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12 Type 4: Proposal Argument

Proposal arguments.

Proposal arguments attempt to push for action of some kind. They answer the question “What should be done about it?”

In order to build up to a proposal, an argument needs to incorporate elements of definition argument, evaluation argument, and causal argument. First, we will need to define a problem or a situation that calls for action. Then we need to make an evaluation argument to convince readers that the problem is bad enough to be worth addressing. This will create a sense of urgency within the argument and inspire the audience to seek and adopt proposed action. In most cases, it will need to make causal arguments about the roots of the problem and the good effects of the proposed solution.

Below are some elements of proposal arguments. Together, these elements can help us create a sense of urgency about the need for action and confidence in your proposal as a solution.

Common elements of proposal arguments

Background on the problem, opportunity, or situation.

Often just after the introduction, the background section discusses what has brought about the need for the proposal—what problem, what opportunity exists for improving things, what the basic situation is. For example, management of a chain of daycare centers may need to ensure that all employees know CPR because of new state mandates requiring it, or an owner of pine timberland in eastern Oregon may want to make sure the land can produce saleable timber without destroying the environment.

While the named audience of the proposal may know the problem very well, writing the background section is useful in demonstrating our particular view of the problem. If we cannot assume readers know the problem, we will need to spend more time convincing them that the problem or opportunity exists and that it should be addressed.  For a larger audience not familiar with the problem, this section can give detailed context.

Description of the proposed solution

Here we define the nature of what we are proposing so readers can see what is involved in the proposed action. For example, if we write an essay proposing to donate food scraps from restaurants to pig farms, we will need to define what will be considered food scraps. In another example, if we argue that organic produce is inherently healthier for consumers than non-organic produce, and we propose governmental subsidies to reduce the cost of organic produce, we will need to define “organic” and describe how much the government subsidies will be and which products or consumers will be eligible. See  7.2: Definition Arguments for strategies that can help us elaborate on our proposed solution so readers can envision it clearly.

If we have not already covered the proposal’s methods in the description, we may want to add this. How will we go about completing the proposed work? For example, in the above example about food scraps, we would want to describe and how the leftover food will be stored and delivered to the pig farms. Describing the methods shows the audience we have a sound, thoughtful approach to the project. It serves to demonstrate that we have the knowledge of the field to complete the project.

Feasibility of the project

A proposal argument needs to convince readers that the project can actually be accomplished. How can enough time, money, and will be found to make it happen?  Have similar proposals been carried out successully in the past? For example, we might observe that according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Rutgers University runs a program that sends a ton of food scraps a day from its dining halls to a local farm. 1  If we describe how other efforts overcame obstacles, we will persuade readers that if they can succeed, this proposal can as well.

Benefits of the proposal

Most proposals discuss the advantages or benefits that will come from the solution proposed. Describing the benefits helps you win the audience to your side, so readers become more invested in adopting your proposed solution. In the food scraps example, we might emphasize that the Rutgers program, rather than costing more, led to $100,000 a year in savings because the dining halls no longer needed to pay to have the food scraps hauled away.  We could calculate the predicted savings for our new proposed program as well.

In order to predict the positive effects of the proposal and show how implementing it will lead to good results, we will want to use causal arguments. The strategies in  7.5: Causal Arguments will be helpful here. This is a good time to refer back to the problem we identified early in the essay and show how the proposal will resolve that original problem.

Sample annotated proposal argument

The sample essay “Why We Should Open Our Borders” by student Laurent Wenjun Jiang can serve as an example. Annotations point out how Jiang uses several proposal argument strategies.  

  • Sample proposal essay “Why We Should Open Our Borders” in PDF with margin notes
  • Sample proposal essay “Why We Should Open Our Borders” accessible version with notes in parentheses

Find a proposal argument that you strongly support.  Browse news and opinion websites, or try The Conversation . Once you have chosen a proposal, read it closely and look for the elements discussed in this section.  Do you find enough discussion of the background, methods, feasibility, and benefits of the proposal? Discuss at least one way in which you think the proposal could be revised to be even more convincing.

Works Cited

1 “Fact Sheet About the Food Scraps Diversion Program at Rutgers University.” Environmental Protection Agency, U.S . October 2009,  https://www.epa.gov/sustainable-mana…ers-university . Accessed 12/10/2021.


Parts of this section on proposal arguments are original content by Anna Mills and Darya Myers.  Parts were adapted from Technical Writing, which was derived in turn by Annemarie Hamlin, Chris Rubio, and Michele DeSilva, Central Oregon Community College, from Online Technical Writing by David McMurrey – CC BY 4.0 .

Screen-Reader Accessible Annotated Proposal Argument

Format note: This version is accessible to screen reader users.  For a more traditional visual format, see the PDF version of “Why We Should Open Our Borders” above.

Laurent Wenjun Jiang

Prof. Natalie Peterkin

July 25, 2020

Why We Should Open Our Borders

Refugees, inequalities, economic instabilities…the fact that we are bombarded by news on those topics every day is proof that we live in a world with lots of problems, and many of us suffer as a consequence. Nations have tried a variety of solutions, but the reality has not improved. Yet there exists a single easy measure that could solve almost all of the problems mentioned above: an open-border policy. The current border and immigration practices, including border controls and detention centers, are unjustified and counterproductive. (Note: The first body paragraph gives background on the problem, opportunity, or situation.) This paper discusses the refugee problem, the history of open-border policy, the refutations for the current border policies on philosophical and moral grounds, and the arguments why this open-border policy will work economically.

Refugees are a problem of worldwide concern. Recently the biggest wave of refugees came from Syria, which witnessed an eight-year-long civil war. In an interview, a Syrian refugee expresses deep sorrows regarding the loss of her home: “My brothers, sisters, uncles, neighbors, streets, the bread ovens, schools, children going to schools …we miss all of that, everything in Syria is precious to us” she says, with tears hovering in her eyes (Firpo). She also exposes the terrible living conditions there: “[W]e didn’t run away, Syria has become uninhabitable. Not even animals could live there. No power, no running water, no safety, and no security. You don’t know who to fight…even when you lock yourself away, you’re not safe…I was most scared of seeing my children die right in front of me” (Firpo). (Note: Moving refugee testimonies serve as evidence supporting the claim that their situation is one of great urgency.) As heart-breaking as it sounds, we should also know that this is only the tip of the iceberg: Gerhard Hoffstaedter, an anthropologist at the University of Queensland, states that there are around 70 million displaced people in developing countries, which is the highest recorded number since the 1950s, causing the United Nations to call this world issue “a crisis.” The leading nations in the world do not offer enough support to displaced people living in abject conditions. Refugees at the U.S.-Mexico border and in Southeast Asia and Australia are constantly kept in detention centers. Many nations do not comply with the provisions signed in the 1951 Refugee Convention and the succeeding 1967 Protocol; they treat the refugees only as those in passive need of simply humanitarian aids (Hoffstaedter). In this crisis, it is our common responsibility as members of an international community to help those who are in need.

Historically, the large-scale control of the mobility of people is a relatively new phenomenon worldwide. (Note: This body paragraph starts with a definition argument to show that the current trend is new. This argument later becomes support for the idea that open borders are possible.) In the modern era, border signifies “ever more restrictive immigration policies” at the same time grants “greater freedom of mobility to capital and commodities”, as defined in the editorial “Why No Borders.” This creates a contradictory ideology that could cause potential harm to those who need to migrate (Anderson, et al.). John Maynard Keynes dates the beginning of this process only back to World War I in the early 20th century. However, this trend did not become widespread until after World War II. According to a historical outline created by Christof Van Mol and Helga de Valk, due to the booming in the industrial production in northwestern Europe in the 1950s, the local workers were increasingly educated and gradually became whitecollar employers, leaving vacancies in blue-collar occupations (Mol and Valk).

Thus, those countries started recruiting immigrants from other parts of Europe and even North Africa: for example, Germany and France started seasonal working programs to attract immigrants (Mol and Valk). Because of the lack of job opportunities in the other parts of Europe and North Africa and the need for workers in the industrializing countries in Northern and Western Europe, “international migration was generally viewed positively because of its economic benefits, from the perspective of both the sending and the receiving countries” (Mol and Valk). This early migration pattern within Europe provides the basic model for the European Union that builds on the fundamental ideology of the free movements of goods and human resources. In recent days, the European Union has become one of the biggest multinational organizations, which can also serve as a successful example of this open-border ideology, at least on a regional scale.

Borders do not satisfy the needs of contemporary societies. From both philosophical and moral perspectives, restrictive border policies are not justified. First of all, borders divide and subjugate people. The editorial “Why No Borders” describes the border as being“thoroughly ideological” (Anderson, et al.). The authors argue that because border policies try to categorize people into “desirable and non-desirable” according to their skills, race, or social status, etc., they thus create an interplay between “subjects and subjectivities,” placing people into “new types of power relationship” (Anderson, et al.). This is what is identified as the ultimate cause of the divisions and inequalities between people.

Some fear that competition from immigrants would cause a reduction in the wages of local workers (Caplan). (Note: In this body paragraph, the author attempts to disprove the counterargument about a downside of open borders for local workers.) This is not an uncalled-for worry, but it is also a misunderstanding of the nature of the open-border policy. Nick Srnicek reasons that this kind of competition has already existed under the current trend of globalization, where workers in developed countries are already competing against those in developing countries that have cheaper labor. He argues, “Workers in rich countries are already losing, as companies eliminate good jobs and move their factories and offices elsewhere” (Srnicek). The border serves companies by making workers in the developing world stay where wages are low. Thus, “companies can freely exploit” cheap labor. In this sense, workers on both sides will be better off under an open-border policy (Srnicek). A recent study from the University of Wisconsin-Madison investigating the economic implications of immigration between rich and poor countries concluded that the benefits of an open-border policy far outweigh the cons and that “the real wage effects are small” (Kennan).

Although an open border could lead to minor reductions in the wages of local workers in developed countries, there is a simple solution. Since the labor market follows the economic law of supply, work supply and wages are inversely related, meaning that the lower the supply of labor, the more wages rise. (Note: This paragraph could be seen as a limit and a rebuttal because the open border would need to be combined with changes to labor laws in order to avoid a possible bad effect.) Nick Srnicek proposes, “a shortening of the workweek…would reduce the amount of work supplied, spread the work out more equally among everyone and give more power to workers … more free time to everyone” (Srnicek). Thus, although the open-border policy is not perfect, its downside is easy to address. (Note: The author does not investigate how much time, money, and will an open border policy would need; the argument remains mostly theoretical because it doesn’t address feasibility.)

As an expatriate myself, I can truly relate to this type of thinking. Due to a variety of the political, economic, and social limitations that I came across in my home country, I was not able to achieve self-actualization. In pursuit of a better education and a more free living environment, I went abroad and finally arrived in this country a few years ago. It was not until then that I gained a vision of my future. Now I am working in hopes that one day the vision could become reality. Sometimes I cannot help wondering what could happen if I was not so lucky to be where I am today. But at the same time, I am also conscious of the fact that there are also millions of people out there who cannot even conceive of what it is like to actualize their lives. (Note: The conclusion humanizes the possible benefits of the proposed solution.) I am sure that one of the mothers who escaped her war-torn home country with her family has the sole hope to witness her children growing up in a happy and free place, just like any mother in the world. I am sure that there is one little girl whose family fled her country in desperation who once studied so hard in school, dreaming of becoming the greatest scientist in the world. I am also sure that there is a young boy who survived persecutions and wishes to become a politician one day to make the world a better place for the downtrodden. Because of borders, these children can only dream of the things that many of us take for granted every day. We, as human beings, might be losing a great mother, great scientist, great politician, or just a great person who simply wishes for a better world. But everything could be otherwise. Change requires nothing but a minimal effort. With open borders, we can help people achieve their dreams.

Hoffstaedter, Gerhard. “There Are 70 Million Refugees in the World. Here Are 5 Solutions to the Problem.” The Conversation , 24 Mar. 2020, theconversation.com/there-are-70-million-refugees-in-the-world-here-are-5- solutions-to-the-problem-118920.

Anderson, Sharma. “Editorial: Why No Borders?” Refuge , vol. 26, no. 2, 2009, pp.5+. Centre for Refugee Studies, York University. Accessed July 26, 2020.

D, D. “Keynes, J. M., The economic consequences of the peace.” Ekonomisk tidskrift, vol. 22, no. 1, Basil Blackwell Ltd., etc, Jan. 1920, p. 15–. Accessed July 26, 2020.

Srnicek, Nick. “The US$100 Trillion Case for Open Borders.” The Conversation , 18 Feb. 2020, theconversation.com/the-us-100-trillion-case-for-open-borders-72595.

Caplan, Bryan. “Why Should We Restrict Immigration?” Cato Journal , vol. 32, no. 1, 2012, pp. 5-24. ProQuest , https://libris.mtsac.edu/login?url=https://search- proquest-com.libris.mtsac.edu/docview/921128626?accountid=12611.Accessed July 26, 2020.

Kennan, John. “Open Borders in the European Union and Beyond: Migration Flows and Labor Market Implications.” NBER Working Paper Series, 2017,  www.nber.org/papers/w23048.pdf.

Firpo, Matthew K., director. Refuge . 2016. The Refuge Project, www.refugeproject.co/watch.

Van Mol, Cristof, and Helga de Valk. “Migration and Immigrants in Europe: A Historical and Demographic Perspective.” Integration Processes and Policies in Europe , edited by Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas and Rinus Penninx, 2016, IMISCOE Research Series, pp. 33-55.


This sample essay was written by Laurent Wenjun Jiang and edited and annotated by Natalie Peterkin. Licensed CC BY-NC 4.0 .

Chapter Attribution

This chapter is from “Forming a Research-Based Argument” in in How Arguments Work: A Guide to Writing and Analyzing Texts in College by Anna Mills under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license.

Upping Your Argument and Research Game Copyright © 2022 by Liona Burnham is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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63 Proposal Argument Model

Proposal method.

from Introduction to College Writing at CNM

The proposal method of argument is used when there is a problematic situation, and you would like to offer a solution to the situation. The structure of the proposal method is similar to the other persuasive methods, but there are slight differences.

Introduce and define the nature of the problematic situation. Make sure to focus on the problem and its causes. This may seem simple, but many people focus solely on the effects of a problematic situation. By focusing on the actual problem, your readers will see your proposal as a solution to the problem. If you don’t, your readers might see your solution as a mere complaint.

Propose a solution, or a number of solutions, to the problem. Be specific about these solutions. If you have one solution, you may choose to break it into parts and spend a paragraph or so describing each part. If you have several solutions, you may instead choose to spend a paragraph on each scenario. Each additional solution will add both depth and length to your argument. But remember to stay focused. Added length does not always equal a better argument.

Describe the workability of the various solutions. There are a variety of ways that this could be done. With a single-solution paper you could break the feasibility down into short and long term goals and plans. With a multiple-solution essay, you may instead highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the individual solutions, and establish which would be the most successful, based on your original statement of the problem and its causes. Check out this source from Owlcation, where they give a chart of 12 Ways to Solve Problems in the middle of the page.

Summarize and conclude your proposal. Summarize your solutions, re-state how the solution or solutions would work to remedy the problematic situation, and you’re done.

More information on proposal arguments follows.

Proposal Arguments

from College Comp II

Key Concept

Proposal Argument: argues that something should, ought to, or must happen.

examples of proposal argument essay

Proposal arguments–which propose that something should, ought to, or must happen–may be one of the most common kinds of arguments we encounter in our day-to-day lives; however, despite how often we find them, they can actually be rhetorically quite complex, perhaps because they appear deceptively simple to make. And this is exactly why we’re covering them last, since there are some very important subtleties to them.

The basic idea behind a proposal argument seems pretty straightforward: we state what we think should happen and then marshal evidence to support that proposal. Seems easy, right?

Let’s look at a hypothetical example:

Friend #1: “We should go see Movie X!”  (Proposal claim)

Friend #2: “Okay, sounds good. I’m in!”

Friend #1 is making a proposal claim, arguing that both friends should go see a particular movie.  In an abstract setting, this claim makes sense. However, Friend #2’s response seems pretty unlikely. If you were Friend #2, you’d probably have a few questions about why Friend #1 thinks you should go see this movie, right? Equally, you’d probably expect Friend #1 to provide at least some evidence (however scant) about why you should go see this movie. Perhaps, for example, you might want to know about the actors or the director. Maybe you’re curious about what critics are saying. Perhaps you’d like to know how long it is. Indeed, these are pretty typical things that your average person would want to know before they pay for their movie ticket. Maybe a more genuine conversation would look like this:

Friend #1: “Hey, did you know that Movie X in the theaters right now?”   (Definition claim, establishing the existence of a condition.)

Friend #2: “Yeah, I did!”

Friend #1: “I’ve been reading that critics across the board are praising it. One critic whose opinion I really trust even said that it’s the best movie to come out all year.”   (Evaluative claim, arguing that something is good.)

Friend #2: “Oh wow!”

Friend #1: “I think we should go see it!”   (Proposal claim)

Note that in this second example, in order for Friend #1 to build a sound proposal argument, they have to first make several other claims–notably a definition claim, establishing the existence of a condition, following by an evaluative claim, arguing that the movie is good.

However, in less mundane examples, proposal arguments often begin by identifying a problem before proposing a solution to it. For instance, in recent years, there has been increased public awareness of the dangers of disposable plastic drinking straws, particularly focused on the dangers they cause to wildlife. Many stakeholders have proposed (and even implemented) a variety of different solutions. Starbucks, for example, redesigned their cold-drink cups so that they could stop giving customers obligatory straws with their beverages. Other establishments have switched to using straws that are made of paper, which is more biodegradable and therefore breaks down more easily. Other companies have started marketing washable, reusable plastic straws that can be reused over and over again. While a wide variety of solutions have been proposed (and while many of those proposals have even been enacted), what’s important to note is that these proposals were in response to what was identified as a problem–i.e. The wastefulness of disposable drinking straws.

For our purposes, however, here is how we can think about making proposal arguments:

1) Part of showing that a problem exists entails getting your reader to care enough to accept your proposed solution.  To get the reader to care, you will need to work on their hearts as well as their minds by showing how the problem affects people (and, potentially, the reader specifically) and has important stakes.

2) You will need to show how your solution solves the problem (wholly or partially).

3) You will need to offer reasons for adopting your proposal.  What values can you appeal to? Of the person or organization that needs to be convinced, how can you show that their interests are served?  Always remember your audience. You don’t have to pretend that your solution is perfect or has neither costs nor any negative consequences; you should address these and convince your reader that despite them, your solution is about doing the right thing.

Recapping the main ideas behind Proposal Arguments:

  • They argue that something should, ought to or must happen
  • They don’t necessarily need to completely “solve” the problem; perhaps they only improve certain parts of it.
  • Proposal claims are often the culmination of a string of other claims (definition, causal, etc.)


Here is an annotated Sample Proposal Essay .

Proposal Argument Model Copyright © 2020 by Liza Long; Amy Minervini; and Joel Gladd is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Part 4: Rhetorical Modes

18 Proposal Arguments

Proposal argument.

A proposal argument is a structure of argument that focuses on presenting some kind of proposal as a solution to a problem, outlining the details of the proposal, and providing good reasons to support the proposal. In this type of argument, you must propose a solution to a problem. First, you must establish a clear problem and then propose a specific solution to that problem. For example, you might argue for a proposal that would increase retention rates at your college.

This type of essay works well if you see a problem you want to fix or see the change you want to make. For example, it’s not enough to argue that cigarette smoking is bad for one’s health. Most people would agree. But, you could make a good argument that we need a plan to cut down on teens who are becoming addicted to cigarettes.

A proposal, in the technical sense, is a document that tries to persuade the reader to implement a proposed plan or approve a proposed project. Most businesses rely on effective proposal writing to ensure the successful continuation of their business and to get new contracts. The writer tries to convince the reader that the proposed plan or project is worth doing (worth the time, energy, and expense necessary to implement or see it through), that the author represents the best candidate for implementing the idea, and that it will result in tangible benefits.

Your proposal must persuade  the reader that your idea is the one most worth pursuing. Proposals are persuasive documents intended to initiate a project and get the reader to authorize a course of action proposed in the document. These might include proposals to

  • Perform a task (such as a feasibility study, a research project,  etc. )
  • Provide a product
  • Provide a service

All proposals must be convincing, logical, and credible, and to do this, they must consider audience, purpose, and tone.

The problem/solution pattern is commonly used in identifying something that’s wrong and in contemplating what might be done to remedy the situation. For example, the problem of water pollution could be described, followed by ideas of new ways to solve the problem. There are probably more ways to organize a problem/solution approach, but here are three possibilities:

  • Describe the problem, followed by the solution
  • Propose the solution first and then describe the problems that motivated it
  • Explain a problem, followed by several solutions, and select one solution as the best

Emphasize the words  problem  and  solution  to signal these sections of your paper for your reader.

Here’s an example article from T he New York Times , “ Monks Embrace Web to Reach Recruits ,” that highlights an unexpected approach by a group of Benedictine monks in Rhode Island; they’ve turned to social media to grow their dwindling membership.

Proposal Structure

Watch the video below to learn more about the structure of a proposal argument.

When writing a proposal argument, it’s important that you  don’t try to take on too much  given the length of your assignment and the time you have to write your essay. Think about proposals that work well given the constraints of the assignment.

If you have a choice in what you write about,  find something you feel passionately about . If you’re going to be writing a specific proposal to solve a problem, it helps if you care about the problem.

Think about your audience  members as you plan and write. What kind of information do they need? What will be convincing to them? Think about your audience as you work to use  ethos ,  pathos , and  logos .

A Sample Essay with annotation can be found here .

Time to Write

Purpose:  This assignment will demonstrate the understanding of how to do a full research paper in the problem/solution mode. Students will research a problem and identify a legitimate solution to the problem.

Task: This assignment presents a solution to the problem based on your approved topic.

Write a Proposal Essay.  This essay should clearly identify a workable solution to the problem you have been researching.  Your research should include the solution’s details (the costs, feasibility, acceptability, and benefits of the solution).  This is an Argument essay, so you aren’t making a presentation of facts, you are presenting a position and supporting it.   Explain what the problem is very briefly. Then explain in great detail about the solution. Include the costs, not just in money but time and people and opportunity costs. Explain the steps on how it can be done. Defend the feasibility, can this solution actually be implemented? What are the limitations, what problems are faced? Explain the benefits of using this solution.  Present views that are different, other possible solutions, and defend why your solution is the best possible approach.  Include how.  Conclude with a statement of what the readers should understand after reading your essay. Your research should include quotations, summary, paraphrase, and synthesis.  Draw on a variety of sources.

Key Features of a Proposal:

  • The outline is present  and matches the essay
  • The essay is in full APA format, with abstract and reference page
  • The problem is clearly identified
  • The problem is of some importance
  • The audience of the paper is clear
  • The thesis presents the solution to the problem in argument form
  • The proposal contains specific details about the costs, feasibility, acceptability, and benefits of the solution
  • The solution can resolve the problem
  • There is a process presented for the solution to be fully enacted
  • Evidence is used throughout the paper with books, references, periodicals, scholarly articles, media sources, as in the Annotated Bibliography (sources can be duplicated)
  • Clear transitions
  • 8-10 Pages (essay)
  • No late papers will be accepted.
  • Submit your paper as ONE document only – NOT 4 separate documents (cover page, outline, essay, References).
  • The body of the paper should be 10 pages minimum.  Papers not meeting the 8-page minimum requirement will be docked 10% for each page it is short. The cover page, outline, and References page DO NOT count in the total page count.

This is the only essay that has AUTOMATIC FAIL restrictions

There are four instances in which your paper could be returned ungraded. They are:

  • Plagiarism :  Any paper with plagiarized material in it will receive a zero (0). No do-overs. No rewrites. If you disagree with any findings, be prepared to take up your argument with the Dean of Academic Affairs. “It was an accident” is not a valid argument. We spent class time learning how to cite sources correctly. If you make a mistake at this point, it’s like failing the test. You get the grade you earn.
  • Your topic doesn’t match the material created in your previous assignments.  Your paper doesn’t utilize any of the previous research and materials discovered during the course research process.
  • The paper does not reference at least six sources including a book, periodical article, scholarly journal article, reference source, and primary research. The essay, not the reference page.
  • Excessive errors: grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. You have access to Paperrater, Grammarly,  and Brainfuse.

Key Grading Considerations

  • APA Cover Page
  • The problem is explained briefly
  • It is a significant problem
  • It is easy to tell who you are talking to
  • The thesis is a solution thesis
  • Feasibility
  • Acceptability
  • Some opposition is addressed
  • The solution comes to a resolution of some kind
  • There is a clear conclusion
  • Evidence is used appropriately
  • Transitions


  • Content Adapted from Excelsior Online Writing Lab (OWL). (2020).  Excelsior College. Retrieved from https://owl.excelsior.edu/ licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-4.0 International License .
  • Content Adapted from Composition II. Authored by : Alexis McMillan-Clifton.  Provided by : Tacoma Community College.  Located at :  http://www.tacomacc.edu .
  • “ Chapter 10: The Rhetorical Modes ” and “ Chapter 15: Readings: Examples of Essays ,” from   Writing  for Success  from Saylor Academy, which is licensed under  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0.
  • Original Content from  Christine Jones. (2021). Proposal Essays. Licensed under a CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication .

English 102: Journey Into Open Copyright © 2021 by Christine Jones is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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5.8 Causal and Proposal Arguments

Anna Mills and Darya Myers

Causal arguments attempt to make a case that one thing led to another. They answer the question “What caused it?” Causes are often complex and multiple. Before we choose a strategy for a causal argument, it can help to identify our purpose. Why do we need to know the cause? How will it help us?

 Purposes of Causal Arguments

  • To get a complete picture of how and why something happened: In this case, we will want to look for multiple causes, each of which may play a different role. Some might be background conditions, others might spark the event, and others may be influences that sped up the event once it got started. In this case, we often speak of near causes that are close in time or space to the event itself, and remote causes, which are further away or further in the past. We can also describe a chain of causes, with one thing leading to the next, which leads to the next. It may even be the case that we have a feedback loop where a first event causes a second event and the second event triggers more of the first, creating an endless circle of causation. For example, as sea ice melts in the arctic, the dark water absorbs more heat, which warms it further, which melts more ice, which makes the water absorb more heat, etc. If the results are bad, this is called a vicious circle.
  • To decide who is responsible: Sometimes if an event has multiple causes, we may be most concerned with deciding who bears responsibility and how much. In a car accident, the driver might bear responsibility, and the car manufacturer might bear some as well. We will have to argue that the responsible party caused the event but we will also have to show that there was a moral obligation not to do what the party did. That implies some degree of choice and knowledge of possible consequences. If the driver was following all good driving regulations and triggered an explosion by activating the turn signal, clearly the driver cannot be held responsible.
  • To figure out how to make something happen: In this case we need to zero in on a factor or factors that will push the event forward. Such a factor is sometimes called a precipitating cause. The success of this push will depend on circumstances being right for it, so we will likely also need to describe the conditions that have to be in place for the precipitating cause to actually precipitate the event. If there are likely factors that could block the event, we need to show that those can be eliminated. For example, if we propose a particular surgery to fix a heart problem, we will also need to show that the patient can get to a hospital that performs the surgery and get an appointment. We will certainly need to show that the patient is likely to tolerate the surgery.
  • To stop something from happening: In this case, we do not need to describe all possible causes. We want to find a factor that is so necessary to the bad result that if we get rid of that factor, the result cannot occur. Then if we eliminate that factor, we can block the bad result. If we cannot find a single such factor, we may at least be able to find one that will make the bad result less likely. For example, to reduce wildfire risk in California, we cannot get rid of all fire whatsoever, but we can repair power lines and aging gas and electric infrastructure to reduce the risk that defects in this system will spark a fire. Or we could try to reduce the damage fires cause by focusing on clearing underbrush.
  • To predict what might happen in the future: As Jeanne Fahnestock and Marie Secor put it in A Rhetoric of Argument , “when you argue for a prediction, you try to convince your reader that all the causes needed to bring about an event are in place or will fall into place.” You also may need to show that nothing will intervene to block the event from happening. One common way to support a prediction is by comparing it to a past event that has already played out. For example, we might argue that humans have survived natural disasters in the past, so we will survive the effects of climate change as well. As Fahnestock and Secor point out, however, “the argument is only as good as the analogy, which sometimes must itself be supported.” How comparable are the disasters of the past to the likely effects of climate change? The argument would need to describe both past and possible future events and convince us that they are similar in severity.

Techniques and Cautions for Causal Argument

So how does a writer make a case that one thing causes another? The briefest answer is that the writer needs to convince us that the factor and the event are correlated and also that there is some way in which the factor could plausibly lead to the event. Then the writer will need to convince us that they have done due diligence in considering and eliminating alternate possibilities for the cause and alternate explanations for any correlation between the factor and the event.

Identify Possible Causes

If other writers have already identified possible causes, an argument simply needs to refer back to those and add in any that have been missed. If not, the writer can put themselves in the role of detective and imagine what might have caused the event.

Determine Which Factor Is Most Correlated with the Event

If we think that a factor may commonly cause an event, the first question to ask is whether they go together. If we are looking for a sole cause, we can ask if the factor is always there when the event happens and always absent when the event doesn’t happen. Do the factor and the event follow the same trends? The following methods of arguing for causality were developed by philosopher John Stuart Mill, and are often referred to as “Mill’s methods.”

  • If the event is repeated and every time it happens, a common factor is present, that common factor may be the cause.
  • If there is a single difference between cases where the event takes place and cases where it doesn’t.
  • If an event and a possible cause are repeated over and over and they happen to varying degrees, we can check whether they always increase and decrease together. This is often best done with a graph so we can visually check whether the lines follow the same pattern.
  • Finally, ruling out other possible causes can support a case that the one remaining possible cause did in fact operate.

Explain How That Factor Could Have Caused the Event

In order to believe that one thing caused another, we usually need to have some idea of how the first thing could cause the second. If we cannot imagine how one would cause another, why should we find it plausible? If we are talking about human behavior, then we are looking for motivation: love, hate, envy, greed, desire for power, etc. If we are talking about a physical event, then we need to look at physical forces. Scientists have dedicated much research to establishing how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could effectively trap heat and warm the planet.

If there is enough other evidence to show that one thing caused another but the way it happened is still unknown, the argument can note that and perhaps point toward further studies that would establish the mechanism. The writer may want to qualify their argument with “may” or “might” or “seems to indicate,” if they cannot explain how the supposed cause led to the effect.

Eliminate Alternative Explanations

The catchphrase “correlation is not causation” can help us to remember the dangers of the methods above. It’s usually easy to show that two things happen at the same time or in the same pattern, but hard to show that one actually causes another. Correlation can be a good reason to investigate whether something is the cause, and it can provide some evidence of causality, but it is not proof. Sometimes two unrelated things may be correlated, like the number of women in Congress and the price of milk. We can imagine that both might follow an upward trend, one because of the increasing equality of women in society and the other because of inflation. Describing a plausible agency, or way in which one thing led to another, can help show that the correlation is not random. If we find a strong correlation, we can imagine various causal arguments that would explain it and argue that the one we support has the most plausible agency.

Sometimes things vary together because there is a common cause that affects both of them. An argument can explore possible third factors that may have led to both events. For example, students who go to elite colleges tend to make more money than students who go to less elite colleges. Did the elite colleges make the difference? Or are both the college choice and the later earnings due to a third cause, such as family connections? In his book Food Rules: An Eater’s Manual , journalist Michael Pollan assesses studies on the effects of supplements like multivitamins and concludes that people who take supplements are also those who have better diet and exercise habits and that the supplements themselves have no effect on health. He advises, “Be the kind of person who takes supplements—then skip the supplements.”

If we have two phenomena that are correlated and happen at the same time, it’s worth considering whether the second phenomenon could actually have caused the first rather than the other way around. For example, if we find that gun violence and violence within video games are both on the rise, we shouldn’t leap to blame video games for the increase in shootings. It may be that people who play video games are being influenced by violence in the games and becoming more likely to go out and shoot people in real life. But could it also be that as gun violence increases in society for other reasons, such violence is a bigger part of people’s consciousness, leading video game makers and gamers to incorporate more violence in their games? It might be that causality operates in both directions, creating a feedback loop as we discussed above.

Proving causality is tricky, and often even rigorous academic studies can do little more than suggest that causality is probable or possible. There are a host of laboratory and statistical methods for testing causality. The gold standard for an experiment to determine a cause is a double-blind, randomized control trial in which there are two groups of people randomly assigned. One group gets the drug being studied and one group gets the placebo, but neither the participants nor the researchers know which is which. This kind of study eliminates the effect of unconscious suggestion, but it is often not possible for ethical and logistical reasons.

The ins and outs of causal arguments are worth studying in a statistics course or a philosophy course, but even without such a course we can do a better job of assessing causes if we develop the habit of looking for alternate explanations.

Reflect on the following to construct a causal argument. What would be the best intervention to introduce in society to reduce the rate of violent crime? Below are some possible causes of violent crime. Choose one and describe how it could lead to violent crime. Then think of a way to intervene in that process to stop it. What method from among those described in this section would you use to convince someone that your intervention would work to lower rates of violent crime? Make up an argument using your chosen method and the kind of evidence, either anecdotal or statistical, you would find convincing.

Possible causes of violent crime:

  • Homophobia and transphobia
  • Testosterone
  • Child abuse
  • Violence in the media
  • Role models who exhibit toxic masculinity
  • Violent video games
  • Systemic racism
  • Lack of education on expressing emotions
  • Unemployment
  • Not enough law enforcement
  • Economic inequality
  • The availability of guns

Proposal Arguments

Proposal arguments attempt to push for action of some kind. They answer the question “What should be done about it?”

In order to build up to a proposal, an argument needs to incorporate elements of definition argument, evaluation argument, and causal argument. First, we will need to define a problem or a situation that calls for action. Then we need to make an evaluation argument to convince readers that the problem is bad enough to be worth addressing. This will create a sense of urgency within the argument and inspire the audience to seek and adopt the proposed action. In most cases, it will need to make causal arguments about the roots of the problem and the good effects of the proposed solution.

Common Elements of Proposal Arguments

Background on the problem, opportunity, or situation

Often just after the introduction, the background section discusses what has brought about the need for the proposal—what problem, what opportunity exists for improving things, what the basic situation is. For example, management of a chain of daycare centers may need to ensure that all employees know CPR because of new state mandates requiring it, or an owner of pine timberland in eastern Oregon may want to make sure the land can produce saleable timber without destroying the environment.

While the named audience of the proposal may know the problem very well, writing the background section is useful in demonstrating our particular view of the problem. If we cannot assume readers know the problem, we will need to spend more time convincing them that the problem or opportunity exists and that it should be addressed. For a larger audience not familiar with the problem, this section can give detailed context.

Description of the Proposed Solution

Here we define the nature of what we are proposing so readers can see what is involved in the proposed action. For example, if we write an essay proposing to donate food scraps from restaurants to pig farms, we will need to define what will be considered food scraps. In another example, if we argue that organic produce is inherently healthier for consumers than non-organic produce, and we propose governmental subsidies to reduce the cost of organic produce, we will need to define “organic” and describe how much the government subsidies will be and which products or consumers will be eligible. These examples illustrate the frequency with which different types of argument overlap within a single work.

If we have not already covered the proposal’s methods in the description, we may want to add this. How will we go about completing the proposed work? For example, in the above example about food scraps, we would want to describe how the leftover food will be stored and delivered to the pig farms. Describing the methods shows the audience we have a sound, thoughtful approach to the project. It serves to demonstrate that we have the knowledge of the field to complete the project.

Feasibility of the Project

A proposal argument needs to convince readers that the project can actually be accomplished. How can enough time, money, and will be found to make it happen? Have similar proposals been carried out successfully in the past? For example, we might observe that according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Rutgers University runs a program that sends a ton of food scraps a day from its dining halls to a local farm. If we describe how other efforts overcame obstacles, we will persuade readers that if they can succeed, this proposal can as well.

Benefits of the Proposal

Most proposals discuss the advantages or benefits that will come from the solution proposed. Describing the benefits helps you win the audience to your side, so readers become more invested in adopting your proposed solution. In the food scraps example, we might emphasize that the Rutgers program, rather than costing more, led to $100,000 a year in savings because the dining halls no longer needed to pay to have the food scraps hauled away. We could calculate the predicted savings for our new proposed program as well.

In order to predict the positive effects of the proposal and show how implementing it will lead to good results, we will want to use causal arguments.

Sample Annotated Proposal Argument

The sample essay “Why We Should Open Our Borders” by student Laurent Wenjun Jiang can serve as an example. Annotations point out how Jiang uses several proposal argument strategies.

  • Sample proposal essay “Why We Should Open Our Borders” in PDF with margin notes

Browse news and opinion websites to find a proposal argument that you strongly support. Once you have chosen a proposal, read it closely and look for the elements discussed in this section. Do you find enough discussion of the background, methods, feasibility, and benefits of the proposal? Discuss at least one way in which you think the proposal could be revised to be even more convincing.

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  • How to write an argumentative essay | Examples & tips

How to Write an Argumentative Essay | Examples & Tips

Published on July 24, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

An argumentative essay expresses an extended argument for a particular thesis statement . The author takes a clearly defined stance on their subject and builds up an evidence-based case for it.

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Table of contents

When do you write an argumentative essay, approaches to argumentative essays, introducing your argument, the body: developing your argument, concluding your argument, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about argumentative essays.

You might be assigned an argumentative essay as a writing exercise in high school or in a composition class. The prompt will often ask you to argue for one of two positions, and may include terms like “argue” or “argument.” It will frequently take the form of a question.

The prompt may also be more open-ended in terms of the possible arguments you could make.

Argumentative writing at college level

At university, the vast majority of essays or papers you write will involve some form of argumentation. For example, both rhetorical analysis and literary analysis essays involve making arguments about texts.

In this context, you won’t necessarily be told to write an argumentative essay—but making an evidence-based argument is an essential goal of most academic writing, and this should be your default approach unless you’re told otherwise.

Examples of argumentative essay prompts

At a university level, all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response.

Your research should lead you to develop a specific position on the topic. The essay then argues for that position and aims to convince the reader by presenting your evidence, evaluation and analysis.

  • Don’t just list all the effects you can think of.
  • Do develop a focused argument about the overall effect and why it matters, backed up by evidence from sources.
  • Don’t just provide a selection of data on the measures’ effectiveness.
  • Do build up your own argument about which kinds of measures have been most or least effective, and why.
  • Don’t just analyze a random selection of doppelgänger characters.
  • Do form an argument about specific texts, comparing and contrasting how they express their thematic concerns through doppelgänger characters.

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An argumentative essay should be objective in its approach; your arguments should rely on logic and evidence, not on exaggeration or appeals to emotion.

There are many possible approaches to argumentative essays, but there are two common models that can help you start outlining your arguments: The Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

Toulmin arguments

The Toulmin model consists of four steps, which may be repeated as many times as necessary for the argument:

  • Make a claim
  • Provide the grounds (evidence) for the claim
  • Explain the warrant (how the grounds support the claim)
  • Discuss possible rebuttals to the claim, identifying the limits of the argument and showing that you have considered alternative perspectives

The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays. You don’t have to use these specific terms (grounds, warrants, rebuttals), but establishing a clear connection between your claims and the evidence supporting them is crucial in an argumentative essay.

Say you’re making an argument about the effectiveness of workplace anti-discrimination measures. You might:

  • Claim that unconscious bias training does not have the desired results, and resources would be better spent on other approaches
  • Cite data to support your claim
  • Explain how the data indicates that the method is ineffective
  • Anticipate objections to your claim based on other data, indicating whether these objections are valid, and if not, why not.

Rogerian arguments

The Rogerian model also consists of four steps you might repeat throughout your essay:

  • Discuss what the opposing position gets right and why people might hold this position
  • Highlight the problems with this position
  • Present your own position , showing how it addresses these problems
  • Suggest a possible compromise —what elements of your position would proponents of the opposing position benefit from adopting?

This model builds up a clear picture of both sides of an argument and seeks a compromise. It is particularly useful when people tend to disagree strongly on the issue discussed, allowing you to approach opposing arguments in good faith.

Say you want to argue that the internet has had a positive impact on education. You might:

  • Acknowledge that students rely too much on websites like Wikipedia
  • Argue that teachers view Wikipedia as more unreliable than it really is
  • Suggest that Wikipedia’s system of citations can actually teach students about referencing
  • Suggest critical engagement with Wikipedia as a possible assignment for teachers who are skeptical of its usefulness.

You don’t necessarily have to pick one of these models—you may even use elements of both in different parts of your essay—but it’s worth considering them if you struggle to structure your arguments.

Regardless of which approach you take, your essay should always be structured using an introduction , a body , and a conclusion .

Like other academic essays, an argumentative essay begins with an introduction . The introduction serves to capture the reader’s interest, provide background information, present your thesis statement , and (in longer essays) to summarize the structure of the body.

Hover over different parts of the example below to see how a typical introduction works.

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

The body of an argumentative essay is where you develop your arguments in detail. Here you’ll present evidence, analysis, and reasoning to convince the reader that your thesis statement is true.

In the standard five-paragraph format for short essays, the body takes up three of your five paragraphs. In longer essays, it will be more paragraphs, and might be divided into sections with headings.

Each paragraph covers its own topic, introduced with a topic sentence . Each of these topics must contribute to your overall argument; don’t include irrelevant information.

This example paragraph takes a Rogerian approach: It first acknowledges the merits of the opposing position and then highlights problems with that position.

Hover over different parts of the example to see how a body paragraph is constructed.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

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An argumentative essay ends with a conclusion that summarizes and reflects on the arguments made in the body.

No new arguments or evidence appear here, but in longer essays you may discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your argument and suggest topics for future research. In all conclusions, you should stress the relevance and importance of your argument.

Hover over the following example to see the typical elements of a conclusion.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Unless otherwise specified, you can assume that the goal of any essay you’re asked to write is argumentative: To convince the reader of your position using evidence and reasoning.

In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Look out for prompts including instructions like “argue,” “assess,” or “discuss” to see if this is the goal.

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Proposal Argument Essay: An In-Depth Guide

examples of proposal argument essay

Throughout your academic career, you will come across various essay types, including proposal argument essays. Writing a proposal argument essay can be challenging, as it assumes persuading your audience to support your proposal using robust evidence and convincing arguments. Nevertheless, by adopting the right approach and guidance, you can learn how to write such a paper that wins over your audience. In this article, we offer a step-by-step guide that will walk you from understanding what such an assignment is to learning how to write a strong proposal argument essay effectively. So, let’s dive in.

Let’s Answer the Question: What is a Proposal Argument Essay?

A proposal argument essay is a specific kind of essay that involves presenting a problem and offering a solution how to address and handle that problem. The primary aim of this essay is to convince the readers to support your proposed solution and idea. The proposal can involve a policy change, a novel method or approach to solving a problem, or even introduction of a new product or service.

The key distinguishing feature of the proposal argument essay assignment from other persuasive essays is its focus on a particular proposal or solution to a certain problem. The aim of such a paper is not only to persuade your audience to accept your opinion or viewpoint but also to suggest a practical solution to a real-world issue.

Getting Started: Developing Proposal Argument Essay Outline

A proposal argument essay, just like any other essay, should include an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. However, the specific structure may vary depending on the assignment instructions given by your professor. Thus, creating an outline is always helpful. Below you can find a tentative outline for your task:

I. Introduction

  • A. Background information
  • B. Thesis statement
  • C. Topicality of the issue

II. Problem

  • A. Description of the problem
  • B. Importance of resolving the problem
  • C. Supporting evidence

III. Proposed Solution

  • A. Description of proposed solution
  • B. Advantages of the proposed solution

IV. Counterarguments

  • A. Explanation of potential objections
  • B. Refutation of counterarguments

V. Conclusion

  • A. Restate thesis
  • B. Recap main points
  • C. Call to action

Introductory Section: The introduction should provide an overview of the issue and introduce the suggested resolution. Remember to develop a clear and succinct thesis statement, which is essential for effectively conveying the argument.

Issue Elaboration: In this section, you should delve deeper into the problem, discussing its causes and consequences.

Suggested Solution: In this section you should provide recommendations for resolving the issue. Your suggested solution must be specific, practical, and achievable. Remember to present supporting evidence for the proposed solution, which might include statistical data, research findings, or expert opinions.

Counterarguments: You should identify and address any potential objections to your proposal, ensuring that the proposal is well-rounded and comprehensive.

Concluding Remarks: The conclusion should recap the proposal and highlight its advantages, leaving a lasting impression on the readers that would encourage them to accept your viewpoint on the issue and agree with your solution.

Having learned the structure and tentative outline, let’s further review how to make a great proposal argument essay step by step.

How to Write a Proposal Argument Essay – A Step by Step Guide

To craft a compelling proposal argument essay, you will need to employ critical thinking, persuasive writing skills, and conduct thorough research. Follow this step-by-step guide to help you write a persuasive proposal argument essay.

  • Select a Topic

The first step in writing a proposal argument essay is choosing the topic. Pick a topic that has the potential to make a difference. Also, make sure that your chosen topic is specific, feasible, and appealing to your audience. Yet mind, if you choose a topic you are passionate about, it will be easier for you to persuade your audience.

  • Conduct Research

After selecting your topic, conduct in-depth research to gather information and evidence to support your proposal. Utilize various sources such as academic journals, books, authoritative websites, and interviews with experts. Remember to take notes and organize your research for easy reference while writing your essay.

  • Develop an Outline

Creating an outline is a critical stage of writing process. It helps in organizing your thoughts and ideas, making it easier to write a clear, concise and logically-structured essay. You can use the tentative outline mentioned in the previous section and customize it to fit your topic and research.

  • Create the Introduction

The introduction should capture the reader’s attention and offer a clear understanding of the problem and the proposed solution. Thesis statement should be included in the introduction and present your argument. Make your introduction clear, concise, and engaging.

  • Write the Body Paragraphs

The body paragraphs should provide supporting evidence for your proposal. Use the information gathered during research to back up your argument and address any counterarguments or objections to your proposal. Utilize transitional words and sentences to ensure a smooth flow in the essay and enhance its comprehensibility.

  • Compose the Conclusion

The conclusion should recap the main points of your proposal and its advantages. It must also leave an impression on the reader and encourage them to take action in support of your solution. Avoid introducing any new perspectives on the problem in the conclusion and ensure you restate your thesis statement.

  • Revise and Edit

While writing your first draft, plan some time to revise and edit your essay later. Check for grammatical and spelling errors, ensure a smooth flow throughout the essay, and verify that the argument is clear and concise. Seek feedback from friends, family, or peers to ensure your essay is easy to ready and comprehensive.

Writing a Proposal Argument Essay in a Nutshell

Below are the described steps outlined in short statements:

  • Choose a topic that excites you and may inflame passion in your readers.
  • Conduct extensive research and find as much information as you can to support your arguments.
  • Use credible and reliable sources, such as books, academic journals, and trustworthy websites.
  • Write a clear and concise thesis statement that encapsulates your argument.
  • Use evidence and examples to back up your argument.
  • Address potential counterarguments and prepare refutation.
  • Use transitions to ensure smooth and logical in your essay.

Our team has gathered several topics to help you get started and inspire you to develop a successful essay.

You might also find   Research Proposal Essay Topics useful.

Topics for Proposal Argument Essay

Selecting a topic for your proposal argument essay is essential. It will determine the level of interest your audience has in reading your paper. Here are some ideas for proposal argument papers to consider:

  • Should college tuition be free for students?
  • Should weekly working hours be limited?
  • Should governments impose higher taxes on fast food to encourage healthy eating?
  • Should plastic bags be banned?
  • Should smoking be banned in public places?
  • Should parents be held responsible for obesity in their children?
  • Should social media companies be held accountable for spreading fake news?
  • Should schools adopt a four-day school week?
  • Should governments lower the voting age to 16?
  • Should all states cancel the death penalty?

In conclusion, a proposal argument essay goes beyond merely presenting an argument. You must propose a solution to a problem or issue and provide evidence to support it. By adopting the right approach, you can create a persuasive and captivating essay that convinces your readers and professor to embrace your proposed solution. If you need assistance, our academic writing company is here to provide you with a custom-written essay tailored to your specific requirements.

Get a Proposal Argument Paper for Sale

If you find it challenging to write your proposal argument essay, or simply lack the time to do it yourself, you can always seek assistance from our academic writing company. Our writers have extensive experience in writing various types of academic papers. They are well-versed in all formatting and citation styles and will ensure that your paper is appropriately structured and cited.

To order a proposal argument essay, click “Order now” and complete the order form. Be sure to provide all necessary details, including your topic, deadline, and any specific instructions from your professor. We will assign a writer who is best suited for your project and can deliver a high-quality essay that meets all your requirements. Don’t lose your chance to get writing assistance you need. Let us know the details of your assignment, and we will help you craft a paper that will earn you the best grades.

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Examples of Proposal Arguments

How to Write an Essay on Transportation Problems

How to Write an Essay on Transportation Problems

Proposal argument papers are often assigned in freshman composition college courses. They prepare students to write the type of papers they will be asked to write throughout their college careers, and they are good practice for professional life. According to MiraCosta College, in proposal argument papers, also called problem-solution papers, the writer must name a problem, establish why it is a problem, propose a solution and examine the solution's feasibility, acknowledging weaknesses and addressing them if possible. Additionally, a proposal argument should discuss how the solution might be implemented.

A College- or Workplace-Community Problem

Perhaps adequate parking is a problem on a college campus. The writer will state the problem and a thesis--an arguable proposal that will solve the problem. The writer will establish the problem with solid numbers. Perhaps the school gives out 1,000 parking permits, but there are only 700 parking spaces on campus. Solutions might include paving more green space, allowing fewer parking permits, or not allowing freshmen to bring cars to campus. After listing all three possible solutions, the writer will address each, listing and explaining the pros and cons. Finally, the writer will introduce his proposed solution, which will eliminate option one, paving green space, but combine options two and three, issue fewer parking permits and make a no-car-on-campus rule for freshmen. This way, the college will no longer have to issue so many parking permits, and freshmen and other walkers can be accommodated by installing bicycle racks and allowing walkers to check out public bikes from a bicycle "library".

Notice that the writer will first make proposals other than the final, best proposal which combines two solutions. This eliminates the possibility of a reader pointing out other obvious solutions, and it eliminates objections to the final proposal by addressing its weakness. In this way, the paper is well-developed.

A Community Problem

Many communities have downtowns that were once filled with locally owned businesses, but that have fallen into disrepair since the advent of malls, which are mostly dominated by chain stores. The problem in this case may be that much of the community's spending money leaves the area, except for local sales tax and minimum wage jobs. The writer will have to establish the problem by using statistics from the sales tax revenues. Solutions might include boycotting the malls, grant funding to rejuvenate the downtown with landscaping and face-lifts for the buildings, tax incentives for local entrepreneurs to locate downtown, and hiring an event programmer to develop downtown event ideas and implement them. The writer will need to explain how these solutions will and won't work and discuss implementing the best one, a combination of them, or a whole other solution, such as razing the whole area and giving developers tax incentives to build condos.

A National Problem

Industrial cities across the country now often have high unemployment rates. After establishing the problem with solid numbers and discussing the social and economic repercussions of high unemployment, the writer will introduce solutions that people commonly suggest, such as stopping immigration and ending outsourcing to other countries. The writer must explain why these solutions won't work if that is what her research indicates and arrive at viable proposal and discuss its implementation. Perhaps the research suggests that a combination of re-training workers to work in technological industries, rather than factories, combined with federal tax incentives for technological companies to establish themselves in industrial cities that suffer from high unemployment will work. Addressing national problems is challenging because of the scope of the necessary research, and implementation may include daunting tasks such as proposing federal legislation to allocate funding for the proposed solution.

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  • The University of Texas at Austin Digital Writing and Research Lab: Proposal Arguments

Cat Reynolds has written professionally since 1990. She has worked in academe (teaching and administration), real estate and has owned a private tutoring business. She is also a poet and recipient of the Discover/The Nation Award. Her work can be found in literary publications and on various blogs. Reynolds holds a Master of Arts in writing and literature from Purdue University.


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Need to defend your opinion on an issue? Argumentative essays are one of the most popular types of essays you’ll write in school. They combine persuasive arguments with fact-based research, and, when done well, can be powerful tools for making someone agree with your point of view. If you’re struggling to write an argumentative essay or just want to learn more about them, seeing examples can be a big help.

After giving an overview of this type of essay, we provide three argumentative essay examples. After each essay, we explain in-depth how the essay was structured, what worked, and where the essay could be improved. We end with tips for making your own argumentative essay as strong as possible.

What Is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is an essay that uses evidence and facts to support the claim it’s making. Its purpose is to persuade the reader to agree with the argument being made.

A good argumentative essay will use facts and evidence to support the argument, rather than just the author’s thoughts and opinions. For example, say you wanted to write an argumentative essay stating that Charleston, SC is a great destination for families. You couldn’t just say that it’s a great place because you took your family there and enjoyed it. For it to be an argumentative essay, you need to have facts and data to support your argument, such as the number of child-friendly attractions in Charleston, special deals you can get with kids, and surveys of people who visited Charleston as a family and enjoyed it. The first argument is based entirely on feelings, whereas the second is based on evidence that can be proven.

The standard five paragraph format is common, but not required, for argumentative essays. These essays typically follow one of two formats: the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model.

  • The Toulmin model is the most common. It begins with an introduction, follows with a thesis/claim, and gives data and evidence to support that claim. This style of essay also includes rebuttals of counterarguments.
  • The Rogerian model analyzes two sides of an argument and reaches a conclusion after weighing the strengths and weaknesses of each.

3 Good Argumentative Essay Examples + Analysis

Below are three examples of argumentative essays, written by yours truly in my school days, as well as analysis of what each did well and where it could be improved.

Argumentative Essay Example 1

Proponents of this idea state that it will save local cities and towns money because libraries are expensive to maintain. They also believe it will encourage more people to read because they won’t have to travel to a library to get a book; they can simply click on what they want to read and read it from wherever they are. They could also access more materials because libraries won’t have to buy physical copies of books; they can simply rent out as many digital copies as they need.

However, it would be a serious mistake to replace libraries with tablets. First, digital books and resources are associated with less learning and more problems than print resources. A study done on tablet vs book reading found that people read 20-30% slower on tablets, retain 20% less information, and understand 10% less of what they read compared to people who read the same information in print. Additionally, staring too long at a screen has been shown to cause numerous health problems, including blurred vision, dizziness, dry eyes, headaches, and eye strain, at much higher instances than reading print does. People who use tablets and mobile devices excessively also have a higher incidence of more serious health issues such as fibromyalgia, shoulder and back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and muscle strain. I know that whenever I read from my e-reader for too long, my eyes begin to feel tired and my neck hurts. We should not add to these problems by giving people, especially young people, more reasons to look at screens.

Second, it is incredibly narrow-minded to assume that the only service libraries offer is book lending. Libraries have a multitude of benefits, and many are only available if the library has a physical location. Some of these benefits include acting as a quiet study space, giving people a way to converse with their neighbors, holding classes on a variety of topics, providing jobs, answering patron questions, and keeping the community connected. One neighborhood found that, after a local library instituted community events such as play times for toddlers and parents, job fairs for teenagers, and meeting spaces for senior citizens, over a third of residents reported feeling more connected to their community. Similarly, a Pew survey conducted in 2015 found that nearly two-thirds of American adults feel that closing their local library would have a major impact on their community. People see libraries as a way to connect with others and get their questions answered, benefits tablets can’t offer nearly as well or as easily.

While replacing libraries with tablets may seem like a simple solution, it would encourage people to spend even more time looking at digital screens, despite the myriad issues surrounding them. It would also end access to many of the benefits of libraries that people have come to rely on. In many areas, libraries are such an important part of the community network that they could never be replaced by a simple object.

The author begins by giving an overview of the counter-argument, then the thesis appears as the first sentence in the third paragraph. The essay then spends the rest of the paper dismantling the counter argument and showing why readers should believe the other side.

What this essay does well:

  • Although it’s a bit unusual to have the thesis appear fairly far into the essay, it works because, once the thesis is stated, the rest of the essay focuses on supporting it since the counter-argument has already been discussed earlier in the paper.
  • This essay includes numerous facts and cites studies to support its case. By having specific data to rely on, the author’s argument is stronger and readers will be more inclined to agree with it.
  • For every argument the other side makes, the author makes sure to refute it and follow up with why her opinion is the stronger one. In order to make a strong argument, it’s important to dismantle the other side, which this essay does this by making the author's view appear stronger.
  • This is a shorter paper, and if it needed to be expanded to meet length requirements, it could include more examples and go more into depth with them, such as by explaining specific cases where people benefited from local libraries.
  • Additionally, while the paper uses lots of data, the author also mentions their own experience with using tablets. This should be removed since argumentative essays focus on facts and data to support an argument, not the author’s own opinion or experiences. Replacing that with more data on health issues associated with screen time would strengthen the essay.
  • Some of the points made aren't completely accurate , particularly the one about digital books being cheaper. It actually often costs a library more money to rent out numerous digital copies of a book compared to buying a single physical copy. Make sure in your own essay you thoroughly research each of the points and rebuttals you make, otherwise you'll look like you don't know the issue that well.


Argumentative Essay Example 2

There are multiple drugs available to treat malaria, and many of them work well and save lives, but malaria eradication programs that focus too much on them and not enough on prevention haven’t seen long-term success in Sub-Saharan Africa. A major program to combat malaria was WHO’s Global Malaria Eradication Programme. Started in 1955, it had a goal of eliminating malaria in Africa within the next ten years. Based upon previously successful programs in Brazil and the United States, the program focused mainly on vector control. This included widely distributing chloroquine and spraying large amounts of DDT. More than one billion dollars was spent trying to abolish malaria. However, the program suffered from many problems and in 1969, WHO was forced to admit that the program had not succeeded in eradicating malaria. The number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa who contracted malaria as well as the number of malaria deaths had actually increased over 10% during the time the program was active.

One of the major reasons for the failure of the project was that it set uniform strategies and policies. By failing to consider variations between governments, geography, and infrastructure, the program was not nearly as successful as it could have been. Sub-Saharan Africa has neither the money nor the infrastructure to support such an elaborate program, and it couldn’t be run the way it was meant to. Most African countries don't have the resources to send all their people to doctors and get shots, nor can they afford to clear wetlands or other malaria prone areas. The continent’s spending per person for eradicating malaria was just a quarter of what Brazil spent. Sub-Saharan Africa simply can’t rely on a plan that requires more money, infrastructure, and expertise than they have to spare.

Additionally, the widespread use of chloroquine has created drug resistant parasites which are now plaguing Sub-Saharan Africa. Because chloroquine was used widely but inconsistently, mosquitoes developed resistance, and chloroquine is now nearly completely ineffective in Sub-Saharan Africa, with over 95% of mosquitoes resistant to it. As a result, newer, more expensive drugs need to be used to prevent and treat malaria, which further drives up the cost of malaria treatment for a region that can ill afford it.

Instead of developing plans to treat malaria after the infection has incurred, programs should focus on preventing infection from occurring in the first place. Not only is this plan cheaper and more effective, reducing the number of people who contract malaria also reduces loss of work/school days which can further bring down the productivity of the region.

One of the cheapest and most effective ways of preventing malaria is to implement insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs).  These nets provide a protective barrier around the person or people using them. While untreated bed nets are still helpful, those treated with insecticides are much more useful because they stop mosquitoes from biting people through the nets, and they help reduce mosquito populations in a community, thus helping people who don’t even own bed nets.  Bed nets are also very effective because most mosquito bites occur while the person is sleeping, so bed nets would be able to drastically reduce the number of transmissions during the night. In fact, transmission of malaria can be reduced by as much as 90% in areas where the use of ITNs is widespread. Because money is so scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa, the low cost is a great benefit and a major reason why the program is so successful. Bed nets cost roughly 2 USD to make, last several years, and can protect two adults. Studies have shown that, for every 100-1000 more nets are being used, one less child dies of malaria. With an estimated 300 million people in Africa not being protected by mosquito nets, there’s the potential to save three million lives by spending just a few dollars per person.

Reducing the number of people who contract malaria would also reduce poverty levels in Africa significantly, thus improving other aspects of society like education levels and the economy. Vector control is more effective than treatment strategies because it means fewer people are getting sick. When fewer people get sick, the working population is stronger as a whole because people are not put out of work from malaria, nor are they caring for sick relatives. Malaria-afflicted families can typically only harvest 40% of the crops that healthy families can harvest. Additionally, a family with members who have malaria spends roughly a quarter of its income treatment, not including the loss of work they also must deal with due to the illness. It’s estimated that malaria costs Africa 12 billion USD in lost income every year. A strong working population creates a stronger economy, which Sub-Saharan Africa is in desperate need of.  

This essay begins with an introduction, which ends with the thesis (that malaria eradication plans in Sub-Saharan Africa should focus on prevention rather than treatment). The first part of the essay lays out why the counter argument (treatment rather than prevention) is not as effective, and the second part of the essay focuses on why prevention of malaria is the better path to take.

  • The thesis appears early, is stated clearly, and is supported throughout the rest of the essay. This makes the argument clear for readers to understand and follow throughout the essay.
  • There’s lots of solid research in this essay, including specific programs that were conducted and how successful they were, as well as specific data mentioned throughout. This evidence helps strengthen the author’s argument.
  • The author makes a case for using expanding bed net use over waiting until malaria occurs and beginning treatment, but not much of a plan is given for how the bed nets would be distributed or how to ensure they’re being used properly. By going more into detail of what she believes should be done, the author would be making a stronger argument.
  • The introduction of the essay does a good job of laying out the seriousness of the problem, but the conclusion is short and abrupt. Expanding it into its own paragraph would give the author a final way to convince readers of her side of the argument.


Argumentative Essay Example 3

There are many ways payments could work. They could be in the form of a free-market approach, where athletes are able to earn whatever the market is willing to pay them, it could be a set amount of money per athlete, or student athletes could earn income from endorsements, autographs, and control of their likeness, similar to the way top Olympians earn money.

Proponents of the idea believe that, because college athletes are the ones who are training, participating in games, and bringing in audiences, they should receive some sort of compensation for their work. If there were no college athletes, the NCAA wouldn’t exist, college coaches wouldn’t receive there (sometimes very high) salaries, and brands like Nike couldn’t profit from college sports. In fact, the NCAA brings in roughly $1 billion in revenue a year, but college athletes don’t receive any of that money in the form of a paycheck. Additionally, people who believe college athletes should be paid state that paying college athletes will actually encourage them to remain in college longer and not turn pro as quickly, either by giving them a way to begin earning money in college or requiring them to sign a contract stating they’ll stay at the university for a certain number of years while making an agreed-upon salary.  

Supporters of this idea point to Zion Williamson, the Duke basketball superstar, who, during his freshman year, sustained a serious knee injury. Many argued that, even if he enjoyed playing for Duke, it wasn’t worth risking another injury and ending his professional career before it even began for a program that wasn’t paying him. Williamson seems to have agreed with them and declared his eligibility for the NCAA draft later that year. If he was being paid, he may have stayed at Duke longer. In fact, roughly a third of student athletes surveyed stated that receiving a salary while in college would make them “strongly consider” remaining collegiate athletes longer before turning pro.

Paying athletes could also stop the recruitment scandals that have plagued the NCAA. In 2018, the NCAA stripped the University of Louisville's men's basketball team of its 2013 national championship title because it was discovered coaches were using sex workers to entice recruits to join the team. There have been dozens of other recruitment scandals where college athletes and recruits have been bribed with anything from having their grades changed, to getting free cars, to being straight out bribed. By paying college athletes and putting their salaries out in the open, the NCAA could end the illegal and underhanded ways some schools and coaches try to entice athletes to join.

People who argue against the idea of paying college athletes believe the practice could be disastrous for college sports. By paying athletes, they argue, they’d turn college sports into a bidding war, where only the richest schools could afford top athletes, and the majority of schools would be shut out from developing a talented team (though some argue this already happens because the best players often go to the most established college sports programs, who typically pay their coaches millions of dollars per year). It could also ruin the tight camaraderie of many college teams if players become jealous that certain teammates are making more money than they are.

They also argue that paying college athletes actually means only a small fraction would make significant money. Out of the 350 Division I athletic departments, fewer than a dozen earn any money. Nearly all the money the NCAA makes comes from men’s football and basketball, so paying college athletes would make a small group of men--who likely will be signed to pro teams and begin making millions immediately out of college--rich at the expense of other players.

Those against paying college athletes also believe that the athletes are receiving enough benefits already. The top athletes already receive scholarships that are worth tens of thousands per year, they receive free food/housing/textbooks, have access to top medical care if they are injured, receive top coaching, get travel perks and free gear, and can use their time in college as a way to capture the attention of professional recruiters. No other college students receive anywhere near as much from their schools.

People on this side also point out that, while the NCAA brings in a massive amount of money each year, it is still a non-profit organization. How? Because over 95% of those profits are redistributed to its members’ institutions in the form of scholarships, grants, conferences, support for Division II and Division III teams, and educational programs. Taking away a significant part of that revenue would hurt smaller programs that rely on that money to keep running.

While both sides have good points, it’s clear that the negatives of paying college athletes far outweigh the positives. College athletes spend a significant amount of time and energy playing for their school, but they are compensated for it by the scholarships and perks they receive. Adding a salary to that would result in a college athletic system where only a small handful of athletes (those likely to become millionaires in the professional leagues) are paid by a handful of schools who enter bidding wars to recruit them, while the majority of student athletics and college athletic programs suffer or even shut down for lack of money. Continuing to offer the current level of benefits to student athletes makes it possible for as many people to benefit from and enjoy college sports as possible.

This argumentative essay follows the Rogerian model. It discusses each side, first laying out multiple reasons people believe student athletes should be paid, then discussing reasons why the athletes shouldn’t be paid. It ends by stating that college athletes shouldn’t be paid by arguing that paying them would destroy college athletics programs and cause them to have many of the issues professional sports leagues have.

  • Both sides of the argument are well developed, with multiple reasons why people agree with each side. It allows readers to get a full view of the argument and its nuances.
  • Certain statements on both sides are directly rebuffed in order to show where the strengths and weaknesses of each side lie and give a more complete and sophisticated look at the argument.
  • Using the Rogerian model can be tricky because oftentimes you don’t explicitly state your argument until the end of the paper. Here, the thesis doesn’t appear until the first sentence of the final paragraph. That doesn’t give readers a lot of time to be convinced that your argument is the right one, compared to a paper where the thesis is stated in the beginning and then supported throughout the paper. This paper could be strengthened if the final paragraph was expanded to more fully explain why the author supports the view, or if the paper had made it clearer that paying athletes was the weaker argument throughout.


3 Tips for Writing a Good Argumentative Essay

Now that you’ve seen examples of what good argumentative essay samples look like, follow these three tips when crafting your own essay.

#1: Make Your Thesis Crystal Clear

The thesis is the key to your argumentative essay; if it isn’t clear or readers can’t find it easily, your entire essay will be weak as a result. Always make sure that your thesis statement is easy to find. The typical spot for it is the final sentence of the introduction paragraph, but if it doesn’t fit in that spot for your essay, try to at least put it as the first or last sentence of a different paragraph so it stands out more.

Also make sure that your thesis makes clear what side of the argument you’re on. After you’ve written it, it’s a great idea to show your thesis to a couple different people--classmates are great for this. Just by reading your thesis they should be able to understand what point you’ll be trying to make with the rest of your essay.

#2: Show Why the Other Side Is Weak

When writing your essay, you may be tempted to ignore the other side of the argument and just focus on your side, but don’t do this. The best argumentative essays really tear apart the other side to show why readers shouldn’t believe it. Before you begin writing your essay, research what the other side believes, and what their strongest points are. Then, in your essay, be sure to mention each of these and use evidence to explain why they’re incorrect/weak arguments. That’ll make your essay much more effective than if you only focused on your side of the argument.

#3: Use Evidence to Support Your Side

Remember, an essay can’t be an argumentative essay if it doesn’t support its argument with evidence. For every point you make, make sure you have facts to back it up. Some examples are previous studies done on the topic, surveys of large groups of people, data points, etc. There should be lots of numbers in your argumentative essay that support your side of the argument. This will make your essay much stronger compared to only relying on your own opinions to support your argument.

Summary: Argumentative Essay Sample

Argumentative essays are persuasive essays that use facts and evidence to support their side of the argument. Most argumentative essays follow either the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model. By reading good argumentative essay examples, you can learn how to develop your essay and provide enough support to make readers agree with your opinion. When writing your essay, remember to always make your thesis clear, show where the other side is weak, and back up your opinion with data and evidence.

What's Next?

Do you need to write an argumentative essay as well? Check out our guide on the best argumentative essay topics for ideas!

You'll probably also need to write research papers for school. We've got you covered with 113 potential topics for research papers.

Your college admissions essay may end up being one of the most important essays you write. Follow our step-by-step guide on writing a personal statement to have an essay that'll impress colleges.

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Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.

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Ultimate guide to writing a proposal essay, carla johnson.

  • June 14, 2023
  • Essay Topics and Ideas , How to Guides

If you’re a student, it’s likely that you’ve been asked to write a proposal essay at some point. A proposal essay is an academic piece of writing that tries to persuade the reader to do something or take a certain point of view. In this article, we’ll show you the best way to write a proposal essay that gets accepted.

What You'll Learn

What is a proposal essay?

A proposal essay is a type of academic writing in which the writer suggests an idea or solution to a problem and then backs up that suggestion with evidence. The proposal can take many different shapes, but it usually involves pointing out a problem or issue , suggesting a solution or course of action, and giving evidence to back up that solution or action.

Why are proposal essays important?

Proposal essays are important because they give students a chance to look into tough problems and come up with solutions that could change the world. By writing a proposal essay, students learn how to find and analyze information, think critically , and explain their ideas clearly. These skills are useful not only in school, but also in a lot of professional settings.

Thesis statement

In this article , we’ll provide you with a step-by-step guide to writing a proposal essay that will help you win over your audience and get your proposal accepted. We’ll cover everything from choosing a topic to formatting your essay , so you can be sure that you’re presenting your ideas in the most persuasive and effective way possible.

Choosing a Topic

Before you can start writing your proposal essay, you need to choose a topic. There are several factors to consider when choosing a topic, including your personal interests, the scope of the project, and the needs of your audience. Here are some tips to help you choose a great proposal essay topic:

Factors to Consider When Choosing a Topic

1. Your Interests: Choose a topic that you are passionate about or interested in. This will make the research and writing process more enjoyable and engaging.

2. Relevance: Choose a topic that is relevant to your audience or community. This will make your proposal more compelling and increase the likelihood of it being accepted.

3. Feasibility: Choose a topic that is feasible within the scope of your project . Make sure you have access to the resources and information needed to effectively research and support your proposal.

Brainstorming Techniques

Once you have considered these factors, it’s time to start brainstorming potential topics. Here are some techniques to help you generate ideas:

1. Mind Mapping: Create a visual map of your ideas, starting with a central topic and branching out into related subtopics.

2. Freewriting: Set a timer for 10-15 minutes and write down everything that comes to mind about a particular topic. Don’t worry about grammar or structure – just let your ideas flow.

3. Listing: Make a list of potential topics and then narrow it down based on the factors mentioned above.

Examples of Proposal Essay Topics

Here are some examples of proposal essay topics to help inspire your brainstorming:

1. Should college athletes be paid?

2. How can we reduce plastic waste in our community?

3. Should schools require students to wear uniforms?

4. How can we improve mental health resources for college students?

5. Should the minimum wage be increased?

6. How can we reduce the gender pay gap ?

7. Should the government provide free healthcare to all citizens?

8. How can we reduce the carbon footprint of our city?

9. Should there be stricter gun control laws?

10. How can we improve public transportation in our city?

Researching Your Topic

Once you have chosen a topic for your proposal essay, it’s time to conduct thorough research . This will involve gathering information from a variety of sources, evaluating their credibility, and organizing your findings in a way that supports your proposal.

Conducting Thorough Research

The first step in researching your topic is to identify credible sources of information. These may include academic journals, books, government reports, and reputable news sources. Use a variety of sources to ensure that you are getting a balanced and well-rounded perspective on your topic.

Evaluating Sources

Not all sources are created equal, so it’s important to evaluate each source for its credibility and relevance to your topic. Consider the following factors when evaluating sources:

1. Authorship: Who wrote the source, and what are their credentials?

2. Currency: How recent isthe information in the source? Is it still relevant?

3. Accuracy: Is the information in the source accurate and supported by evidence?

4. Bias: Does the source have a particular bias or agenda that may affect its credibility?

Taking Notes and Organizing Information

As you conduct your research, it’s important to take detailed notes and organize your information in a way that supports your proposal essay. Some effective note-taking strategies include:

1. Summarizing: Write a brief summary of key points and information from each source.

2. Quoting: Use direct quotes from sources to support your argument.

3. Paraphrasing: Restate information from sources in your own words, making sure to cite the source.

Once you have taken notes, organize them into an outline or mind map to help you structure your essay and ensure that your proposal is well-supported by evidence.

By following these steps, you can ensure that your proposal essay is well-researched, well-supported, and persuasive. In the next section, we’ll discuss how to effectively outline and structure your essay for maximum impact.

Outlining Your Proposal

Once you’ve chosen a topic and conducted thorough research , it’s time to create an outline for your proposal essay. An outline will help you organize your thoughts and ensure that your proposal is well-structured and easy to follow. Here are some tips for creating an effective proposal essay outline:

Creating a Proposal Essay Outline

1. Introduction: Begin with an attention-grabbing introduction that provides context for your proposal and sets the stage for your argument.

2. Background Information: Provide background information on your topic, including any relevant statistics, research, or historical context.

3. Problem Statement: Clearly state the problem or issue that your proposal addresses.

4. Proposed Solution: Present your proposed solution or course of action, providing evidence to support its effectiveness.

5. Implementation: Discuss how your proposed solution would be implemented and what steps would need to be taken to make it a reality.

6. Conclusion: Summarize your proposal and reiterate its importance, urging your audience to take action.

Tips for Effective Outlining

– Use bullet points or numbered lists to clearly organize your ideas.

– Make sure each section of your outline relates back to your thesis statement .

– Keep your outline concise and to the point.

Example Proposal Essay Outline

Here is an example proposal essay outline for a topic on reducing plastic waste in a community:

I. Introduction

– Attention-grabbing opening sentence

– Background information on plastic waste

– Thesis statement

II. Problem Statement

-Description of the problem of plastic waste in the community

– Statistics on the amount of plastic waste generated in the community

– Impact of plastic waste on the environment and health

III. Proposed Solution

– Proposal to ban single-use plastics in the community

– Alternatives to single-use plastics

– Benefits of reducing plastic waste

IV. Implementation

– Steps to implement the proposed ban on single-use plastics

– Timeline for implementation

– Strategies for community education and outreach

V. Conclusion

– Recap of the problem and proposed solution

– Call to action for community members to support the ban on single-use plastics

V. Writing Your Proposal

Now that you have a solid outline for your proposal essay, it’s time to begin writing. Here are some tips for crafting a strong proposal essay:

Crafting a Strong Introduction

Your introduction should grab the reader’s attention and provide context for your proposal. Here are some tips for crafting a strong introduction:

– Start with a hook, such as a surprising statistic, quote, or anecdote.

– Provide background information on your topic to help the reader understand the context of your proposal.

– Clearly state the problem or issue that your proposal addresses.

Writing the Body of Your Proposal

The body of your proposal essay should provide evidence to support your proposed solution. Here are some tips for writing the body of your proposal:

– Use research and statistics to support your proposal.

– Provide examples and case studies to illustrate the effectiveness of your proposed solution.

– Address Potential counterarguments and provide rebuttals to strengthen your argument.

Tips for Persuasive Writing

To make your proposal essay as persuasive as possible, here are some tips to keep in mind:

– Use strong, clear language that conveys your confidence in your proposal.

– Make sure your argument is logical and well-supported by evidence .

– Use emotional appeals sparingly and only when appropriate.

– Use transitional phrases to connect your ideas and ensure a smooth flow of information.

Avoiding Common Mistakes

Here are some common mistakes to avoid when writing your proposal essay:

– Failing to clearly state the problem or issue you are addressing.

– Presenting a solution that is not feasible or practical .

– Failing to address potential counterarguments or objections to your proposal.

– Overusing emotional appeals or providing insufficient evidence to support your argument.

By following these tips and avoiding common mistakes, you can craft a persuasive and effective proposal essay that will convince your audience to take action.

Refining Your Proposal

Once you’ve written a draft of your proposal essay, it’s important to refine it through careful editing and revision. Here are some tips to help you refine your proposal essay:

Editing and Revising Your Proposal

– Review your essay for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

– Make sure your writing is clear, concise, and easy to understand.

– Check that your proposal is well-supported by evidence and that your arguments are logical.

– Look for areas where you can improve the flow and organization of your essay .

Peer Review and Feedback

It’s also a good idea to get feedback from others to help you refine your proposal essay. Here are some tips for getting feedback:

– Ask a peer or mentor to review your essay and provide feedback on areas that need improvement.

– Consider joining a writing group or seeking feedback from an online community.

– Take the feedback you receive seriously and use it to improve your essay .

Finalizing Your Proposal

Once you’ve made revisions based on feedback and edited your essay for clarity and accuracy, it’s time to finalize your proposal. Here are some final steps to take:

– Review your essay one last time to ensure it is error-free and well-organized.

– Make sure your essay is formatted correctly, with appropriate headings, margins, and font size.

– Create a bibliography or works cited page to provide proper credit to your sources.

Proposal Essay Examples

To help you understand what makes a successful proposal essay,here are some examples of effective proposal essays:

1. “Implementing a School-Wide Recycling Program” – This proposal essay outlines a plan to implement a recycling program in a high school. It provides a clear problem statement, proposed solution, and implementation plan , as well as statistics and research to support the proposal. The essay also addresses potential objections and provides rebuttals.

2. “Increasing Access to Healthy Food in Low-Income Communities” – This proposal essay proposes a solution to the problem of food insecurity in low-income communities. It provides a clear problem statement, proposed solution, and implementation plan, as well as research to support the proposal. The essay also addresses potential objections and provides rebuttals.

3. “Reducing Gun Violence in the United States” – This proposal essay proposes a solution to the problem of gun violence in the United States. It provides a clear problem statement, proposed solution, and implementation plan, as well as statistics and research to support the proposal. The essay also addresses potential objections and provides rebuttals.

Analysis of What Makes These Proposals Effective

These proposal essays are effective because they:

– Clearly state the problem or issue they are addressing.

– Provide a well-supported proposal or solution.

– Address potential objections and provide rebuttals.

– Use research and statistics to support their proposals.

– Provide a clear implementation plan.

– Use clear and persuasive language.

By analyzing successful proposal essays, you can gain insight into what makes a proposal effective and use thoseinsights to improve your own proposal essay. Remember to carefully research your topic , create a clear and well-supported proposal, and address potential objections to make your proposal as persuasive as possible. With these tips and examples in mind, you’ll be well on your way to writing a winning proposal essay.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. what are the elements of a proposal essay.

A proposal essay typically includes an introduction, background information, a problem statement, a proposed solution, an implementation plan, and a conclusion. It should also be well-supported by evidence and address potential objections.

2. How do I choose a topic for a proposal essay?

When choosing a topic for a proposal essay, consider your personal interests, the relevance of the topic to your audience or community, and the feasibility of the proposal within the scope of your project.

3. What is a proposal essay structure?

A proposal essay typically follows a structure that includes an introduction, background information, a problem statement, a proposed solution, an implementation plan, and a conclusion. Each section should be well-supported by evidence.

Writing a winning proposal essay requires careful research, persuasive writing, and effective organization. By choosing a relevant and feasible topic, conducting thorough research, creating a well-supported proposal, and refining your essay through editing and revision, you can create a persuasive and effective proposal essay that inspires action.

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414 Proposal Essay Topics for Projects, Research, & Proposal Arguments

Writing a proposal essay is an essential skill for students navigating academia and beyond. Whether you are advocating for change, proposing a solution to a problem, or presenting a new idea, your writing should be clear, convincing, and creative.

In this article, our expert team has listed proposal essay topics for school and college students. As a bonus, you will find an effective writing guide and a practical example of a proposal essay.

🔤 What Is a Proposal Essay?

  • ⭐ Best Topics in 2024
  • 💡 Easy Topics & Prompts

📝 Proposal Argument Topics

  • 📊 Project Proposal Ideas
  • 🔎 Research Proposal Topics
  • 😄 Funny Topics

🧩 Proposal Essay Structure

  • ✍️ Writing Guide
  • 📃 Proposal Essay Example

🔗 References

A proposal essay is an academic paper in which you propose something and justify your recommendation. Its goal is to convince the recipients to support your proposal and grant your request. Depending on what you are suggesting, there are three main types of proposal essays: proposal argument, research proposal, and topic proposal.

This image shows proposal essay types.

What Is a Proposal Argument Essay?

A proposal argument is an argumentative essay that offers a solution to a problem. It is often addressed to a particular company, non-profit organization, or government agency. It aims to persuade an organization to do something differently or perform a specific task. A proposal argument first describes a problem, then proposes a feasible solution to it, and explains why this particular solution is worth implementing.

What Is a Research Proposal Essay?

A research proposal essay is an academic paper that proposes a study and describes what, why, and how the author plans to investigate. This document should enable the audience to understand the quality and significance of the research and the author’s competence to perform it.

A research proposal usually includes a purpose statement , background and significance of the research topic, and methodology. It is also helpful to describe potential problems the researcher may encounter and how they will be solved.

What Is a Topic Proposal?

A topic proposal essay is a paper that suggests a topic for a major course assignment, such as a term paper. It usually presents your main argument or research question , explains why it is worth exploring, and outlines how you plan to support it. Also, it identifies a few scholarly sources to be used in the future paper.

⭐ 12 Best Proposal Essay Topics in 2024

  • The methods of reducing childhood obesity.
  • Do awareness campaigns increase funding for cancer research?
  • Why should schools add sex education to their curricula?
  • The role of government in protecting local businesses.
  • How to prevent cybercrime.
  • The impact of rap music on teenagers.
  • Do high cigarette prices reduce smoking rates?
  • The efficiency of using AI technology in education.
  • Why should the use of steroids be banned?
  • The use of art therapy in combating anxiety.
  • How can we combat the global warming?
  • The issue of bullying in high school.

💡 Easy Proposal Writing Topics & Prompts

Coming up with a good idea for your proposal essay can be challenging. Therefore, we’ve prepared writing prompts about common problems with possible solutions.

Proposal Essay on Texting and Driving

You can write a proposal suggesting a solution to the problem of driving while using a phone. First, describe the detrimental consequences of such behavior, proving that it’s worth paying attention to.

Then, focus on one solution that you consider to be the best. Check out some possible options:

  • Formation of a driver safety culture.
  • Implementation of a driver coaching program.
  • Use of real-time technology.
  • Execution of severe punishment.

Homelessness Proposal Essay

Highlight the issue of homelessness by indicating the root causes of this problem and its social and economic consequences. Then, provide your perspective on how to address it.

Here are some possible solutions to homelessness:

  • Rapid rehousing .
  • Permanent supportive or shared housing.
  • New career opportunities.
  • Volunteer initiatives.

Mental Health Proposal Essay

You can focus on the problem of the mental health crisis, manifesting in increasing rates of suicides and overdoses. Explore the causes and consequences of this issue and choose a solution to advocate for.

Consider the following solutions:

  • Investments in mental health apps .
  • Universal mental health screenings.
  • Raising people’s awareness of the problem.
  • Expanding access to psychological help.

Study Abroad Proposal Essay

You can focus on one of the issues that students face while studying abroad, such as language barriers, cultural differences, social isolation, financial difficulties, etc. Then, describe a solution to your selected problem.

Here are some possible solutions to international students’ issues:

  • Encouraging access to college resources.
  • The use of host families.
  • Establishing safe spaces on campuses .
  • Offering financial support and scholarships.
  • Conducting campus-wide cultural sensitivity training.

Abortion Proposal Essay

Your proposal can focus on the problem of supporting and expanding abortion rights. Explain how restricted abortion rights harm women, children, the healthcare system, and the economy. Then, explain how policymakers can address this issue.

Check out some solutions listed below:

  • Public and private insurance coverage of abortion.
  • Sex education for students.
  • Legal protections for abortion.
  • Prohibition of violence against abortion providers .

The proposal argument analyzes the problem and offers practical steps for its solution. Below, you’ll find interesting topics for your proposal argument!

Proposal Argument Essay Topics with Solutions

  • The use of replanting in combating climate change .
  • ABZ Cleaning Services marketing plan proposal .
  • Negotiation to stop military conflicts in the world.
  • Water disinfection and its efficiency in solving water pollution issues.
  • A business proposal for Kohl’s: improving product delivery .
  • Universal basic income to combat poverty .
  • The use of free education centers in improving people’s knowledge.
  • Luckin Coffee business problems-solutions proposal .
  • Ensuring refugees’ access to the labor market to protect their rights.
  • Decriminalization of homosexuality to protect LGBTQ+ rights .
  • Nestlé Inc.’s total quality challenge and solution .
  • The use of media in raising awareness of gender inequality .
  • Ensuring basic healthcare to protect children’s rights.
  • Food prices increase: causes and solutions .
  • The use of renewable energy to stop global temperatures rising .
  • Well-thought-out strategic plan to combat self-doubt in business.
  • Operations management: problem and solution .
  • Education about consumer responsibility to stop overconsumption.
  • The efficiency of book exchange for the promotion of reading .
  • Human resource management: problems and solutions .
  • Reduced cost of education to combat education inequality .
  • Electronic voting systems to increase citizen participation.
  • Truancy: causes, effects, and possible solutions .
  • AI technology and its application to help people with disabilities.
  • The effectiveness of wetland restoration in combating sanitation insecurity.
  • American educational system’s drawbacks and solutions .
  • Surveys of employee satisfaction to manage workflow.
  • The efficiency of the Arms Trade Treaty in decreasing weapons accessibility.
  • Sexual assault problem and solution .
  • Improved nutrition and sustainable agriculture to combat health inequality .

Practical Proposal Argument Ideas

  • Building buyer personas to find new customers.
  • Employee absenteeism and business proposal to address it .
  • Companies should make a shorter workweek to reduce unemployment .
  • Vertical farming technologies for improved land usage.
  • Proposal of employee training in Coca-Cola Company .
  • Plasma reactors as a way to create oxygen on Mars.
  • Community-based initiatives to encourage social interaction.
  • Organizational change proposal for healthcare institutions .
  • Entrepreneurship promotion to solve the wealth inequality issue .
  • Prioritizing border security to ensure national safety.
  • Public health legislation funding proposal .
  • Donating to charities to address third-world poverty.
  • Nutrition education to reduce obesity rates.
  • Business communication: proposal for receiving investment .
  • Implementation of Instagram restrictions to protect the self-esteem of teenagers .
  • The use of ADAS technologies to reduce the frequency of car accidents.
  • Vending machine “Great Coffee”: business proposal .
  • Employers should provide flexible hours to help workers with anxiety.
  • Expanding the range of services offered by postal providers to save postal service .
  • Wok to Walk: marketing plan proposal .
  • Work-life balance practices to prevent burnout at work.
  • Schools should implement year-round classes to improve student performance.
  • Cartier marketing analysis and strategy proposal for the post-pandemic era .
  • Application of sunscreen to reduce the risks of skin cancer .
  • Installation of sports facilities to encourage the population’s physical activity .
  • Leverage buyout proposal for CSL Limited .
  • Education about consumer responsibility to solve gun control issues.
  • Development of water resource management systems to avoid water scarcity .
  • Business ethics: business proposal for CEO .
  • The government should launch mHealth apps to make healthcare accessible.

📊 Project Proposal Ideas for College Students

Looking for a project proposal topic to write about? Below, you’ll find the best ideas for your paper!

Project Proposal Title Ideas in Health

  • The ban on tobacco to prevent illness and premature death.
  • Pressure ulcers: research proposal .
  • Recovery groups and their role in stopping substance abuse .
  • The efficiency of sex education in solving HIV/AIDS issues.
  • Community teaching work plan proposal: tuberculosis in Miami .
  • Accessible treatment centers to help people struggling with suicidal behavior .
  • Pediatric dentist training to create a positive experience for children.
  • Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers treatment proposal .
  • Water and sanitation projects to reduce water-borne disease rates.
  • The efficiency of regular balance training in preventing injuries.
  • Interdisciplinary plan proposal of a local hospital: objective and team organization .
  • Free screening for the early identification of breast cancer .
  • Workplace wellness initiatives to protect employee mental health .
  • Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: research proposal .
  • The use of online apps to improve patient-doctor communication .
  • Geriatric care innovations to meet the health demands of the elderly.
  • Hypertension prevention plan proposal .
  • Machine learning and AI technology in the personalization of healthcare.
  • The effectiveness of parental courses to prevent children obesity .
  • Patient safety policy proposal .
  • Yoga promotion programs to improve mental health.
  • E-health platforms for remote monitoring of chronic conditions .
  • Capstone project change proposal: new staffing policy .
  • Women’s medical literature and its role in preventing maternal deaths.
  • Accessible mental health services to decrease depression rates.
  • Dementia: health promotion proposal .
  • The use of a healthy diet in preventing cancers and diabetes.
  • Vaccine access in poor countries to promote immunization .
  • A bed alarm budget proposal for healthcare .
  • Educational programs for parents to promote oral health at home .

Project Proposal Topics for Business

  • The use of verification links to stop online scamming.
  • Ocean Beauty Center: business proposal .
  • Customer experience technology to deliver positive customer experience .
  • Research into competitors to create a better brand presence.
  • Service marketing plan proposal .
  • The use of Amazon and eBay to pitch and brand your product.
  • Instant online help tools to prevent shopping cart abandonment.
  • Notes Restore: business plan proposal .
  • The efficiency of valuable content in maintaining customer loyalty .
  • Unique products to thrive in a competitive market.
  • Avlon: market research proposal .
  • The use of plain English in preventing product returns and refunds.
  • Increasing sales by offering a product at a reduced price.
  • Business proposal: a fitness center in Australia .
  • Employment of cybersecurity services to protect a corporate website from viruses.
  • The use of a recruitment agency to find qualified IT personnel.
  • Leisure facility in Sherbury: business proposal .
  • Regular developer training to save business during a crisis.
  • Optimization of website speed through efficient coding.
  • Talent management plan proposal .
  • The use of the latest updates to solve unreliable internet connectivity issues.
  • Mobile-friendly apps to improve customer support .
  • Southwest Airlines human resource recruitment plan proposal .
  • Authentic customer reviews to solve customer trust issues.
  • The use of multi-factor authentication to maintain payment security.
  • Emotional intelligence training proposal .
  • Chatbots and their role in solving poor customer support issues.
  • Workplace diversity and inclusion for fast business development.
  • Utah Symphony and Utah Opera: merger proposal .
  • The efficiency of social media influencers in business promotion.

Project Proposal Ideas for STEM Students

  • Floating gardens and rafts to grow food during a flood.
  • The use of innovative city technologies for solving a city’s design needs.
  • Navigating the engineering talent crisis .
  • Accessible infrastructure to improve the lives of people with disabilities.
  • Chemical dispersants to clean up an oil spill .
  • New technologies in retail supply chains .
  • The use of heat-absorbing materials to construct solar ovens.
  • AI healthcare diagnostics to provide patients with accurate results.
  • Uber case study: online technology development .
  • The use of monitoring systems to protect endangered species.
  • Making technologies more inclusive to help people with autism .
  • How can technology be used in healthcare ?
  • Aerospace engineering strategies to ensure safe flights.
  • Eco-friendly packaging to stop plastic pollution.
  • How new heart-scanning technology could save your life .
  • Building earthquake-resistant structures to ensure urban safety.
  • The use of biodegradable plastics to reduce environmental impact.
  • Use of mathematics in a vocational context .
  • Building seawalls to protect beach erosion.
  • Solar farms for the production of renewable energy.
  • Computerized sewerage system in Bedford Town .
  • Creating artificial organs to save patients waiting for transplantation .
  • Increasing microbial diversity to create a healthy and balanced soil ecosystem.
  • Computerized accounting in an enterprise resource planning system .
  • Early warning systems to save vulnerable areas from flood.
  • The use of vitamin C bath to stop apple oxidization.
  • Effective supply chain practices for computer and phone repair shop .
  • Integration of damping systems to build earthquake-resistant structures.
  • AI technology to design resistant bridges in urban areas.

Project Proposal Topics for Students in Education

  • Funding for low-income schools to solve the problem of education access.
  • Digital citizenship education proposal in Saudi Arabia .
  • Inclusive teaching as a solution to inequalities in education.
  • Students’ portfolios as a better alternative to standardized testing .
  • Standardized testing: research proposal .
  • Incentives for teachers to provide highly professional classes.
  • Increasing federal school funding to improve education in low-income areas.
  • York College OneCard proposal .
  • A peer tutoring program to improve students’ performance.
  • Parent-teacher conferences to address a lack of parental involvement .
  • Proposal for the New National Constitution of Libya .
  • Mentorship programs to cope with ineffective teaching methods.
  • Anti-bullying policies to maintain a more positive school climate.
  • Proposal to reduce college textbook cost .
  • Video chats to address a lack of face-to-face communication in online courses .
  • Study skills workshops to cope with students’ poor study habits.
  • Virtual simulation curriculum technology proposal .
  • Flexible learning environments to help students with anxiety disorder.
  • The use of a rewards system to increase school attendance .
  • How semester exams affect students’ emotional stability: article proposal .
  • Monitoring cameras to ensure school safety and security.
  • Anti-cheating measures to solve the issue of academic dishonesty .
  • Analysis of student equity plan proposal .
  • Additional facilities to accommodate the growing number of students.
  • Global education partnerships to make higher education more accessible.
  • Education issues: group proposal .
  • Innovative classrooms to develop the creativity of students with disabilities.
  • Introducing a financial literacy class to improve students’ money management skills.
  • Proposal for the creation of K2 and K3-5 reading interventions .
  • Launching a community service learning program to promote social responsibility .

Project Proposal Ideas for Students about Environment

  • Buying e-books to protect the environment.
  • The issue of environmental pollution by Polipaks Group .
  • Extensive afforestation campaign to solve the deforestation problem.
  • Low consumption levels to avoid adverse ecological consequences.
  • Solar energy as an alternative energy source .
  • Fines and punishment to reduce illegal dumping.
  • Reusing things to stop climate change.
  • Business model of renewable energy .
  • Reducing single-use plastics on campus.
  • Collecting sunlight for energy to stop natural resource depletion.
  • Sustainable gas production in the UAE .
  • Tree planting programs to protect the environment.
  • Eco-friendly transportation methods to reduce carbon emissions.
  • Sustainable practices in the Coca-Cola Company .
  • Sustainable fashion and its role in reducing clothes consumption.
  • High taxes for activities that harm our planet to support eco-friendly behavior.
  • Carbon tax in the Australian industries .
  • Limiting time on the road to reduce vehicle emissions.
  • Supporting green businesses to encourage eco-friendly initiatives.
  • Optimizing food production to improve quality, reduce cost, and prevent waste .
  • Clean-up programs to remove litter and pollutants from public spaces.
  • Green roof technologies to mitigate the urban heat island effect.
  • Business plan: New Age Recyclers .
  • A carbon offset project to engage businesses in environment protection.
  • Education courses for people of any age to reduce their ecological footprint.
  • Recycling batteries: market analysis for a new product .
  • Replantation of native trees and plants to stop environmental degradation.
  • Investing in solar panels to solve the energy consumption problem.
  • Stanford University’s Habitat Conservation Plan .
  • Choosing recyclables to decrease waste production.

🔎 Research Proposal Essay Topics

If you’re looking for research proposal essay topics, check out the list below! We’ve collected ideas for a proposal in computer science, agriculture, history, and more.

  • Career counseling to support high school students.
  • Project proposal for counseling centers .
  • The effectiveness of advertisement in increasing brand awareness .
  • The reliability of criminological analysis in identifying the offender’s personality.
  • Research proposal on Ipad from Apple Inc .
  • Remote workplaces to save the small business during pandemics.
  • New therapeutic approaches to neurodevelopmental disorders .
  • Research proposal: stress in the UK (England) .
  • The effects of socioeconomic status on access to quality education.
  • The effectiveness of regular self-analysis in overcoming the psychological trauma of rape.
  • Mitigation of supply chain risk in disasters: research proposal .
  • Race to the Top program to improve students’ outcomes.
  • Effective business communication practices contributing to business growth.
  • A research proposal on banks and customer satisfaction .
  • Psychological tricks of media to exploit impulsive buying.
  • The advantages of using antipsychotics for preventing delirium .
  • Congestive heart failure: research proposal .
  • Therapies for school students to stop substance abuse.
  • Controlling school attendance to improve children’s social skills.
  • Research proposal: background of the problem of handoff communication in nursing .
  • The impact of urbanization on biodiversity preservation.
  • Trade globalization to create more job opportunities around the world.
  • Research proposal: Chlamydia Trachomatis .
  • Increase the age of smoking to 25 to reduce lung cancer rates .
  • Potential effects of stricter laws on corruption and transparency.
  • Primary prevention of HIV & AIDS: community teaching work plan proposal .
  • The effectiveness of smart home systems in reducing energy consumption.
  • Testing AI technologies to improve children’s diagnostics and treatment.
  • High-performance work system proposal for workers .
  • Including mental health topics in the school curriculum to protect students’ mental health.
  • Paid vacations to support nurses’ emotional health.
  • Non-profit National Kidney Foundation’s strategy proposal .
  • Meditation to treat mental disorders nonchemically during pregnancy.
  • Workplace diversity and its role in increasing business productivity .
  • Business proposal report for a child day care .
  • Face-to-face games to promote healthy child development .
  • Investigating the relationship between sleep patterns and mental health in youth.

Proposal Essay Ideas in Computer Science

  • New AI approaches to decrease the energy consumption of 5G networks.
  • Informatics solution proposal: general solution – EHR .
  • Ways to ensure data privacy in machine learning models.
  • Exploring new applications of quantum computing.
  • DesignIT Company: network consultation proposal .
  • AI in art: exploring the boundaries between art and technology.
  • Cognitive radio networks for improving future wireless systems.
  • Informatics solution proposal for a supply issue .
  • Quantum computing to advance medical predictive systems.
  • Using NLP for code generation to increase software development productivity.
  • Techfite firm’s emerging technology proposal .
  • Developing methods to make AI algorithms more transparent to users.
  • Investigating novel biometric authentication methods.
  • ElekTron Company’s network design proposal .
  • Methods to detect and mitigate biases in AI systems.
  • Usability in computer interface to ensure effective human-computer interactions.
  • Advanced education in computational science .
  • 3D object modeling to improve the architecture of large cities.
  • The use of one programming language to cut the costs of programming training.
  • Computer technologies to be installed at TVU Hotel .
  • Constant feedback to minimize algorithmic bias in AI technologies.
  • The use of computers to sequence human genes.
  • Data science in the energy management field .
  • Using machine learning for optimizing traffic flow in a smart city.
  • AI-based approaches to the early detection and mitigation of cyber threats.
  • The development of an information system to support inventory management .
  • The use of AI in automatic data analysis.
  • Web-based monitoring to improve healthcare services.
  • Scrum methodology to develop Agile software.

Interesting Proposal Essay Topics for Agriculture

  • The use of social media to improve agricultural marketing.
  • How China’s agricultural reform contributed to its success on economic growth .
  • Organic farming to minimize pollution from agriculture.
  • Farmer organizations to implement effective agricultural transformation procedures.
  • Financial profile of Oman Agriculture Development Company SAOG .
  • Increased availability of fertile land to prevent the agricultural land shortage.
  • Modern farming technology to solve the issue of inadequate drainage.
  • Obstacles and barriers of AIS in agriculture companies .
  • The use of antibiotics alternatives in animal agriculture for public health.
  • E-commerce platforms to promote farming on social media.
  • Al Ain Poultry Farm: management strategy and policy .
  • The incorporation of ecological practices into agricultural systems to protect the planet.
  • Maintaining ground cover to restore soil health and biodiversity.
  • Case study of Holly Farm: problems and solutions .
  • Farmers’ collaborations to maintain knowledge and resource sharing.
  • New technologies for storage of agricultural products.
  • Competitive advantage in farming, car, and restaurant industries .
  • Organic materials to recycle nutrients within the agricultural ecosystem.
  • Alternative farming methods to provide efficient resource use.
  • Political argument on farm subsidies .
  • Anti-discrimination policies to expand the rights of women in the agricultural sector.
  • Online podcasts to build trustful relationships between farmers and consumers.
  • Quillstine Farm’s start-up business plan .
  • Conserving genetic variety in crops and livestock for future resilience.
  • Increasing investment to address a lack of modern farming equipment.
  • Business plan: integrated farming .
  • Favoring crop rotation over monoculture farming to save natural habitats.
  • Waste management to cut down on agriculture’s environmental footprint.
  • State farm: addressing problematic intersections .
  • The use of mulch and cover crops to protect soil from wind and water erosion.

Proposal Topics for a History Paper

  • World War II lessons to prevent future conflicts.
  • The City of Dubai: history, development, and challenges .
  • Modern technology to restore the chronology of ancient events.
  • The lasting impact of the Silk Road on global trade.
  • History of supply chain management .
  • The evolution of democracy in Ancient Greece.
  • Anti-nationalism programs to prevent an imbalanced view of the past.
  • Major historical influences on Karl Marx’s materialist conception of history .
  • The impact of colonialism on indigenous cultures.
  • The evolution of human rights : from declaration to practice.
  • Corporate social responsibility and its historical background .
  • The history of urban legends and folklore: transmission and societal impact.
  • Environmental change and its impact on historical societies.
  • Management and its historical evolution .
  • The economic motivations and consequences of colonization.
  • The history of entertainment and its social influence.
  • Enron Company’s history of rise and fall .
  • Disinformation and misinformation campaigns throughout history.
  • The evolution of humanitarian aid and international relief efforts.
  • Islamic banking: history and economic crises .
  • Economic and social impact of pandemics throughout history.
  • The evolution of warfare ethics: from ancient codes to modern international law.
  • Justice is one of the key themes in human history .
  • The history of human-animal relationships and their cultural significance.
  • The Marshall Plan for European economic recovery post-WWII.
  • History of inclusion in early childhood education .
  • The influence of global trade routes on culinary traditions.
  • New historical approaches to overcome scientific doubt.
  • The history of Saudi Aramco from 1930 to 1940 .
  • AI technology to indicate fabricated historical documents.

😄 Funny Topics for Proposal Essays

Are you looking for funny proposal topics? Then, we have something for you! Read on to find some of the most outstanding ideas!

  • Mobile apps to prevent people from running into objects while they are texting.
  • Mindbody app: proposed business plan .
  • Mental exercises to increase student productivity at school.
  • Pavlov’s dog experiment to teach pets to use the toilet.
  • Financial proposal for ‘SILK’ hair protection gel .
  • The use of humor to reduce stress and depression.
  • Surviving Monday mornings: a comprehensive guide to coffee consumption.
  • Goals and features of a proposed school library .
  • Online monitoring to stop students’ procrastination.
  • Mini lie detector to get away with telling a white lie.
  • Business proposal for the Al-Yamamah College and JavaNet .
  • New device to ensure your shampoo and conditioner are at the same rate.
  • Plants and their role in reviving the space where you are working.
  • Marketing proposal for Bikemate .
  • The art of organization to protect the house from clutter.
  • AI kitchen appliances to ensure food safety.
  • Business plan for the proposed Chinese medicine clinic in Kuwait .
  • Rap music to make home tasks fun and effective.
  • Second hand to save budget from unplanned shopping.
  • Zetech Organization’s proposed change: strengths and weaknesses .
  • Funny mugs to throw a perfect tea party.
  • Online books to not die from boredom in the queue.

Proposal Title Ideas about Animals

  • The use of langur pee smell to protect New Delhi from monkeys.
  • Animal Foodland organization’s marketing plan .
  • Conducting a study on dogs’ understanding of human emotional cues.
  • Purchasing cruelty-free cosmetics to protect animals from being killed.
  • Woolly Mammoth project – mythical animal .
  • Animal adoption programs solve the problem of animal homelessness.
  • Spaying and neutering to solve the pet overpopulation issue.
  • Traveling by train among animals and plants .
  • Taking part in Animal Rescue Team training to help animals in crisis.
  • Veterinary care standards to improve conditions for animals in captivity.
  • Cosmetic and medical animal testing .
  • Establishing training programs to provide certificates of pet ownership.
  • Natural habitat rehabilitation to save endangered species.
  • Animal-based therapy overview and analysis .
  • Creating protected areas to safeguard oceanic biodiversity.
  • Responsible tourism to ensure wildlife safety and security.
  • Red fluorescent protein transgenic dogs experiment .
  • Global cooperation to stop illegal cross-border animal trafficking.
  • Education programs to raise awareness of animal conservation.
  • Business ethics decision situation in veterinary practice .
  • Supporting fur-free fashion to protect wildlife.
  • Encouraging TV talk shows to discuss animal issues.
  • China Southern Airlines and monkey transportation .

Proposal Paper Ideas about Sports

  • Developing a community-based sports initiative for physical fitness and health.
  • How does social media influence sports brands marketing ?
  • Education on sports ethics to create an inclusive environment in a team.
  • Anti-doping programs to reduce the cases of steroid use.
  • Sports marketing affected by the internet of things .
  • Financial rehabilitation services to help athletes with injuries.
  • Creating fitness programs for children to promote a culture of health.
  • Leadership in the sports club group .
  • Equal pay for female athletes in professional sports to stop discrimination.
  • Increasing access to sporting opportunities for people with disabilities.
  • Preparing to be an effective follower in sports .
  • Detailed protocols to prevent and manage dangerous situations in sports.
  • Equipment-sharing programs to make sports activities more affordable.
  • Kids and sports: lack of professional sports guides .
  • Physical education programs in the schools to promote healthy lifestyles.
  • Recovery strategies to prevent burnout and overtraining of athletes.
  • Balancing college sports and academic mission .
  • Supportive team program to assist athletes in coping with eating disorders .
  • Monitoring systems to ensure safe and sustainable workloads.
  • Advertising campaign for online sports nutrition store .
  • Sports psychologists and their role in helping athletes with mental toughness.
  • Sponsorship programs to reduce individual financial pressure in the sports industry.

Creating a well-developed structure is vital for any writing assignment. That’s why we’ve prepared a detailed template with the elements of a good proposal.

✍️ How to Make a Proposal Essay

Whether you are writing a proposal argument or a research proposal, the writing steps will be the same. Below are the steps you should take to complete this assignment.

This image shows how to write a proposal essay.

1. Choose Your Topic

Choosing a good topic is vital in writing a proposal essay. Select the subject you are interested in. This way, you’ll be more willing to invest your time and efforts into this project. In addition, ensure that your topic is narrow, specific, and significant. If your topic is too broad, reading background information can help you limit its scope.

2. Research

Find trustworthy sources with the information you can use to support your proposal. It will help you write the background section and highlight the importance of the problem. In addition, reliable sources will help you provide evidence justifying your chosen solution to the problem.

Developing a detailed outline helps ensure that your paper is logical and cohesive. The outline will let you see how you will link all of the facts to support the thesis statement. Also, it can save you time by identifying any gaps and weaknesses in your argument before you start writing your paper.

4. Draft Your Proposal Essay

When drafting your proposal, remember that it is a type of persuasive writing. It should present a project and encourage the reader to go along with a plan of action outlined in the paper. So, ensure your proposal is convincing, logical, and credible and considers the audience, purpose, and tone.

Start your essay by presenting the purpose and essence of your project. The main body of your proposal essay should contain background information on the problem and persuasive reasons to support your proposal. Finally, the conclusion should underline the significance of the issue and call the audience to action.

5. Revise and Edit

Carefully revise and edit your draft. Consider whether the problem is described concisely, the solution is complete, and your evidence is used appropriately. Also, read your work to find any grammar or spelling mistakes. If you still have doubts about your paper, you can ask your professor or classmate to read it and give their feedback.

📃 Sample of a Proposal Essay

To help you understand how a proposal essay is structured, we’ve prepared a topic proposal example. Check it out!

Equipping Schools with Recycling Bins for Environmental Preservation

The purpose of this proposal is to implement a school-wide recycling program by strategically placing recycling bins across the campus. This initiative will promote zero waste culture, ensure the school’s sustainability, and contribute to environmental preservation.

The school is a perfect place to develop environmental awareness because it has the opportunity to build students’ knowledge and skills necessary to address environmental issues. One way to do so is to teach students to avoid improper waste disposal through recycling.

The proposal involves procuring and placing recycling bins across the school, including classrooms, common areas, and outdoor spaces. In addition, educational campaigns will be held to raise awareness among students, staff, and parents about the significance of waste segregation and recycling. Regular monitoring and evaluation will ensure the program’s effectiveness.

Several problems may arise while implementing this project, including resistance to change and logistical concerns about bin placement. Some may also object to the proposal due to the costs associated with it. However, the resistance to change can be mitigated by educational campaigns. The bin placement problem can be solved by involving staff and students in determining the optimal locations for recycling bins. Finally, financial constraints can be addressed by seeking partnerships with local businesses and community organizations.

Equipping the school with recycling bins is a step toward a sustainable future. By reducing waste and promoting sustainable practices, our school can lead by example and inspire positive changes within the community. This initiative gives a chance to raise environmentally conscious students and contribute to a healthier planet. Let us embrace this program to foster a sustainable school environment.

❓ Proposal Topics FAQ

How to write a proposal for an essay topic.

  • Choose a topic.
  • Identify your thesis or research question.
  • Look for sources that you can use to support your thesis/research question.
  • Create a detailed outline.
  • Write the first draft.
  • Edit the finished paper to fix grammar or spelling mistakes and ensure coherence.

How to write a proposal essay introduction?

Start with an attention-grabbing hook to pique your audience’s curiosity. Then, summarize the details of the problem and outline the purpose of your proposed project. Finally, add a strong thesis statement, summarizing your suggested solution and giving a preview of your supporting arguments.

How to write a proposal argument essay?

  • Summarize the details of the problem and present the thesis.
  • Give a detailed history of the problem.
  • Present your proposal in detail.
  • Examine the contrasting viewpoints.
  • Sum up the main points of your essay.

What to write a proposal essay on?

Since you advocate for a change or a solution to a problem in your proposal essay, you should choose a topic you care about. You can write a proposal essay on virtually everything, from presenting a solution to climate change to implementing a community-based reading program or raising awareness about the importance of gut microbiota.

  • Topic Proposals | University of Hawaii
  • Selecting a Research Topic: Overview | MIT Libraries
  • Proposals | University of Mary Washington
  • Research Proposals | University of New Hampshire
  • 10 Major Social Problems That Could Be Fixed with Innovative Solutions | Listverse
  • How to Write a Topic Proposal | LUC Writing Center
  • The Art of Proposal Writing: Proposal as Genre | Graduate College at Illinois
  • Outline for Research Project Proposal | Portland State University
  • Tips for Successful Proposal Writing | University of California, Davis
  • How to Write a Good Postgraduate Research Proposal | The University of Edinburgh
  • Proposal Argument Topic Ideas | Classroom
  • What Is a Proposal Argument Essay? | Classroom
  • Proposal Argument Essay | Madigan Library at Penn College
  • Practical Proposal Essay Topics for Students | YourDictionary
  • How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper | Owlcation
  • Guidelines for Proposal and Essay | York University
  • The Academic Proposal | University of Toronto
  • Writing Process: Creating a Proposal | Openstax
  • How to Write a Research Proposal | University of Sheffield
  • How To Write a Project Proposal (With Tips and Example) | Indeed

How to Write an Animal Testing Essay: Tips for Argumentative & Persuasive Papers

Descriptive essay topics: examples, outline, & more.

Jun 21, 2023

Proposal Essay Examples: Convincing Ideas for Your Research Paper or Essay

Dive into the power of persuasive writing through captivating proposal essay examples. Explore ideas that inspire, enrich your work, and unlock impactful proposal crafting. Prepare to elevate your writing and leave a lasting impression!

Writing a compelling proposal essay often presents a challenge for many students. A large proportion can't distinguish a research paper proposal from a proposal essay, and even more find difficulty in creating persuasive ideas for their essays. If this situation resonates with you, rest assured you're not alone.

In this extensive guide, we aim to simplify the process of writing a proposal essay. We provide a host of resources such as examples of proposal essays, a carefully constructed outline template, and proven writing techniques. Our guide, honed through years of experience in academic writing, is specifically designed to help you achieve high grades in your proposal essay assignment.

Embark on this journey with us to uncover the nuances of crafting an excellent proposal essay. Armed with the correct resources and guidance, you will transition from uncertainty to confidence, ready to produce an impressive proposal essay. Let's start delving into the craft of writing an engaging proposal essay.

What is a Proposal Essay?

An essay proposal is a document that outlines the content and purpose of your proposed essay. Whereas a thesis conveys the central concept of your study, an essay proposal summarizes the intent and substance of a specific essay.

A proposal essay also serves as a detailed plan of action addressing a particular problem. The writer identifies a problem, suggests a solution, and provides evidence to persuade the reader to agree with the proposed solution or idea. In essence, your role as a writer is to convince the reader that your concept is exceptional and that they should support its execution.

These essays function as a strategic tool, enabling you to sell an idea, belief, or yourself in a manner that not only piques the reader's interest but also convinces them of your capability to bring the proposed plan to fruition. Although proposal essays are frequently associated with business and economics disciplines, they extend beyond these fields.

Proposal essays fundamentally promote critical thinking and problem-solving skills among students. They allow you to venture beyond the structured academic syllabus and engage with real-world issues that require innovative solutions. Writing a proposal essay, therefore, is an opportunity to demonstrate your analytical acumen and your capacity to think creatively.

How to Write a Proposal Essay

Writing a compelling proposal essay requires careful planning, thorough research, and meticulous execution. Here are the steps to ensure your proposal essay stands out:

1. Understand Your Audience: Begin by identifying your target audience. Who are they, and what is their role in the context of your proposal? What are their needs, concerns, or interests? Understanding your audience's perspectives helps in tailoring your message, increasing the chances of your proposal being accepted.

2. Research Thoroughly: Deep and broad research is crucial. Even if you're well-versed with the topic, there is always more to learn. Look at what experts in the field have said and how your proposal aligns or diverges from their views. This research will not only fortify your arguments but also make your essay more credible and authoritative.

3. Create a Detailed Plan: Once you've completed your research, start to structure your essay. Begin with an introduction where you present the problem or issue. Then, propose your solution in the body paragraphs, where each paragraph should focus on a single point or argument, supported by evidence. Finally, wrap up your proposal in the conclusion by summarizing your key points and reinforcing the significance of your solution.

4. Write Your First Draft: Start writing your essay based on the plan you have created. Be clear and concise, avoid jargon, and make sure your arguments are logically constructed and easy to follow.

5. Revise and Edit: After completing your first draft, it's important to revisit it with a critical eye. Look for areas where your argument can be strengthened, check for coherence and flow, correct grammatical errors, and ensure your language is clear and precise. It may be helpful to have others review your work for a fresh perspective.

6. Proofread: Once you're satisfied with the content of your essay, proofread it one final time to catch any minor mistakes or inconsistencies. Remember, a polished essay demonstrates your diligence and commitment to quality.

By following these steps, you can create a persuasive, well-structured proposal essay that effectively communicates your idea and its value.

Structure of a Proposal Essay

Writing a proposal essay requires a specific structure that enables you to present your idea clearly and persuasively. Here's an overview of the necessary elements:

1. Introduction: Your introduction sets the stage for your proposal. It should include a captivating hook that draws readers in, and a clear thesis statement that summarizes your proposal. For Example: A feasible approach to decreasing the alarming mortality rate among young mothers is by equipping parents with necessary skills to support their teenage daughters who become pregnant.

2. Problem Statement: After the introduction, delve deeper into the problem your proposal aims to solve. Describe its nature, roots, and implications. Clarify why it's critical to address this problem, how it affects your readers, and what benefits solving it would bring.

3. Proposal Statement: In this section, elucidate your proposal in detail. Describe the solution you've come up with, highlighting both its benefits and potential drawbacks. Ensure you present your idea as the optimal solution to the problem at hand.

4. Implementation Plan: Next, explain how you plan to execute your proposal. This should be a clear and comprehensive guide demonstrating the practicability of your solution. Identify potential obstacles that might arise during implementation and include steps to overcome them. Discuss why your approach is unique and why previous attempts to solve the problem have failed.

5. Expected Outcome: Here, discuss the positive results you expect from the implementation of your proposal. Provide a clear, concise picture of the improvements and advantages your solution will bring. 6. Evaluation: In this section, provide an estimate of the resources, including time, money, and expertise, necessary to implement your proposal. Discuss its feasibility within the current situation and address possible objections or criticisms from those who might disagree with your proposal.

7. Timeline and Required Resources: Clearly specify the resources required to implement your proposal, such as manpower, funds, and equipment. Include a timeline if possible, giving a chronological order of the steps to be taken.

8. Conclusion: Summarize the key points of your essay and reaffirm the significance of your proposal. This is your final opportunity to convince your readers, so end with a powerful call to action.

Avoid introducing new ideas in the conclusion, as it can confuse readers and may unnecessarily elongate your essay. Stick to wrapping up what you've already presented and reemphasizing its importance.

Proposal Essay Examples 

In the following section, we present a collection of Proposal Essay Examples. These essays serve as excellent references for those looking to understand the structure and content of a compelling proposal.

 Each one addresses a unique and important topic, provides an insightful problem statement, proposes thoughtful solutions, and concludes by summarizing the main points. These examples illustrate the effective strategies used in proposal writing to engage readers and convincingly present an argument. 

Let's delve into these intriguing examples to inspire and enhance your proposal writing skills.

1. Reducing Plastic Waste: A Proposal for Action


With the escalating global environmental crisis, the specter of plastic waste looms large. Forecasts from the United Nations indicate that, failing to reduce plastic waste, we'll have more plastic than fish in the oceans by 2050. This proposal aims to present tangible solutions to this predicament.

Problem Statement:

The unchecked production and disposal of plastic products significantly contribute to plastic waste, endangering the environment and marine life. Given the lifespan of plastic waste—lasting centuries—it's crucial to devise an effective solution to curb plastic production.

Suggested measures to combat plastic waste include:

Government-imposed ban on single-use plastic items, such as straws, cups, and cutlery.

Government incentives encouraging the use of reusable products.

Awareness campaigns conducted by the government and NGOs about the environmental impact of plastic waste.

Investments in improved waste management systems for the proper handling of plastic waste.


Reducing plastic waste is an urgent priority. By implementing the proposed measures, we can alleviate the issue, protect our environment and marine life, and build a more sustainable future.

2. Dangers of Texting While Driving

Despite countless warnings and campaigns, texting while driving remains a widespread, dangerous habit. This essay investigates the perils of this behavior and proposes measures to mitigate it.

Texting while driving constitutes a severe distraction, often leading to road accidents. Studies even rank it as more dangerous than drunk driving, as it considerably delays a driver's reaction time.

To address this peril, the following steps are suggested:

Launching educational programs and campaigns to inform drivers about the risks of texting while driving.

Implementing stricter penalties for drivers caught in the act.

Promoting technologies that restrict texting while driving.

Texting while driving is a lethal habit that warrants immediate attention. By raising awareness, enforcing stricter rules, and employing technology, we can significantly cut down road accidents due to distracted driving.

3. The Causes of Homelessness

Homelessness, affecting millions worldwide, is a complex and pressing social issue. This essay explores the causes behind homelessness and suggests viable solutions.

Causes of Homelessness:

Poverty, mental illness, addiction, and family breakdowns constitute the four primary triggers of homelessness.

To alleviate homelessness, the following steps are suggested:

Stimulate the supply of affordable housing by offering financial incentives to developers and reducing zoning restrictions.

Facilitate access to mental health services, addiction treatment, and support services for individuals and families experiencing homelessness.

Alleviate poverty by raising the minimum wage, providing job training, and enhancing access to education and healthcare.

Addressing homelessness calls for a comprehensive and coordinated effort. By implementing the proposed measures, we can significantly reduce homelessness, emphasizing our collective responsibility to extend support to those grappling with this issue.

Final Words

In conclusion, crafting a persuasive proposal essay involves thoughtful planning, in-depth research, and adept writing techniques. With Jenni.ai's cutting-edge AI tools at your disposal, this process becomes simpler, enabling you to create standout proposal essays. Take this opportunity to enhance your writing skills and leave an enduring impression on your audience. Experience the transformative capabilities of Jenni.ai today!

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Humanities LibreTexts

9.3: The Argumentative Essay

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Learning Objectives

  • Examine types of argumentative essays

Argumentative Essays

You may have heard it said that all writing is an argument of some kind. Even if you’re writing an informative essay, you still have the job of trying to convince your audience that the information is important. However, there are times you’ll be asked to write an essay that is specifically an argumentative piece.

An argumentative essay is one that makes a clear assertion or argument about some topic or issue. When you’re writing an argumentative essay, it’s important to remember that an academic argument is quite different from a regular, emotional argument. Note that sometimes students forget the academic aspect of an argumentative essay and write essays that are much too emotional for an academic audience. It’s important for you to choose a topic you feel passionately about (if you’re allowed to pick your topic), but you have to be sure you aren’t too emotionally attached to a topic. In an academic argument, you’ll have a lot more constraints you have to consider, and you’ll focus much more on logic and reasoning than emotions.

A cartoon person with a heart in one hand and a brain in the other.

Argumentative essays are quite common in academic writing and are often an important part of writing in all disciplines. You may be asked to take a stand on a social issue in your introduction to writing course, but you could also be asked to take a stand on an issue related to health care in your nursing courses or make a case for solving a local environmental problem in your biology class. And, since argument is such a common essay assignment, it’s important to be aware of some basic elements of a good argumentative essay.

When your professor asks you to write an argumentative essay, you’ll often be given something specific to write about. For example, you may be asked to take a stand on an issue you have been discussing in class. Perhaps, in your education class, you would be asked to write about standardized testing in public schools. Or, in your literature class, you might be asked to argue the effects of protest literature on public policy in the United States.

However, there are times when you’ll be given a choice of topics. You might even be asked to write an argumentative essay on any topic related to your field of study or a topic you feel that is important personally.

Whatever the case, having some knowledge of some basic argumentative techniques or strategies will be helpful as you write. Below are some common types of arguments.

Causal Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you argue that something has caused something else. For example, you might explore the causes of the decline of large mammals in the world’s ocean and make a case for your cause.

Evaluation Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you make an argumentative evaluation of something as “good” or “bad,” but you need to establish the criteria for “good” or “bad.” For example, you might evaluate a children’s book for your education class, but you would need to establish clear criteria for your evaluation for your audience.

Proposal Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you must propose a solution to a problem. First, you must establish a clear problem and then propose a specific solution to that problem. For example, you might argue for a proposal that would increase retention rates at your college.

Narrative Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you make your case by telling a story with a clear point related to your argument. For example, you might write a narrative about your experiences with standardized testing in order to make a case for reform.

Rebuttal Arguments

  • In a rebuttal argument, you build your case around refuting an idea or ideas that have come before. In other words, your starting point is to challenge the ideas of the past.

Definition Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you use a definition as the starting point for making your case. For example, in a definition argument, you might argue that NCAA basketball players should be defined as professional players and, therefore, should be paid.


Essay Examples

  • Click here to read an argumentative essay on the consequences of fast fashion . Read it and look at the comments to recognize strategies and techniques the author uses to convey her ideas.
  • In this example, you’ll see a sample argumentative paper from a psychology class submitted in APA format. Key parts of the argumentative structure have been noted for you in the sample.

Link to Learning

For more examples of types of argumentative essays, visit the Argumentative Purposes section of the Excelsior OWL .

Contributors and Attributions

  • Argumentative Essay. Provided by : Excelsior OWL. Located at : https://owl.excelsior.edu/rhetorical-styles/argumentative-essay/ . License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Image of a man with a heart and a brain. Authored by : Mohamed Hassan. Provided by : Pixabay. Located at : pixabay.com/illustrations/decision-brain-heart-mind-4083469/. License : Other . License Terms : pixabay.com/service/terms/#license


  1. 005 Essay Example Proposal Proposals Examples ~ Thatsnotus

    examples of proposal argument essay

  2. Excellent What Is A Proposal Argument Essay ~ Thatsnotus

    examples of proposal argument essay

  3. 🔥 How to do an essay proposal. How To Write a Proposal Essay: Outline

    examples of proposal argument essay

  4. 005 Essay Example Proposal Proposals Examples ~ Thatsnotus

    examples of proposal argument essay

  5. 10+ Essay Proposal Outline Templates

    examples of proposal argument essay

  6. Sample proposal argument essay by May Pilon

    examples of proposal argument essay


  1. Proposal Argument Essay

  2. Essay 3 Assignment 1301

  3. Argument Essay and Proposal Explanation

  4. Understanding "Amend the Proposal": A Guide for English Learners

  5. دورة كتابة مقترح

  6. Understanding "Decline a Proposal" in English


  1. Sample Proposal Argument

    Sample Proposal Argument. Now that you have had the chance to learn about writing a proposal argument, it's time to see what one might look like. Below, you'll see a sample proposal argumentative essay written using APA 7 th edition formatting guidelines. Click the image below to open a PDF of the sample paper. Previous. Next.

  2. Type 4: Proposal Argument

    In order to build up to a proposal, an argument needs to incorporate elements of definition argument, evaluation argument, and causal argument. First, we will need to define a problem or a situation that calls for action. Then we need to make an evaluation argument to convince readers that the problem is bad enough to be worth addressing.

  3. 7.6: Proposal Arguments

    A proposal argument outlines a specific plan of action. It describes why the action is needed and what benefits it will bring. ... Sample annotated proposal argument . The sample essay "Why We Should Open Our Borders" by student Laurent Wenjun Jiang can serve as an example. Annotations point out how Jiang uses several proposal argument strategies.

  4. Proposal Argument Model

    63 Proposal Argument Model Proposal Method. from Introduction to College Writing at CNM. The proposal method of argument is used when there is a problematic situation, and you would like to offer a solution to the situation. The structure of the proposal method is similar to the other persuasive methods, but there are slight differences.

  5. Proposal Arguments

    A proposal argument is a structure of argument that focuses on presenting some kind of proposal as a solution to a problem, outlining the details of the proposal, and providing good reasons to support the proposal. ... Examples of Essays," from Writing for Success from Saylor Academy, which is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ...

  6. 5.8 Causal and Proposal Arguments

    For example, if we write an essay proposing to donate food scraps from restaurants to pig farms, we will need to define what will be considered food scraps. ... Sample Annotated Proposal Argument. The sample essay "Why We Should Open Our Borders" by student Laurent Wenjun Jiang can serve as an example. Annotations point out how Jiang uses ...

  7. How to Write an Argumentative Essay

    Make a claim. Provide the grounds (evidence) for the claim. Explain the warrant (how the grounds support the claim) Discuss possible rebuttals to the claim, identifying the limits of the argument and showing that you have considered alternative perspectives. The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays.

  8. Mastering the Proposal Argument Essay: A Comprehensive Guide

    A proposal argument essay is a specific kind of essay that involves presenting a problem and offering a solution how to address and handle that problem. The primary aim of this essay is to convince the readers to support your proposed solution and idea. The proposal can involve a policy change, a novel method or approach to solving a problem ...

  9. Examples of Proposal Arguments

    A College- or Workplace-Community Problem. Perhaps adequate parking is a problem on a college campus. The writer will state the problem and a thesis--an arguable proposal that will solve the problem. The writer will establish the problem with solid numbers. Perhaps the school gives out 1,000 parking permits, but there are only 700 parking ...

  10. 30 Proposal Essay Topics That Are Easy and Fun to Write

    This type of essay can be super easy (and also pretty fun) to write. All you need is the right topic. The right topic involves planning, research, and passion. Below, I'll show you how to choose the right topic and give you some example proposal essay topics that you can either use as is or use as inspiration to come up with your own topic.

  11. 7.6.1: Annotated Sample Proposal Argument

    Attribution. This sample essay was written by Laurent Wenjun Jiang and edited and annotated by Natalie Peterkin. Licensed CC BY-NC 4.0 . 7.6.1: Annotated Sample Proposal Argument is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

  12. 3 Strong Argumentative Essay Examples, Analyzed

    Argumentative Essay Example 2. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through female Anopheles mosquitoes. Each year, over half a billion people will become infected with malaria, with roughly 80% of them living in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. 6.6: Proposal Arguments

    Practice Exercise 6.6.1 6.6. 1. Find a proposal argument that you strongly support. Browse news and opinion websites, or try The Conversation. Once you have chosen a proposal, read it closely and look for the elements discussed in this section.

  14. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper

    7. Preparations Made. Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class). 8. Conclusion. Do not restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the "history" of a certain proposal.

  15. Ultimate Guide To Writing A Proposal Essay

    To make your proposal essay as persuasive as possible, here are some tips to keep in mind: - Use strong, clear language that conveys your confidence in your proposal. - Make sure your argument is logical and well-supported by evidence. - Use emotional appeals sparingly and only when appropriate.

  16. 414 Proposal Essay Topics + Writing Guide & Example

    414 Proposal Essay Topics for Projects, Research, & Proposal Arguments. Writing a proposal essay is an essential skill for students navigating academia and beyond. Whether you are advocating for change, proposing a solution to a problem, or presenting a new idea, your writing should be clear, convincing, and creative.

  17. 15.3: Sample Student Essays

    Annotations point out how Jiang uses several proposal argument strategies. Sample proposal essay "Why We Should Open Our Borders" in PDF with margin notes; Sample proposal essay "Why We Should Open Our Borders" accessible version with notes in parentheses "Rethinking Recycling: Why Reusing Needs to Be User Friendly" by Emily Hanna. This ...

  18. Proposal Essay Examples: Convincing Ideas for Your Research Paper or Essay

    Explore a curated selection of proposal essay examples that showcase convincing ideas, providing you with a blueprint for impactful research papers and essays. Jun 21, 2023. ... This research will not only fortify your arguments but also make your essay more credible and authoritative. 3.

  19. Argumentative Essays: MLA Sample Argumentative Papers

    MLA Sample Argumentative Papers (Note: these sample papers are in MLA 7th ed. format). For sample papers in MLA 8th or 9th ed., please ask a librarian or check the Documenting Sources in MLA Style: 2016 Update: A Bedford/St. Martin's Supplement pp. 30-41, at Skyline College Library's Ready Reference shelf.

  20. 9.3: The Argumentative Essay

    Argumentative Essays. You may have heard it said that all writing is an argument of some kind. Even if you're writing an informative essay, you still have the job of trying to convince your audience that the information is important. ... For example, you might argue for a proposal that would increase retention rates at your college. Narrative ...