdly, using Harvard style citations and references shows you belong to a larger academic community and know their standards and norms. By conforming to the customary citation and referencing guidelines, you can communicate that you are a reliable and trustworthy scholar who values their work.

Before finding out more of the important details about the Harvard referencing style, you might want to delegate your ' Do My Math Homework ' request to our experts!

Key Features of Harvard Style Citation and Referencing

Below are a few of the principal characteristics of Harvard Style that make it such a popular choice among scholars:

Harvard Style Citation

In-text Citation: For in-text citations, the Harvard citation style adopts a straightforward author-date structure, implying that, after a direct quotation or paraphrase, you should provide the author's last name and the date of publication in parenthesis. This way, your readers can quickly identify your sources of information without looking for a specific reference list.

Example 1: There is considerable debate within the literature on sustainable development about the relationship between sustainable development and economic growth (Mitlin, 1992)

Reference List: A full reference list with complete bibliographic details for each work you referenced in your text is included at the conclusion of your paper. Reference lists in Harvard Style must follow a certain structure containing the author's name, the work's title, the year of publication, and other details.

Example: Mitlin, D., 1992. Sustainable development: A guide to literature. Environment and urbanization , 4 (1), pp.111-124.

Consistency : Consistency is one of the hallmarks of Harvard Style, which means you should adhere to the same structure for all citations and references and include any relevant information.

Flexibility : Books, journal articles, web pages, and other sources can all be formatted in Harvard Style. Depending on the kind of source, it also allows differences in the citation style.

How to Use Harvard Style Citation and Referencing

As was already established, references and citations in the Harvard style are commonly accepted. Therefore, you should take the required actions to ensure accurate citation. Let's adhere to these basic guidelines to give credit where credit is due:

Harvard Style Citation

Step 1: Understand the Basics

The Harvard style requires a list of references at the end of the document that contains all the information about the sources and a text citation that includes the author's name and the year of publication. Before you begin, be sure you understand these fundamental principles.

Step 2: Collect Your Sources

Before you begin, gather all the resources you'll need for the paper, such as books and websites. Make sure to write down all the pertinent details for each source, such as the author's name and title, the publication date, and the publisher.

Step 3: Create In-Text Citations

In-text references must be used when using someone else's words or ideas in your writing. Usually, the cited passage or paraphrase is followed by a Harvard style in text citation. As long as it is obvious to whom it refers, it comes at the conclusion of the pertinent phrase. For example, (Neal, 2022).

Step 4: Create a Reference List

Make a list of references towards the conclusion where you can discover all the information about each source. The author's last name and first initial appear at the top of the reference entry. Only the first word of the title and any proper nouns are capitalized. Similar to in-text citations, only the first author should be listed when there are four or more; beyond that, add 'et al.' to the end of the list.

Step 5: Check Your Formatting

Make sure your references are properly formatted in accordance with Harvard Style Guidelines. This may include:

  • Use a standard font such as Times New Roman or Arial in size 12.
  • Set margins to 1 inch on all sides.
  • Use double spacing throughout the document, including the reference list.
  • Place a header on each page, which should include the title of your paper and the page number, located in the top right-hand corner.
  • Make sure to include a title page with your paper title, your name, the name of your institution, and the date of submission. Or you can always find out more on how to title an essay from our expert writers!
  • Use headings as a way to organize and simplify your paper with bold or italic letters.
  • Include in-text citations
  • Include a reference list at the end of your paper.

By selecting the button below, you may get a template from our research paper writing services that includes a sample of an essay cover page, headers, subheadings, and a reference list.

Want a Perfectly Cited and Formatted Paper in Harvard Style?

Our experienced writers will ensure your paper is properly formatted and cited, so you can focus on your research and ideas!

Common Errors and Pitfalls in Using Harvard Style

While the Harvard Style citation may seem straightforward, there are several common errors and pitfalls that students and researchers should be aware of to ensure they are using the style correctly.

One common error is forgetting to include page numbers when referencing a source. Harvard style requires that page numbers be included when citing a direct quote or paraphrasing from a source. Failing to include page numbers can make it difficult for readers to locate the information being cited and can result in lost points on an assignment or paper.

Another pitfall is the improper formatting of references. Harvard style requires specific formatting for different types of sources, such as italicizing book titles and using quotation marks for article titles. Failure to follow these guidelines can result in a loss of points and confusion for readers.

Another common mistake is inconsistency in formatting and citation styles. It is important to use the same style throughout a document, including in-text citations and the reference list. Mixing different styles can make the document difficult to read and may result in a lower grade. And, if this problem sounds familiar and you wish 'if only somebody could rewrite my essay ,' get our essay writing help in a flash!

Finally, another pitfall to avoid is relying too heavily on online Harvard referencing generator tools. They can be useful for creating references, although they are not always reliable and might not adhere to the exact rules of Harvard style. To guarantee that the references produced by these tools are accurate and in the right format, it is crucial to carefully review and adjust them.

Meanwhile, if you're not really feeling like dealing with the nitty-gritty of referencing your character analysis essay using Harvard style, no sweat! We've got your back on that one too.

Key Takeaways

In conclusion, knowing what is Harvard citation style and how to properly cite sources using this style is an essential ability for any student or researcher writing academically. The main lesson to be learned is that accurate citation not only shows academic honesty but also strengthens the authority of your work and backs up your claims. You may make sure that your writing is correctly referenced, structured, and accepted in the academic world by including these important lessons in it.

And if you feel like you need extra help, our expert paper writing services will provide you with a high-quality Harvard style citation example paper that demonstrates correct citation and formatting, giving you the knowledge and confidence to cite sources effectively in your own work!

Struggling to Write a Paper in Harvard Style Citation?

Don't let the stress get to you - let us help!

Related Articles

Vancouver Style Citation Ultimate Handbook

Find Study Materials for

Business studies, combined science, computer science, english literature, environmental science, human geography, macroeconomics, microeconomics.

  • Social Studies
  • Browse all subjects
  • Exam Revision
  • Career Advice for Students
  • Student Life
  • Study Guide
  • University Advice
  • Read our Magazine

Create Study Materials

Language Flag

Select your language

example of harvard referencing in essay

When writers use outside sources to inform their work, they need to give those sources credit. Giving credit to original sources is called referencing. Referencing ensures that writers' do honest, organized work.  Writers cannot just reference in any format they want, they have to  follow a specific formatting guide, so their readers can easily understand their research process. 

Mockup Schule

Explore our app and discover over 50 million learning materials for free.

  • Explanations
  • StudySmarter AI
  • Textbook Solutions
  • A Hook for an Essay
  • Body Paragraph
  • Essay Outline
  • Language Used in Academic Writing
  • MHRA Referencing
  • Opinion vs Fact
  • Works Cited
  • Emotional Arguments in Essays
  • Ethical Arguments in Essays
  • Logical Arguments in Essays
  • The Argument
  • Writing an Argumentative Essay
  • Image Caption
  • Microblogging
  • Personal Blog
  • Professional Blog
  • Syntactical
  • Anaphoric Reference
  • Backchannels
  • Cataphoric Reference
  • Conversation Analysis
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Discourse Markers
  • Endophoric Reference
  • Exophoric Reference
  • Interruption
  • John Swales Discourse Communities
  • Metalinguistics
  • Paralinguistics
  • Turn-taking
  • Email Closings
  • Email Introduction
  • Email Salutation
  • Email Signature
  • Email Subject Lines
  • Formal Email
  • Informal Email
  • Active Voice
  • Adjective Phrase
  • Adverb Phrase
  • Adverbials For Time
  • Adverbials of Frequency
  • Auxilary Verbs
  • Complex Sentence
  • Compound Adjectives
  • Compound Sentence
  • Conditional Sentences
  • Conjugation
  • Conjunction
  • Coordinating Conjunctions
  • Copula Verbs
  • Correlative Conjunctions
  • Dangling Participle
  • Declaratives
  • Demonstrative Pronouns
  • Dependent Clause
  • Descriptive Adjectives
  • Distributives
  • Exclamatives
  • Finite Verbs
  • First Conditional
  • Functions of Language
  • Future Progressive Tense
  • Future Tense
  • Generative Grammar
  • Grammatical Mood
  • Grammatical Voices
  • Imperative Mood
  • Imperative Verbs
  • Imperatives
  • Indefinite Pronouns
  • Independent Clause
  • Indicative Mood
  • Infinitive Mood
  • Infinitive Phrases
  • Interjections
  • Interrogative Mood
  • Interrogatives
  • Irregular Verbs
  • Linking Verb
  • Misplaced Modifiers
  • Modal Verbs
  • Noun Phrase
  • Objective Case
  • Optative Mood
  • Passive Voice
  • Past Perfect Tense
  • Perfect Aspect
  • Personal Pronouns
  • Possessive Adjectives
  • Possessive Pronouns
  • Potential Mood
  • Preposition
  • Prepositional Phrase
  • Prepositions of Place
  • Prepositions of Time
  • Present Participle
  • Present Perfect Progressive
  • Present Perfect Tense
  • Present Tense
  • Progressive Aspect
  • Proper Adjectives
  • Quantifiers
  • Reflexive Pronouns
  • Relative Clause
  • Relative Pronouns
  • Second Conditional
  • Sentence Functions
  • Simple Future Tense
  • Simple Sentence
  • Subjunctive Mood
  • Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Superlative Adjectives
  • Third Conditional
  • Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
  • Types of Phrases
  • Types of Sentence
  • Verb Phrase
  • Vocative Case
  • Zero Conditional
  • Academic English
  • Anglo Saxon Roots and Prefixes
  • Bilingual Dictionaries
  • Contractions
  • English Dictionaries
  • English Vocabulary
  • Greek Roots, Suffixes and Prefixes
  • Latin Roots, Suffixes and Prefixes
  • Modern English
  • Object category
  • Parentheses
  • Possessives
  • Regional Dialects
  • Rhyming Dictionary
  • Sentence Fragments
  • Social Dialects
  • Subject Predicate Relationship
  • Subject Verb Agreement
  • Word Pronunciation
  • Essay Time Management
  • How To Take a Position in an Essay
  • Organize Your Prompt
  • Proofread Essay
  • Understanding the Prompt
  • Analytical Essay
  • Cause and Effect Essay
  • Chat GPT Prompts For Literature Essays
  • Claims and Evidence
  • Descriptive Essay
  • Expository Essay
  • Narrative Essay
  • Persuasive Essay
  • The Best Chat GPT Prompts For Essay Writing
  • Essay Sources and Presenting Research
  • Essay Structure
  • Essay Topic
  • Introduction
  • Point Evidence Explain
  • Referencing
  • Research Question
  • Sources of Data Collection
  • Transcribing Spoken Data
  • African American English
  • African Countries Speaking English
  • American English Vs British English
  • Australian English
  • British Accents
  • British Sign Language
  • Communicative Language Teaching
  • English in Eu
  • Guided Discovery
  • Indian English
  • Lesson Plan
  • Received Pronunciation
  • Total Physical Response
  • Abbreviations
  • Advise vs Advice
  • Affect or Effect
  • Capitalisation
  • Inverted commas
  • Loosing or Losing
  • Multimodal Texts
  • Orthographic Features
  • Practice or Practise
  • Punctuation
  • Separate vs Seperate
  • Typographical Features
  • Comparative Method
  • Conventions of Standard English
  • Early Modern English
  • Great Vowel Shift
  • Historical Development
  • Inflectional Morphemes
  • Irish English
  • King James Bible
  • Language Family
  • Language Isolate
  • Middle English
  • Middle English Examples
  • Noah Webster Dictionary
  • Old English Language
  • Old English Texts
  • Old English Translation
  • Piers Plowman
  • Proto Language
  • Samuel Johnson Dictionary
  • Scottish English
  • Shakespearean English
  • Welsh English
  • Accent vs Dialect
  • Bilingualism
  • Code Switching
  • Descriptivism
  • Descriptivism vs Prescriptivism
  • Dialect Levelling
  • English as a lingua franca
  • Kachru's 3 Concentric Circles
  • Language Changes
  • Pidgin and Creole
  • Prescriptivism
  • Rhotic Accent
  • Social Interaction
  • Standard English
  • Standardisation of English
  • Strevens Model of English
  • Technological Determinism
  • Vernacular English
  • World Englishes
  • Language Stereotypes
  • Language and Politics
  • Language and Power
  • Language and Technology
  • Media Linguistics
  • Michel Foucault Discourse Theory
  • Multimodality
  • Norman Fairclough
  • Agrammatism
  • Behavioral Theory
  • Cognitive Theory
  • Constructivism
  • Critical Period
  • Developmental Language Disorder
  • Down Syndrome Language
  • Functional Basis of Language
  • Interactionist Theory
  • Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
  • Language Acquisition Support System
  • Language Acquisition in Children
  • Michael Halliday
  • Multiword Stage
  • One-Word stage
  • Specific Language Impairments
  • Theories of Language Acquisition
  • Two-Word Stage
  • Williams Syndrome
  • Foregrounding
  • Grammatical Voice
  • Literariness
  • Literary Context
  • Literary Purpose
  • Literary Representation
  • Mode English Language
  • Narrative Perspective
  • Poetic Voice
  • Accommodation Theory
  • Bernstein Elaborated and Restricted Code
  • Casual Register
  • Concept of Face
  • Consultative Register
  • Deficit Approach
  • Difference Approach
  • Diversity Approach
  • Dominance Approach
  • Drew and Heritage Institutional Talk
  • Eckert Jocks and Burnouts
  • Formal Register
  • Frozen Register
  • Gary Ives Bradford Study
  • Holmes Code Switching
  • Intimate Register
  • Labov- New York Department Store Study
  • Language and Age
  • Language and Class
  • Language and Ethnicity
  • Language and Gender
  • Language and Identity
  • Language and Occupation
  • Marked and Unmarked Terms
  • Neutral Register
  • Peter Trudgill- Norwich Study
  • Phatic Talk and Banter
  • Register and Style
  • Sinclair and Coulthard
  • Social Network Theory
  • Sociolect vs Idiolect
  • Variety vs Standard English
  • Amelioration
  • Collocations
  • Colloquialisms
  • Compounding
  • Connotative Meaning
  • Denotative Meaning
  • Figurative Language
  • Fixed Expressions
  • Formal Language
  • Informal Language
  • Initialisms
  • Irony English Language
  • Language Structure
  • Levels of Formality
  • Lexical Ambiguity
  • Literary Positioning
  • Occupational Register
  • Paradigmatic Relations
  • Personification
  • Prototype Theory
  • Rhetorical Figures
  • Semantic Analysis
  • Semantic Change
  • Semantic Reclamation
  • Syntagmatic Relations
  • Text Structure
  • Zero-Derivation
  • 1984 Newspeak
  • Analytical Techniques
  • Applied Linguistics
  • Computational Linguistics
  • Corpus Linguistics
  • Critical Theory
  • Essentialism
  • Forensic Linguistics
  • Language Comprehension
  • Lexicography
  • Linguistic Determinism
  • Logical Positivism
  • Machine Translation
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Neural Networks
  • Neurolinguistics
  • Psycholinguistics
  • Rhetorical Analysis
  • Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
  • Speech Recognition
  • Active Listening Skills
  • Address Counterclaims
  • Group Discussion
  • Presentation Skills
  • Presentation Technology
  • Agglutinating Languages
  • Alternation
  • Compound Words
  • Derivational Morphemes
  • Grammatical Morphemes
  • Lexical Morphology
  • Morphosyntax
  • Polysynthetic Languages
  • Reduplication
  • Active Reading
  • Process of Elimination
  • Words in Context
  • Click Consonants
  • Fundamental Frequency
  • Interdental
  • International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Labiodental
  • Manner of Articulation
  • Monophthong
  • Nasal Sound
  • Oral Cavity
  • Phonetic Accommodation
  • Phonetic Assimilation
  • Place of Articulation
  • Sound Spectrum
  • Source Filter Theory
  • Spectrogram
  • Voice Articulation
  • Vowel Chart
  • Alliteration
  • Complementary Distribution
  • Phonotactics
  • Sound Symbolisms
  • Commissives
  • Communication Accommodation Theory
  • Conversational Implicature
  • Cooperative Principle
  • Declarative
  • Definiteness
  • Deictic centre
  • Deictic expressions
  • Expressives
  • Figure of Speech
  • Grice's Conversational Maxims
  • Indexicality
  • Paralanguage
  • Politeness Theory
  • Presupposition
  • Semantics vs. Pragmatics
  • Speech Acts
  • Aggressive vs Friendly Tone
  • Curious vs Encouraging Tone
  • Dissimilation
  • Feminine Rhyme
  • Hypocritical vs Cooperative Tone
  • Masculine Rhyme
  • Monosyllabic Rhyme
  • Multisyllabic
  • Optimistic vs Worried Tone
  • Serious vs Humorous Tone
  • Stress of a Word
  • Suprasegmental
  • Surprised Tone
  • Tone English Langugage
  • Analyzing Informational Texts
  • Comparing Texts
  • Context Cues
  • Creative Writing
  • Digital Resources
  • Ethical Issues In Data Collection
  • Formulate Questions
  • Internet Search Engines
  • Literary Analysis
  • Personal Writing
  • Print Resources
  • Research Process
  • Research and Analysis
  • Technical Writing
  • Action Verbs
  • Adjectival Clause
  • Adverbial Clause
  • Anthropomorphism
  • Appositive Phrase
  • Argument from Authority
  • Argumentation
  • Auditory Description
  • Basic Rhetorical Modes
  • Begging the Question
  • Building Credibility
  • Causal Flaw
  • Causal Relationships
  • Cause and Effect Rhetorical Mode
  • Central Idea
  • Chronological Description
  • Circular Reasoning
  • Circumlocution
  • Classical Appeals
  • Classification
  • Close Reading
  • Coherence Between Sentences
  • Coherence within Paragraphs
  • Coherences within Sentences
  • Complex Rhetorical Modes
  • Compound Complex Sentences
  • Concessions
  • Concrete Adjectives
  • Concrete Nouns
  • Consistent Voice
  • Counter Argument
  • Definition by Negation
  • Description
  • Description Rhetorical mode
  • Direct Discourse
  • Equivocation
  • Extended Metaphor
  • False Connections
  • False Dichotomy
  • False Equivalence
  • Faulty Analogy
  • Faulty Causality
  • Fear Arousing
  • Gustatory Description
  • Hasty Generalization
  • Illustration
  • Induction Rhetoric
  • Levels of Coherence
  • Line of Reasoning
  • Missing the Point
  • Modifiers that Qualify
  • Modifiers that Specify
  • Narration Rhetorical Mode
  • Non-Sequitur
  • Non-Testable Hypothesis
  • Objective Description
  • Olfactory Description
  • Paragraphing
  • Parenthetical Element
  • Participial Phrase
  • Personal Narrative
  • Placement of Modifiers
  • Post-Hoc Argument
  • Process Analysis Rhetorical Mode
  • Red Herring
  • Reverse Causation
  • Rhetorical Fallacy
  • Rhetorical Modes
  • Rhetorical Question
  • Rhetorical Situation
  • Scare Tactics
  • Sentimental Appeals
  • Situational Irony
  • Slippery Slope
  • Spatial Description
  • Straw Man Argument
  • Subject Consistency
  • Subjective Description
  • Tactile Description
  • Tense Consistency
  • Tone and Word Choice
  • Transitions
  • Twisting the Language Around
  • Unstated Assumption
  • Verbal Irony
  • Visual Description
  • Authorial Intent
  • Authors Technique
  • Language Choice
  • Prompt Audience
  • Prompt Purpose
  • Rhetorical Strategies
  • Understanding Your Audience
  • Auditory Imagery
  • Gustatory Imagery
  • Olfactory Imagery
  • Tactile Imagery
  • Main Idea and Supporting Detail
  • Statistical Evidence
  • Communities of Practice
  • Cultural Competence
  • Gender Politics
  • Heteroglossia
  • Intercultural Communication
  • Methodology
  • Research Methodology
  • Constituent
  • Object Subject Verb
  • Subject Verb Object
  • Syntactic Structures
  • Universal Grammar
  • Verb Subject Object
  • Author Authority
  • Direct Quote
  • First Paragraph
  • Historical Context
  • Intended Audience
  • Primary Source
  • Second Paragraph
  • Secondary Source
  • Source Material
  • Third Paragraph
  • Character Analysis
  • Citation Analysis
  • Text Structure Analysis
  • Vocabulary Assessment

Lerne mit deinen Freunden und bleibe auf dem richtigen Kurs mit deinen persönlichen Lernstatistiken

Nie wieder prokastinieren mit unseren Lernerinnerungen.

When writers use outside sources to inform their work, they need to give those sources credit. Giving credit to original sources is called referencing. Referencing ensures that writers' do honest, organized work. Writers cannot just reference in any format they want, they have to follow a specific formatting guide, so their readers can easily understand their research process.

There are several formatting guides for citations, including MLA, commonly used in the humanities, and APA, commonly used in the behavioral and social sciences. Another popular formatting guide is Harvard , which scholars across many fields of academia use.

Harvard University

Harvard University is a private post-secondary institution in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is one of eight high-ranking research universities in the United States in a group called the Ivy League. In the late nineteenth century, a professor of Zoology at Harvard used a new style of parenthetical referencing to cite sources. That style became known as the Harvard style.

Parenthetical referencing is a style of citing sources in which citations are put in parentheses within a text.

Like other citation styles, the Harvard style is subject to change periodically. Writers should always check to follow the most recent formatting guidelines.

Harvard, Harvard University, StudySmarter

Harvard Citation Style

Harvard citation style requires writers to include in-text citations and a reference sheet at the end of their paper. It also requires writers to format their paper with the following elements:

12 point font


1-inch margins on all sides

Centered title

Left-aligned text

Importance of Citations

Writers have to cite their sources to avoid plagiarism, the act of passing off another's work as one's own. Plagiarism can have many consequences for writers, including suspension, expulsion, failure, and loss of academic credibility. Citing sources is also important because it helps readers identify related works for further research and helps writers keep track of their research.

Plagiarism is stealing another's work and pretending it is one's own.

Harvard Referencing Style

The Harvard referencing style requires writers to include a reference list at the end of a document. A reference list notes all of the sources a writer used in alphabetical order by author's name. The following chart demonstrates how to cite various types of scholarly sources according to the Harvard Style.

DOI stands for digital object identifier. If a journal article does not have a DOI, writers should use the URL.

Capitalization rules vary from style to style. Harvard is called "down" style, which means that titles should be lowercase. This is different from styles like MLA, in which each principal word of a title is capitalized.

Harvard Referencing Example

The following is an example of a reference list that follows the Harvard formatting guidelines.

Harvard, Reference List Example, StudySmarter

In-text Citation Harvard

When writers use the Harvard style, they need to include an in-text citation following quotations or paraphrased information from another piece of work. An in-text citation goes in parentheses at the end of a sentence, and the punctuation follows the closing parentheses. Harvard citation style follows the author/date method of organizing citations, in which the author mentions the author's last name and the date of the source's publication.

Whether or not the author's name goes in the parentheses depends on whether or not it appears in the text. If it does, the writer only needs to put the source year and the page number in parentheses. For example, a writer can say:

According to Smith, "four years of training are required" for researchers (2018, p. 150).

Since the writer mentioned that the source of this quote is Smith, they do not need to put Smith's name in parentheses. However, if the writer did not, they would have to put Smith's name in the citation. For instance:

"Four years of training are required" for researchers (Smith, 2018, p. 150).

The following chart demonstrates how to format in-text citations for various sources in the Harvard style.

A writer paraphrases a source when they take small pieces of information from it and put it in their own words. Paraphrased material still needs an in-text citation because the idea is taken directly from another source.

"p." stands for "page number." It is the page where the information was found. If the information spans more than one page, the writer should use pp. first page-last page in an in-text citation. For example, (Smith, 2018, pp. 150-155).

Harvard - Key Takeaways

  • Harvard is a referencing style that originated at Harvard University.
  • Harvard style requires double-spacing, 12-point font, and 1-inch margins.
  • Citing sources properly is important because it helps writers avoid plagiarism.
  • Harvard style follows an author/date format, which means in-text citations include the author's last name, year, and page number.
  • Harvard style requires a reference sheet at the end of papers with sources arranged alphabetically by authors' last names.

Frequently Asked Questions about Harvard

--> what citation style is harvard .

Harvard is a style for formatting references that originated in the 19th century at Harvard University. 

--> What is Harvard style format?

Harvard style format follows the author-date format of referencing. Writers put the author's last name, publication year, and page number in parentheses at the end of a sentence. 

--> How do you Harvard cite in-text? 

To cite in-text citations according to Harvard, writers typically put the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number in parentheses at the end of a sentence. 

--> What is an example of an in-text citation? 

(Johnson, 2018, p. 150). 

--> Is APA style same as Harvard? 

No. APA style is the American Psychological Association's referencing guide that is used mainly in the behavioral and social sciences. 

Final Harvard Quiz

Harvard quiz - teste dein wissen.

What is  plagiarism ?  

Show answer

Stealing another’s work and pretending it is one’s own 

Show question

When did the Harvard style originate?

The late 19th century

True or False. APA is the same thing as Harvard. 

False. APA is the American Psychological Association’s referencing guide that is used in the behavioral sciences.  

Which of the following is properly cited according to the Harvard citation style?  

Fitzgerald, F. S. (1995). The great Gatsby . New York, Scribner Paperback Fiction.

Of what group of universities is Harvard a member?

The Ivy League.

Which of the following is a proper in-text citation?

(Smith, 2018, p. 150). 

What is Harvard style used for?

Citing references in academic works.  

True or False. Harvard reference lists are organized by the order they appear in the paper.  

False. Harvard reference lists are organized alphabetically by authors’ last names.  

True or False. Harvard style requires both in-text citations and a reference list.  

What does "p." mean in citations?

Page number (where the information was found)

It is a style of citing sources in which citations are put in ().

Parenthetical referencing

The font size in Harvard style should be:

Harvard style spacing is:

The title in Harvard style should be:


The margins in Harvard style should be:

Your text in Harvard style should be:

These are possible consequences for plagiarism: 

Harvard is nearly identical to MLA.

What style are the titles in Harvard style?

It is when you take small pieces of information from something and put it in your own words.

Harvard style does not require paraphrase to be cited.

Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

What is plagiarism? 

Which of the following is properly cited according to the Harvard citation style? 

Your score:

Smart Exams

Join the StudySmarter App and learn efficiently with millions of flashcards and more!

Learn with 21 harvard flashcards in the free studysmarter app.

Already have an account? Log in

Flashcards in Harvard 21


  • English Grammar
  • International English
  • Language Acquisition

of the users don't pass the Harvard quiz! Will you pass the quiz?

How would you like to learn this content?

Free english cheat sheet!

Everything you need to know on . A perfect summary so you can easily remember everything.

Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App

The first learning app that truly has everything you need to ace your exams in one place

  • Flashcards & Quizzes
  • AI Study Assistant
  • Study Planner
  • Smart Note-Taking

Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App

More explanations about 5 Paragraph Essay

Discover the right content for your subjects, engineering.

Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.

This is still free to read, it's not a paywall.

You need to register to keep reading, start learning with studysmarter, the only learning app you need..


Create a free account to save this explanation.

Save explanations to your personalised space and access them anytime, anywhere!

By signing up, you agree to the Terms and Conditions and the Privacy Policy of StudySmarter.

StudySmarter bietet alles, was du für deinen Lernerfolg brauchst - in einer App!

Privacy overview.


Library Services


  • Library skills

Student's own work

  • A-Z of Harvard references
  • Citing authors with Harvard
  • Page numbers and punctuation
  • References with missing details
  • Secondary referencing
  • Example reference list
  • Journal article
  • Magazine article
  • Newspaper article
  • Online video
  • Radio and internet radio
  • Television advertisement
  • Television programme
  • Ancient text
  • Bibliography
  • Book (printed, one author or editor)
  • Book (printed, multiple authors or editors)
  • Book (printed, with no author)
  • Chapter in a book (print)
  • Collected works
  • Dictionaries and Encyclopedia entries
  • Multivolume work
  • Religious text
  • Thesis or dissertation
  • Translated work
  • Census data
  • Financial report
  • Mathematical equation
  • Scientific dataset
  • Book illustration, Figure or Diagram
  • Inscription on a building
  • Installation
  • Painting or Drawing
  • Interview (on the internet)
  • Interview (newspaper)
  • Interview (radio or television)
  • Interview (as part of research)
  • Act of the UK parliament (statute)
  • Bill (House of Commons/Lords)
  • Birth/Death/Marriage certificate
  • British standards
  • Command paper
  • European Union publication
  • Government/Official publication
  • House of Commons/Lords paper
  • Legislation from UK devolved assemblies
  • Statutory instrument
  • Military record
  • Film/Television script
  • Musical score
  • Play (live performance)
  • Play script
  • Song lyrics
  • Conference paper
  • Conference proceedings
  • Discussion paper
  • Minutes of meeting
  • Personal communication
  • PowerPoint presentation
  • Published report
  • Tutor materials for academic course
  • Unpublished report
  • Working paper
  • Referencing glossary

To be made up of:

  • Student name.
  • Year of submission (in round brackets).
  • Title of essay/assignment (in single quotation marks).
  • Module code: module title (in italics).
  • Institution.
  • Unpublished essay/assignment.

In-text citation:

(Jubb, 2014)

Reference List:

Jubb, A. (2014). 'Did the Allies win the battle of the Atlantic because of superior air power?',  L252: War Studies . University of Birmingham. Unpublished essay. 

Quick links

  • Harvard references A-Z
  • << Previous: Published report
  • Next: Tutor materials for academic course >>
  • Last Updated: Nov 28, 2023 12:49 PM
  • URL:

Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing / Harvard Referencing Style Examples

Harvard Referencing Style Examples

What is harvard referencing style.

Citing the work of others helps to make your work more impactful. It could be direct quotes , paraphrases of someone else’s ideas, statistical figures, or summaries of main points. There are different methods for crediting resources; Harvard referencing style (or Harvard style for short) is one such method.  

Harvard style follows the author-date system and includes two types of citations:

  • in-text citations  
  • references  

In-text citations

In-text citations  are included within the text of the main document. They are placed next to the information you are referencing, so the reader is clear on what information came from another source.

In-text citation example:

(Bloom, 2005) or Bloom (2005) wrote…

Every in-text citation has a corresponding reference in a reference list. A reference includes additional details about each source referenced. This enables the reader to refer to the original source, should they need to.  

The reference list is a detailed list of all the works consulted while writing. It is placed at the end of the document.  

Reference example for the above in-text citation:

Author Surname, Initials. (Publication Year) Title of the text in italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bloom, H. (2005) Novelists and novels . Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers.

Below are Harvard referencing examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for the different kinds of sources that you might use.  

In-text citation structure and example:  

(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Ozeki, 2013)  

Reference structure and example:  

Author Surname, Initials. (Publication Year) Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.  

Ozeki, R. (2013) A tale for the time being . New York: Penguin Books.  

Book with two or three authors

For books with two or three authors, the names of all the authors are given in both the in-text citation and the reference entry.  

(1 st Author Surname and 2 nd Author Surname, Publication Year)  

(Lodge and Wood, 2000)

1 st Author Surname, Initials. and 2 nd Author Surname, Initials. (Publication Year) Title of the text in italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.  

Lodge, D. and Wood, N. (2000) Modern criticism and theory: a reader. 2nd edn. Harlow: Longman.  

Book with four or more authors

If the number of authors is four or more, only the first author’s name is used followed by ‘et al.’ , italicised, which is Latin for ‘and others’.

(1 st Author Surname et al., Publication Year)

(Akmajian et al. , 2014)

Reference structure and example:

1 st Author Surname, Initials. e t al. (Publication Year) Title of the text in italics. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Akmajian, A. et al. (2014) Linguistics: an introduction to language and communication . 6th edn. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Book with translator  

For books with a translator, only the author’s name is included in the in-text reference.   The translator is given in the reference list entry, along with the language from which it was translated. This comes right after the title.

(Dostoevsky, 1993)

Author Surname, Initials. (Publication Year) Title of the text in italics. Translated from the Language by Translator Initials. Surname. Place of Publication: Publisher.  

Dostoevsky, F. (1993) Crime and punishment . Translated from the Russian by R. Pevear and L. Volokhonsky. London: Vintage.  

Journal articles

Journal articles are highly credible sources of information. The example below was authored by more than three individuals, so the term ‘ et al. ’ is used in lieu of listing all authors.

In-text citation structure and example:

(Lomolino et al., 2020)

Journal reference list entries often have extra information, such as article title, volume, issue number, page numbers, or a specific date.

With journals, the volume number follows the title. If there are any specific parts of the issue, numbered or organized according to months, these details are mentioned alongside in brackets.  

Author Surname, Initials. (Publication Year) ‘Article title’, Journal Name , Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: date).  

Lomolino, M. et al. (2013) ‘Of mice and mammoths: generality and antiquity of the island rule’, Journal of Biogeography , 40(8), pp. 1427-1439. Available at: https://www.jstor/org/stable/23463664 (Accessed: 10 September 2020).

Newspaper or magazine

(Ingle, 2020)

Author Surname, Initials. (Publication Year) ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name , Day Month Published, Page(s). Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: date).  

Ingle, S. (2020) ‘Geraint Thomas insists he has nothing to prove at road world championships’, The Guardian, 24 September. Available at: (Accessed: 11 October 2020).

  For online articles, you should always include the URL and date of access.

Social media and other online sources

(Author/Poster Name, Publication Year)

(Cramer, 2020)

References for social media posts have a similar format to online articles. However, sometimes they don’t have a true ‘title’. For example, for Twitter posts, the full text of the tweet is used as the title, unless the tweet is overly long.

Author/Poster Surname, Initial(s). [@Handle] (Publication year) Content of Post [Social Media Site] Day Month Published. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

Cramer, K. [@SenKevinCramer] (2020) Supreme Court vacancies are an important issue to the people I serve [Twitter] 24 September. Available at: (Accessed: 25 September 2020).

The format for citing social media is different than the format for citing regular websites and web pages. This guide on how to cite a website in Harvard style provides details on how to cite web content that is not posted on social media.

(Image Creator or Photographer Surname, Publication Year)

(Pinneo, 2020)

Print reference structure:  

Author, Initial(s). (Year) Title of the Image [Photograph]. Place of Publication: Publisher (if available).

Online reference structure and example:

If the image is on the Internet, then the place of publication and the publisher name are replaced by the image URL and access date.

Author, Initial(s). (Year) Title of the Image .   Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).  

Pinneo, B.J. (2020) Dusty dreams . Available at: (Accessed: 23 September 2020).

In-text reference structure and example:  

(Film Title , Year Released )

( Pride & Prejudice , 2005)

For films, the title of the film is used in place of the author name.  

Title of the Film (Year Released) Directed by Director Initial. Surname. Available at: Name of Streaming Service (Accessed: Day Month Year).  

Pride & Prejudice (2005) Directed by J. Wright. UK: Universal Pictures. Available at: Netflix (Accessed: 29 September 2020).

Published October 29, 2020.

Harvard Formatting Guide

Harvard Formatting

  • et al Usage
  • Direct Quotes
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Page Numbers
  • Writing an Outline
  • View Harvard Guide

Reference Examples

  • View all Harvard Examples

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!

Let us improve this post!

Tell us how we can improve this post?

Harvard Referencing Examples

Writing Tools

Citation Generators

Other Citation Styles

Plagiarism Checker

Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.

Get Started


  1. Harvard References Guidelines and Examples

    example of harvard referencing in essay

  2. Harvard referencing

    example of harvard referencing in essay

  3. Harvard referencing examples

    example of harvard referencing in essay

  4. Harvard Referencing Essay Sample

    example of harvard referencing in essay

  5. Make sure you have

    example of harvard referencing in essay

  6. Pin by Cloe Einam on Referencing

    example of harvard referencing in essay


  1. What Is Harvard Referencing Format?

    When you write academically, you will research sources for facts and data, which you will likely include in your writing. Using this information will require that you cite your sources. Your instructor may require Harvard referencing format...

  2. Understanding the Harvard Referencing System

    One of the challenges of academic writing is formatting the finished paper. Each professor, course and publication has slightly different requirements for everything from setting up the margins to using punctuation in the bibliography.

  3. How Do You Write an Example Essay?

    To write an example essay, follow the guidelines pertaining to regular essay writing. Decide on a general topic for the example essay, and proceed to researching, formulating a draft and writing in detail. Ensure thorough proofreading and f...

  4. Example Essay with Harvard Referencing

    An example of how to appropriately cite a Harvard referenced direct quote is as follows; “The concept of human resource management (HRM)

  5. Harvard referencing quick guide: Sample assignment

    The text to the right shows how citations and the reference list are typically written in the Harvard referencing style.

  6. Example essay extract with citations and references list: Home

    Example essay extract with citations and references list: Home. An example using the UON Harvard style

  7. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    Books ; Format, Author surname, initial. (Year) Book title. City: Publisher. ; Example, Smith, Z. (2017) Swing time. London: Penguin. ; Notes. The

  8. Harvard In-Text Citation

    In Harvard style, when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For

  9. Complete Guide to Harvard Style Citation: Tips, Examples

    In-text Citation: For in-text citations, the Harvard citation style adopts a straightforward author-date structure, implying that, after a

  10. Harvard: Referencing Styles & Examples

    In-text Citation Harvard ; No author. (Organization, year, p.) or. (Source title, year, p.). (Environmental Protection Agency, 2017, p. 10). or. (Why citations

  11. Harvard Formatting and Style Guide

    The Harvard Essay Template 2. The Harvard Essay Template: The Essay Title is Centered and Capitalized. The first paragraph of the essay introduces the reader

  12. Harvard Referencing Guide

    Last name of author, First initial. (Year). Title of page [Social media format]. Day/month/year written. Available from: URL. [Accessed: Day/

  13. Student's own work

    Unpublished essay/assignment. In-text citation: (Jubb, 2014).

  14. Harvard Referencing Style Examples

    Reference structure and example: Author Surname, Initials. (Publication Year) 'Article title', Newspaper/Magazine Name, Day Month Published