George Orwell’s “1984” Analysis

Introduction / thesis, analytical part.

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Ever since George Orwell’s famous novel “1984” has been published in 1949, its semiotic significance was being discussed from a variety of political and sociological perspectives, with most literary critics concluding that “1984” was meant to increase people’s awareness as to the sheer wickedness of Communism, as a political doctrine. In his article “Utopia, Dystopia, and the Middle Class in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four”, Robert Paul Resch states: “Both admirers and detractors alike have tended to assume Orwell’s notion of totalitarianism to be straightforward and thus unworthy of any particular theoretical reflection” (1997, 138). However, this Orwell’s novel is not being concerned with the discussion of totalitarianism’s evils as much as it is being concerned with exposing what happens when society’s functioning gets to be adjusted to correspond to purely utopian theories that actively deny people their right to be endowed with natural instincts.

Therefore, we can say that “1984” does not only contain many ideological but also philosophical implications, which explains the fact that Orwell’s insight onto the very essence of totalitarianism remains fully valid even today, especially given the fact that the oppressive ideology of political correctness is now being forcibly imposed upon citizens of Western countries despite their will, as we speak. In this paper we will aim at exploring this thesis even further, while bringing readers’ attention to the fact that if self-appointed “experts on tolerance” are going to be allowed to proceed with their agenda of suppressing the truth, the horrors of “1984” will come to reality in very near future.

One of the most memorable aspects of Orwell’s anti-utopia is the fact that in it, author was able to predict the emergence of truly effective totalitarianism as such that would be closely associated with the invention of a new language “newspeak”, designed to serve the needs of a ruling party, while depriving ordinary citizens of even a hypothetical possibility to express their contempt with surrounding reality: “Whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought. In the end we shall make thought crime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it” (Orwell, 22). And, as we are all well aware of – nowadays, the hawks of political correctness apply a great amount of effort in trying to convince people that under no circumstances should they be resorting to utilization of emotionally charged words, due to these words’ often offensive connotation.

In his article “The Age of Newspeak”, Lee Congdon points out to the fact that Orwell’s “newspeak” is actually the part of today’s politically correct realities: “Although some Americans dismiss “political correctness” as an aberration, its purveyors have succeeded in replacing standard English with a form of “newspeak”… Universities have attempted to impose speech codes in order to outlaw language that makes some students “uncomfortable” or that contradicts doctrines that, because they are difficult to defend in argument, must be insulated from criticism” (2002). Nowadays, the promoters’ of “tolerance” willingness to alter English language often assumes truly comical subtleties. For example, according to neo-Liberal whackos in governmental offices, the children’s fairy tale about Snow White and Seven Dwarfs should be referred to as “The Story and Seven Vertically Challenged Males and one Caucasian Female”.

Yet, there is nothing funny about these people’s intention to act as thought police’s officials. Whatever the improbable it might sound, but they seriously believe that there is no existential difference between the representatives of opposite genders, which in its turn, causes them to actively strive to undermine the very concept of gender differentiation. As of today, men try not to even look at women while in the same elevator, for example, simply because they are being utterly terrified of a prospect of losing their jobs on the account of “sexual harassment”. It might very well be the case that in very near future, men will be required to refer to women as “representatives of vaginal group” or something like that.

One cannot help but to draw a parallel between anti-sexist hysteria, which continue to gain a momentum in today’s Western countries, and governmentally sponsored anti-sexist hysteria, described in “1984”: “Sexual intercourse was to be looked on as a slightly disgusting minor operation, like having an enema. This again was never put into plain words, but in an indirect way it was rubbed into every Party member from childhood onwards. There were even organizations such as the Junior Anti-Sex League, which advocated complete celibacy for both sexes” (Orwell, 27).

One might wonder as to how come the contemporary enforcers of “newspeak” were able to convince many citizens that it is namely the neo-Liberal political agenda that should be considered as the only legitimate one? The answer to this question is simple – the hawks of political correctness have succeeded in taking over Western Medias in the same manner that members of Inner Party in Orwell’s “1984” have taken over the Medias in Airstrip One, while turning them into the ultimate tool of ideological brainwashing. In Orwell’s novel, Medias served only one purpose – perpetrating the most blatant lies 24/7: “War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength” (Orwell, 3). If we take a closer look at how Medias operate into contemporary equivalent of Airstrip One – a politically correct Britain, it will appear that the foremost principle of their functioning is also being solely concerned with perpetrating lies and with promoting intellectual decadence.

For example, it now being estimated that, during the course of so-called London’s “race riots” of 2001 and 2003, close to 500.000 Londoners and the residents of London’s suburbia had openly expressed their growing concerns about the process of Britain’s Islamization. And yet, British mainstream Medias still refer to these events as “racist provocation”, “crime against the spirit of tolerance” and “neo-nazi conspiracy”, even though that people who participated in mass rallies against the process of their country being gradually turned into Northern Pakistan, were ordinary citizens, who simply got fed up with newly arrived Muslim immigrants’ tendency to “celebrate diversity” by gang-raping White women and bringing explosives to London’s subway.

Another example – in 1999, when NATO planes were bombing innocent civilians in Yugoslavia, so that world’s attention would be diverted from Clinton-Lewinsky affair, British Medias used to provide people with a live “entertainment” of buildings being destroyed and people being blown to pieces, much like Airstrip One’s Medias used to expose citizens to the graphic sights of destruction and death: “Then you saw a lifeboat full of children with a helicopter hovering over it… Then the helicopter planted a 20 kilo bomb in among them terrific flash and the boat went all to matchwood. Then there was a wonderful shot of a child’s arm going up up up right up into the air a helicopter with a camera in its nose must have followed it up and there was a lot of applause from the party seats” (Orwell, 5). The reason for this is simple – throughout the course of history, it was in enforcers’ of ideological dictatorship best interests to keep ordinary citizens intellectually marginalized. And, the best way to achieve it is make sure that crowds never lack “bread and entertainment” – the more graphic and violent such entertainment is, the better.

However, despite having been subjected to politically correct brainwashing for a long time, many citizens in Western countries were still able to retain their ability to think in terms of logic. And, such their ability poses clear and immediate danger to those who work on behalf of New World Order’s secret bosses. This is exactly the reason why neo-Liberal governments in Western countries are being in such a rush to introduce more and more of so-called “hate speech” laws.

Nowadays, in such countries as Britain, France, Germany and Canada, one can easily be sentenced to 3-5 years in jail for simply stating that Jews were not only the people who had suffered during the course of WW2 (the “crime of historical revisionism”). The editorial “Holocaust Denier Irving is Jailed”, available on the web site of BBC News, leave no doubt as to validity of earlier suggestion: “British historian David Irving has been found guilty in Vienna of denying the Holocaust of European Jewry and sentenced to three years in prison” (2006). Why would the representatives of world’s Plutocracy be so terrified with people’s absolutely legitimate strive to reexamine the history? Orwell’s novel provides us with the ultimate answer to this question: “Who controls the past,’ ran the Party slogan, ‘controls the future: who controls the present controls the past” (Orwell, 15). As we all know, the representatives of “chosen people” have now attained a status of “holy cows”, simply because they were able to turn the issue of Holocaust into a profitable industry.

Nowadays, even a slightest criticism of Israeli genocidal policies in Palestine is being considered the “act of anti-Semitism” – a punishable criminal offence. If Holocaust did not occur, Jews would have invented it, because the “historical guilt” on the part of “goyms” benefits them in so many ways – Germany alone pays Israel $700 millions annually in reparations. In order for the “chosen people” to be able to proceed with their traditional activities of money laundering, promoting sexual perversion and destroying the economies of whole countries, the issue of Holocaust simply cannot be reexamined – those who control past, control future.

Thus, it will not be an exaggeration, on our part, to suggest that Orwell’s “1984” should not be considered as much as the literary insight onto the probable future – this novel is actually about the present. People, who read the novel in fifties, would naturally come to conclusion that “1984” was the ultimate criticism of USSR, which explains why in Soviet Union Orwell’s novel was officially banned. However, despite the fact that in 1991 Soviet Union had collapsed just like a stack of cards, we now have its ideological descendant – European Union.

In his article “Former Soviet Dissident Warns for EU Dictatorship”, Paul Belien quotes a former Soviet dissident Vladimir Bukovksy, who had suggested that slowly but surely, EU transforms itself into the miniature replica of Soviet Union: “The Soviet Union used to be a state run by ideology. Today’s ideology of the European Union is social-democratic, statist, and a big part of it is also political correctness… When you look at the European Commission it looks like the Politburo. I mean it does so exactly, except for the fact that the Commission now has 25 members and the Politburo usually had 13 or 15 members. Apart from that they are exactly the same, unaccountable to anyone, not directly elected by anyone at all” (2006). EU’s unelected bureaucrats really do believe that it is up to them to tell the citizens of European countries not only how should they live their lives but even what kind of thoughts they are allowed to keep in their minds – the similarity between Orwell’s vision of a grim future and today’s realities of living in politically correct Europe are being just too obvious not to be noticed.

Whereas; in “1984”, people were expected to openly express their love to Big Brother, in EU, people are being expected to openly express their love to countless “Holocaust survivors”, who were born in fifties and sixties. Whereas, in “1984”, Medias used to mislead citizens about the history of wars with Eastasia and Euroasia, in EU, Medias mislead citizens as to the history of WW1 and WW2. Whereas; in Orwell’s novel, it were namely the members of Inner Party, entitled with undisputed power of exercising control over ordinary people’s lives, in EU, this function is being performed by unelected and often anonymous bureaucrats.

Just like what it used to be the case with Oceania’s citizens, people in countries of EU simply cannot afford the luxury of being honest with their friends and neighbours – all it takes for an individual in today’s “tolerant” Europe to be instantly fired from work and to face the prospect of criminal prosecution is to suggest that Europe might not be benefiting a whole lot from the hordes of immigrants from Third World being allowed to settle here.

Apparently, the fact that Orwell novel’s many implications seem to be clearly concerned with the present, is being slowly realised by promoters of political correctness, which is exactly the reason why it might only be the matter of time, before “1984” will be banned from public libraries in Western countries, just as it used to be the case in Soviet Union. In her article “Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming”, Edna Andrews says: “There are instances of censorship not only in contemporary American media, but also in educational systems, where not only are teachers restricted in their speech, but literary works, such as Salinger’s “Catcher in the Rye” and Orwell’s “1984”. The reasoning behind the exclusion of such works from the classroom generally entails a belief that the “word” is so powerful that an inappropriate one can harm innocent children and destroy public morals” (1996, 396). Andrews’ suggestion does not appear being altogether deprived of rationale – in today’s Western countries, which suffer under the yoke of neo-Liberal dictatorship, the criticism of Communism is not being tolerated, simply because the closer look at hook-nosed proponents of neo-Liberal agenda reveals them as being nothing but spiritual and often biological descendants of Communist commissars. This is exactly the reason why children in American schools are now being taught to think of Hitler as the “embodiment of evil”, while being simultaneously indoctrinated to refer to Marx, Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin as simply the “misunderstood geniuses of workers’ liberation”, even though that the magnitude of Communist atrocities cannot even be compared to that of Nazis.

The conclusion of this paper can be formulated as follows: George Orwell’s novel “1984” is an absolute must for reading, because this literary masterpiece does not simply provide us with the better understanding as to what world would have been like, had Commies succeeded with their original intention of conquering the whole planet, but it also specifies techniques, used for ideological brainwashing. However, the greatest benefit of reading “1984” is the fact that this novel contains a clue as to the fact that the proper functioning of just about any utopian society cannot be achieved, without such society’s members being turned into brainless robots. This is why “1984” is not being particularly liked by today’s Marxists, who now operate under disguise of neo-Liberal sophisticates – apparently, they are being well aware of the full spectrum of novel’s ideological, political and philosophical implications. Therefore, “1984” must be referred to as to what it really is – one of 20 th century’s most important literary masterpieces, the publishing of which had revealed the true essence of Communism; thus, contributing a lot to the process of this bloodthirsty ideology being deprived of its popular appeal.


Andrews, Edna “Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming”. American Speech 71.4 (1996): 389-404. Print.

Belien, Paul “Former Soviet Dissident Warns for EU Dictatorship”. 2006.  The Brussels Journal . Web.

Congdon, Lee “The Age of Newspeak”. 2002. Virginia Institute for Public  Policy . Web.

Goldstein, Philip “Orwell as a (Neo) Conservative: The Reception of 1984”.  The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association 33.1 (2000): 44-57. Print.

“ Holocaust Denier Irving is jailed ”. 2006. BBC News . Web.

Lutman, Stephen “Orwell’s Patriotism”. Journal of Contemporary History  2.2 (1967): 149-158. Print.

Nagel, Joane “Ethnicity and Sexuality”. Annual Review of Sociology 26.5 (2000):107-133. Print.

Newfield, Christopher “What Was Political Correctness? Race, the Right, and Managerial Democracy in the Humanities”. Critical Inquiry 19.2 (1993): 308-336. Print.

Nincic, Miroslav & Nincic, Donna “Race, Gender, and War”. Journal of  Peace Research 39.5 (2002): 547-568. Print.

Orwell, George “1984”. Wall Street Cockpit . Web.

Resch, Robert “Utopia, Dystopia, and the Middle Class in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four”. Boundary 2 24.1 (1997): 137-176. Print.

Simms, Valerie “A Reconsideration of Orwell’s 1984: The Moral Implications of Despair”. Ethics 84.4 (1974): 292-306. Print.

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A+ Student Essay: Is Technology or Psychology More Effective in 1984?

Of the many iconic phrases and ideas to emerge from Orwell’s 1984 , perhaps the most famous is the frightening political slogan “Big Brother is watching.” Many readers think of 1984 as a dystopia about a populace constantly monitored by technologically advanced rulers. Yet in truth, the technological tools pale in comparison to the psychological methods the Party wields, which not only control the citizens but also teach them to control themselves.

To be sure, the Party uses technology in disturbing and effective ways. Its most notable technological weapon is the telescreen, a kind of two-way television that watches you as you watch it. Telescreens literalize the idea that Big Brother, the mysterious figure who represents the Party’s power and authority, is always watching the people of Airstrip One. Even the citizens’ most mundane actions are monitored by the telescreens, which must remain turned on at all times. When Winston performs his Physical Jerks exercises, for example, a voice from the telescreen criticizes his poor effort. When he is arrested, a voice from the telescreen tells him what’s coming. Another terrifying technology used by the Party is vaporizing, the means by which the government executes those who displease it.

Yet despite the power of the omnipresent telescreens and the terror of vaporizing, they are just two among countless methods of control. And the most powerful methods turn out to be non-technological in nature. Posters announce the watchfulness of Big Brother; mandatory daily meetings called Two Minutes of Hate rile up the citizenry, allow them to vent their emotions and solidify their xenophobia; public hangings make examples out of traitors; physical torture awaits those who commit thoughtcrimes; and Junior Spies turn in any adults they feel are not sufficiently loyal to the party, even if those adults are their own parents. None of these methods involve technology. Instead, they rely on psychological manipulation. Together, these methods produce a complex mixture of terror, paranoia, groupthink, and suspicion that keeps the citizens cowed and obedient.

In addition to, and as a result of, these government tactics, the citizens of Oceania are constantly policing themselves. In order to avoid being jailed or vaporized they closely monitor their own actions, second by second. Most citizens would find it unthinkable, for example, to demonstrate such blatant misbehavior as enjoying a torrid love affair, as Winston does. But the citizens go even further than simply regulating their outward behavior: they also monitor their private thoughts. They have been manipulated into believing that any independent cognition is grounds for arrest by the Thought Police, so they try to keep their inward selves as loyal and unthinking as their outward actions. Because they have been conditioned since birth to accept whatever the Party identifies as truth, they are also able to use doublethink, a method of believing absurd contradictions such as “war is peace.” Again, self-policing and doublethink involve no technology beyond the human brain, but they are perhaps the most effective means of control available to the Party.

The Party maintains power primarily through the use of psychology, not technology. We get the sense that if no technology existed, the Party would find equally effective ways of controlling the populace. Orwell wants to warn us against more than the power of technology; he wants to suggest that the human mind is the most dangerous and advanced weapon of all, and that we should never underestimate the ability of people to control each other—and themselves.

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Wake up its 1984 again

War is peace; freedom is slavery; ignorance is strength In the book 1984 by George Orwell, Big brother is an omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent dictator of Oceania. Big Brother symbolizes the face of the Party and its public manifestation, which controlled people's thoughts, actions, knowledge and way of living. By using secret police, surveillance, torture, propaganda, misinformation, and corrupted languages to control all aspects of one's life. Even though the book was meant to be fictional, there is some elements […]

The Parallels of 1984 and the Soviet Union

George Orwell, a pen name for the author’s real name Eric Arthur Blair, is a man that had multiple professions, such as an essayist, imperial police officer, and a critic. However, he is best known as a novelist, writing such stories like Animal Farm, Burmese Days, and the main focus novel that will be talked about today, 1984. 1984 is the story about a man named Winston Smith, a man that lives in a totalitarian society where no one is […]

What did 1984 Steal from 1922

There have been many dictators in the history of the world. They have been mostly bad for the people of the society, reducing their ability to stand up for them self. Most dictators used fear and intimidation to scare their opponents into complying with them, but in 1984 they limited their vocabulary (newspeak) and twisted what they were saying to make it sound nicer (doublespeak) to get the people to comply with the rules. The Party in 1984 is influenced […]

The Party Control in 1984

1984 is a story of tragedy and warns of a dystopian future, which day by day looks like it is becoming closer to a reality. The story starts out with Winston Smith, a member of the Party, living inside the conglomerate super-nation Oceania. Everywhere Winston goes, he is being watched by the Party's leader, Big Brother, who is constantly monitoring to stop any and all rebellion. The Party controls everything and are trying to indoctrinate people, inventing a brand new […]

My 1984 Story

INTRODUCTION The Party did the people wrong and treated them poorly because the Party wanted them to do what they asked for and manipulating their minds. Orwell wanted to tell people how the Party treated other people and what they had to sacrifice in order to do what was told. For it to be one of the most powerful warnings that ever happened in the totalitarian society. George Orwell’s 1984 is a interesting and constructive book that is filled with […]

Dystopian Literature – 1984

The destruction of history causes people to obey the party more and become mindless objects to the party. The party imposed if all records told the same tale then the lie passed into history and became truth. Who controls the past ran the party slogan controls the future who controls the present controls the past And the through of its nature alterable never has been altered{ Orwell p.31}. It represent imagery and talks about how the party controls them and […]

1984 and Brave New Word: Literary Criticisms

Although they seem to portray two completely opposite dystopias, Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World and George Orwell’s 1984 are two sides of the same coin, as they both warn of the dangers of an all-powerful government. Both their personal lives and the social climate in which they lived in contributed in the shaping of their novels into the disturbingly brilliant pieces of literature that are praised today. Huxley’s childhood provides great insight into some of the many influences of his […]

The Shadow of 1984

When people read dystopian text they often include topics with darker views of our political structures. George Orwell's novel 1984 is about a place named Oceania in which the main character Winston, a member of the outer party,journeys into his end. He finds himself with these viewpoints no one else seems to have of how Oceania is runned and only continues to question and dig further until he is put to stop by the party. Although Orwell’s work is fiction […]

George Orwell’s 1984 Oppression

After reading and discussing the outcomes of high tech policing, I strongly take a stand with the critics of it. This is not only opinion, the data received by high tech policing technologies distort the true meaning of privacy and is a form of biased policing against poor and minority communities. Police are using high tech policing to target poor and minority communities. The main facts that support my claim are how high tech policing results in biases against minorities […]

What does the Paperweight Symbolize in 1984: Metaphor for Loss of Individuality

Introduction “Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two make four. If that is granted, all else follows” (Orwell 81). George Orwell wrote a book called 1984 about Winston and how he lives in an oppressive government. The government manipulates them so much that they have no freedom and no way to express themselves. They cannot even say 2+2=4. Imagery, symbolism, and figurative language are used to convey the theme of the loss of individuality by totalitarianism. Metaphor […]

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Essays About Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell Few argumentative essay examples leave an outstanding remark in the footprints of history like 1984 by George Orwell. Although the author wrote the novel in 1949, most scholars still see it as an important piece in our day. This is probably due to the manner it predicted the totalitarian government whom he said would leverage on the media and manipulate technology to exploit and control people. In this book, George Orwell provided an analysis of London, but not as a part of England. Instead, ‘<em><i>London</i></em>’ in the 1984 novel was a part of Oceania. Oceania was regarded as one of the vast governments in the book’s world. The author described the region as being under the critical influence of a dictatorship and powerful government forces. In this exciting piece, the government was described as ‘<em><i>big brother</i></em>.’ and that it uses cameras and other gadgets to observe the behavior of its citizens. Why should this novel be of much significance to you? In college, it forms the basis of research and essay writing for many students. Therefore, reading and understanding the book will help you to write effective essays on it as part of your exam or a test. Those searching for research paper topics to write can draw inspiration from the essay on 1984. Whether you’re writing your paper yourself or outsourcing it online, we have a lot of essay examples on George Orwell’s 1984 novel to help you.

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Sample literary analysis: george orwell's 1984 and its parallelism to today's society.

George Orwell’s novel 1984 introduced a dystopian 1984 where three totalitarian superstates govern over the world. The dystopian world in the novel 1984 is a result of atomic bombings during World War II. Near the end of the war, the surviving nations began to create unions which eventually became the three superstates of Oceania, Eurasia, and Eastasia. The novel focused on the life of Winston Smith who lives in Oceania. George Orwell wrote the novel in 1949 which was a few years after World War II and intended it as a fictional dystopian future. Orwell used the novel to present his pessimistic predictions of the future. Despite the novel’s fictional genre, it contains ideas and events that are synonymous with the current world. In particular, 1984’s portrayal of the loss of individuality and the manipulation of the higher class directly reflects the world today.

In the novel 1984, Oceania is in constant war against the other superstates. Since the establishment of Oceania, the citizens have witnessed an ongoing war. The other superstates would often launch missiles into Oceania territory and kill their citizens. Ingsoc and the Party, which are the governing ideas and bodies of Oceania, would assure their citizens that they are trying to win the war. However, the novel later revealed that the superstates are in an implied agreement to prolong the war. Oceania, Eurasia, and Eastasia use the war as an excuse to spend military resources and keep their citizen’s loyalty.

Some parts of the world today are also under an endless war. Central governments continue to fight against violent and destructive groups. For example, the U.S. government sent its military troops to capture Saddam Hussein and confiscate any weapons that can harm the public (Rodden 2014). Despite this victory, the U.S. continues to engage in armed conflict against Iraq and Syria. Saddam Hussein was just one of the many radical leaders of terror groups. The U.S. believes that Iraq and Syria hide other terror groups like ISIS and the Assad Regime. Aside from this constant conflict, North Korea has also shown hostility and has sent threats to the U.S. government. The U.S. government has begun to train more soldiers to prepare for any North Korean terror attacks (Colebatch 2017). Similar to the novel 1984, nations tend to prolong conflicts for their benefit or to protect their country.

One of the defining aspects of the world of 1984 was the surveillance system of Ingsoc. The Party installed telescreens and hidden microphones in the streets of Oceania. The telescreens are present inside homes, buildings, and on the streets of Oceania. There are also microphones that the Party hides in bushes, trees, and other subtle places. Ingsoc can see and hear every action of its citizens. In the novel, Winston and Julia would check trees and bushes for hidden microphones whenever they meet. However, the Thought Police eventually found them when they began to use a particular hideout. Aside from the telescreens and microphones, a member of the Thought Police disguised himself as an old man that Winston trusted. This showed the extent of Ingsoc’s surveillance state and how they oversee their citizens.

In today’s world, some institutions also employ an extensive surveillance system to watch over individuals. The social impact of the Internet has provided these institutions the opportunity to subtly survey citizens. Most individuals have entered their personal information online. Websites like Facebook and Instagram collect user data and often use these to direct targeted advertising to customers. There are also reports that smartphones listen and record conversations outside of phone calls (Komando 2019). Smartphone users may find that there will be advertisements about a particular subject on their social media accounts after talking about the product or service.

Due to the strict surveillance system in 1984, the citizens of Oceania have lost their individuality. Ingsoc divided Oceania’s citizens into the Inner Party, Outer Party, and the Proles. Ingsoc uses the figurehead Big Brother as the leader of the Party. The class divide made the citizens refer to one another as either Party members or Proles. The Party also manipulates facts to coincide with their truth. This manipulation allowed Ingsoc and the Party to remain the authoritative bodies of Oceania. The novel portrays the loss of individualism through the citizen’s quick acceptance of falsified truth. An example of this is when the Party mentioned that Oceania is at war against Eastasia. The citizens were previously aware that Eastasia was their ally and that Eurasia was the enemy. However, the citizens quickly agreed without question that Eastasia has always been the enemy.

The loss of individuality and misinformation are other issues that the current world faces. Individuals have put great importance on their image on social media. People attempt to strictly follow trends and fit into a group. Individuals prefer to call themselves “vegans”, “feminists”, “pro-life”, “anti-vaxxers”, “boomers”, “millennials”, and other terms. They focus on defining themselves as a member of a group rather than an individual. Similar to the citizens of Oceania who praise Big Brother, most individuals today are afraid of individuality since they rely on others’ affirmations.

Coinciding with the loss of individuality is misinformation. As stated above, the Party often rewrites facts to align with Ingsoc’s truth. A person’s loss of individuality will often lead them to easily accept new information as the truth. An example of this would be anti-vaxxers who will spread or share fake news regarding vaccines. One study even showed that ten percent of their respondent shared misinformation online despite being aware that they were fake news (Watson 2021). People who have lost their individuality often try to prove the authenticity of their newfound group. This may cause them to share misinformation to prove that their ideas are valid. 

There has also been misinformation in higher public organizations. Some churches use their influence to spread misinformation and harmful ideals. Some politicians attempt to discredit climate change and tell the public that the fact is untrue. The Indian government even claimed that cows breathe out oxygen and as a result are not contributors to global warming (Blakinger 2016). The purpose of some of this propaganda is always to narrow the level of human consciousness, control the range of thinking, and confuse the conscience. However, some of these individuals may be victims of misinformation and indoctrination, similar to the Proles in 1984.

The Party’s manipulation also affected the language of Oceania. Ingsoc developed the Newspeak language to limit the thinking capabilities of their citizens. Newspeak is a shortened version of the English language. The new language uses minimum words to convey a message. For example, the term English Socialism became ”Ingsoc” and the Ministry of Truth became “Minitrue”. Newspeak also creates new words to avoid anti-Ingsoc ideas. The language developed words like “thoughtcrime”, “unperson”, and “plusgood”. These words ensure that the citizens do not use words like “thinking”, “dead” and “better”. 

Ingsoc also developed the idea of doublethink. Doublethink is where an idea carries two contrasting meanings, however, an individual will believe that both ideas are true. The novel portrayed doublethink multiple times including in Ingsoc’s slogan: WAR IS PEACE / FREEDOM IS SLAVERY / IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH” (Orwell, 1990: 34). The slogan conveys the message that war is synonymous with peace. Here, the Party wanted its citizens to know that constant war is normal and will eventually lead to peace. Alternatively, they also preach that peace will eventually lead to war. Another good example of doublethink is when the Party claimed that they invented the airplane. Some of the people of Oceania were aware that airplanes existed before the war. However, Ingsoc manipulated documents to make it seem that it was them who invented the airplane. The people of Oceania accepted the fact despite their awareness of the contrary.

The world today has its own version of Newspeak. Individuals often use shortened versions of words when texting or sending messages. Some groups of people even use symbols or “emojis” to convey specific messages. While the government did not create this form of communication for mass manipulation, individuals may develop inferior grammar or communication skills that will limit their ability to think. Political euphemism and correctness are other aspects of communication that is similar to Newspeak. Society refers to wealthy people who take advantage of the poor as “job creators”.  They also refer to Nidal Hasan’s massacre of 13 Army soldiers in 2009 as “workplace violence.” People use these “slangs” and “terms” to make cruel realities appear to be accidental or acceptable in the eyes of the common people (Gopnik 2017). This is similar to how Ingsoc created the word “unperson” as an alternative to “dead”. They invented terms to control how the Proles will think and communicate.

The Proles in 1984 is the lower class and the majority of the population. The Party has made sure that the Proles are uneducated and loyal to Ingsoc. The Proles are the common citizens who work blue-collar jobs and live in the slums of Oceania. Bombs from the opposing superstates regularly hit the area where the Proles live. The bombs often kill some of the Proles, however, the Party does not do anything to help or support the lower class. To the Party, the Proles are like wild animals and insects. Most Inner and Outer Party members avoid having contact with the Proles. Despite this, Winston was aware that the Proles’ population can change Oceania and oppose the Party. However, ideas like Newspeak and other Ingsoc propaganda ensure that the Proles will remain incompetent.

There is also a class divide in the world today. There is the higher class, middle class, and lower class. Similar to 1984, the higher class has authority over most of a country’s resources. The higher class involves powerful businessmen, politicians, and world leaders. The middle class is similar to the Outer Party. They have a decent life with regular work and education. The lower class is like the Proles, they tend to be uneducated due to poverty and are often the victims of societal conflicts. Ingsoc’s manipulation of the Proles is similar to how television shows like the Kardashians and Miss USA distract the common people from important social issues (Blakinger 2016). Most youth today follow the lifestyles of famous individuals (Rodden 2014). They focus more on trivial matters instead of helping address relevant issues. This is an apparent similarity between the common people and the Proles in 1984.

1984 was George Orwell’s vision of a dystopian future under totalitarian rule. Orwell wrote the novel to show the horrors of a totalitarian government that has full authority over its citizens. Even in 2021, the ideas and events in 1984 prove to be significant. There are many similarities between today’s world and the society of Oceania. Both experience endless conflicts for the achievement of a particular goal. 1984 and the world today have surveillance systems that subtly listen and observe people’s actions. Society, similar to Ingsoc, promotes misinformation and the loss of individuality through language and ideologies. The class system is also present in both Oceania and the current world. 1984’s portrayal of the loss of individuality and the manipulation of the higher class directly reflects the world today.

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Blakinger, K. 2016. A look at some of the ways George Orwell’s ‘1984’ has come true today. Daily News. Accessed: 12 August 2021.

Colebatch, H. G. 2017. The Napoleon of Notting Hill: Chesterton for Today. News Weekly, (2993), 15. Accessed: 11 August 2021.

Gopnik, A. 2017. Orwell’s 1984 and Trump’s America. The New Yorker. Accessed: 12 August 2021.

Komando, K. 2019. You’re not paranoid. Your phone really is listening in. Fox News. Accessed: 11 Aug 2021. . 

Orwell, G. 1949. 1984. New American Library. Accessed: 12 August 2021.

Orwell, G. 1990. Nineteen Eighty-Four. 1949. The Complete Novels, 7.

Rodden, J. 2014. Introduction, or Orwell Into the Twenty-First Century. The Midwest Quarterly, 56(1), 5-26. Accessed: 11 August 2021.

Watson, A. 2021. Statistics and Facts about Fake News in the U.S. Statista. Accessed: 12 August 2021.

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Essay on Analysis of George Orwell's 1984

Self-expression in 1984 by george orwell.

Thirty-three years ago, the terrifying vision that novelist George Orwell dreamt of in 1949 never became the reality he foretold it would within the preceding ten decades or so. The year 1984 was presumed to plummet society into utter chaos, becoming a global dystopia in which everyone lived under the regulation and the dominance of one of three totalitarian superstates. Orwell poured out his predictions into the pages of his book, 1984, creating the fictional universe of Oceania in which the lives of Winston Smith and the other characters living in the superstate give the expression of being genuinely real, especially due to author’s the use of various literary devices. For instance, motifs such as the linguistic concept of Newspeak and the majority of society’s convergence of feelings towards the Party and Big Brother appear multiple times throughout the novel. At the hand of such persisting ideas, a major theme stands out - the lack of self-expression. Living under an authoritarian and oppressive government, party members such as Winston are compelled to pursue the socialist policies of Ingsoc. In the book it is written that, “The two aims of the Party are to conquer the whole surface of the earth and to extinguish once and for all the possibility of dependent thought” (Orwell 193). If the general populace of Oceania were to submit the Party, self-expression would be entirely eliminated because everyone and everything would be censored. With such motives made clear,

Literary Analysis Of George Orwell's 1984

Loneliness is something everyone experiences. However, nobody should have to go through the degree of loneliness of being unable to confide in one person. Everybody needs a person. At the start of 1984 by George Orwell, Winston is completely alone and cannot open up about his feelings towards Big Brother to anyone. He is unable to conform to his natural human nature due to a government in total control. George Orwell’s 1984 communicates the threat on society of a totalitarian government by using literary devices such as irony, foreshadowing, as well as characterization.

The Lack Of Self-Expression In George Orwell's 1984

Thirty-three years ago, the unpleasantry that novelist George Orwell dreamt of never became the reality he predicted it would in 1949. The year 1984 was supposed to take society on an absolute turn for the worst, becoming a global dystopia in which everyone lived under the regulation and dominance of one of three totalitarian superstates. Orwell wrote of this future in his book 1984, creating the fictional universe of Oceania in which the lives of Winston Smith and the other characters in Oceania seemed genuinely real, especially by use of various literary devices. Motifs such as the linguistic concept of Newspeak and the majority of society’s convergence of feelings towards the Party and Big Brother appear multiple times throughout the pages of the novel. Through such recurring ideas, a major theme stands out - the lack of self-expression. Living under an authoritarian and oppressive government, party members such as Winston are forced to follow the socialist policies of Ingsoc. In the book it is written that, “The two aims of the Party are to conquer the whole surface of the earth and to extinguish once and for all the possibility of dependent thought” (Orwell 193). If everyone were to give into the Party, self-expression would be entirely eliminated because everyone and everything would be censored. With such motives made clear, Winston along with a minority realize the absurdity in the Party’s ways. Nevertheless, many more others do not, loving Big Brother and embracing

Literary Analysis On 1984 By George Orwell

1984 by George Orwell, published in 1948. Orwell uses the dystopian genre to conceive an exemplification of life in the future based on conformity, dependence of technology, and the absolute control of the state over the people, their rights, and their history. The dystopian genre has been classified to have constraints upon the structure of the storyline; variations of such plots come through in different ideas, but all adhere to: conformity, surveillance / invasion of privacy, a terrible / unnamable past which lead to the dystopia’s creation, a futuristic setting, lack of rights / freedom / expression for the people, and a distinct segregation of the higher and lower classes.How

Essay On George Orwell's 1984

In the midst of a world completely blind to the truth, there was a man who’s seditious thoughts opened our eyes to a destructive future. Eric Blair, most commonly known as George Orwell, was born in Bengal and brought up in a society divided by social classes. Orwell graduated from Eton and decided to drop out of college to join the Indian Imperial police in Burma, where he experienced the cruelty of the world. He had an epiphany after returning back to England and was suddenly consumed in translating his fervent emotions of hatred and anger into words. World War II has just ended after a long period of constant war over land, minerals and weapons when Orwell began

Examples Of Power In George Orwell's 1984

“WAR IS PEACE; FREEDOM IS SLAVERY; IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH” (Orwell 4). However appealing this statement seems to be to the people of the Party, these words are nevertheless their identity and are tied both to themselves and to their seemingly inherent love for their party. In George Orwell’s 1984, he uses politically-charged language to put a spotlight on and capture the public’s attention to political movements happening both inside and outside the story that Orwell believes are examples of political injustices in the world around him (Amenta 170). Looking back, most of what the world considers problems, communication might have avoided, likewise, most of what is considered achievements in the world can be boiled down to one central connection,

1984 Freedom

War Is Peace. Freedom Is Slavery. Ignorance Is Strength. The government slogan illustrates the sense of stringency that characterizes the world created by George Orwell. The vast power of the Oceanian government kept their people in constant paranoia through perpetual publicity, mangled violence and persistent manipulation in order to keep their world regulated as much as possible. The scene in the Novel 1984 is positioned in the expansive nation of Oceania, a realm of the future that replicates London. It is a totalitarian state that is dictated by an perplexing figure named Big Brother, who may not even exist. The government of this world is prevailed by the group of the Inner Party, and use their dominance by inhibiting everything

Power of Propaganda

In George Orwell’s 1984, lies, cover-ups and false information control the thinking of the citizens of Oceania. The Party uses propaganda as the deadliest and most efficient method of control. Propaganda increases the citizens’ morale and makes them believe that no matter what they are told, the Party is always right. There are two main types of propaganda; changing the truth, doublethink, and another by creating fear within citizens. “Doublespeak” is a major aspect of everyday life in Oceania. The Party’s central slogans are “WAR IS PEACE. FREEDOM IS SLAVERY. IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH.” is a good example (Orwell 4). The idea of the slogans is to convince the citizens that what they want is what they already possess. “War is peace”, it is a false sense of peace that citizens are led to believe that they are living peacefully in comparison to the warzone in Africa. Secondly, “freedom is slavery”, if a person has freedom, they becomes a slave to their own desires. Lastly, “Ignorance is strength” means if citizens are oblivious to the Party’s secrets and activities within Oceania, they will not rebel. This ignorance strengthens the Party’s power and total control over citizens. The slogan changes truth and makes the citizens believe that anything they want other than what their government wants can only make them unhappy. Therefore, no citizen will consider rebelling, as they believe the Party’s way of governing is the best and only way. “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU”, another core

Essay on George Orwell's 1984

In the book 1984 by George Orwell, there is a lot of symbolism that represents one major themes of the book. These symbols reflect the theme that a totalitarian government does not allow freedom. The goal is to control the thoughts, the hearts and the minds of the population. Those that are different are centred out to be changed and if they cannot be changed they are eliminated. Free thought is not free. The price for free thinking can be your life. Winston, the protagonist, is a free thinker who has rejected the norms of the totalitarian regime, but to survive

Essay about 1984 By George Orwell

Winston Smith walked home\surrounded by posters proclaiming “Big Brother is Watching You”. Smith does not like the Party but expressing his opinion would mean certain death. Thought crime means death or vaporization, it meant a person’s existence was never there; they were born. This story is composed in three parts; the world of 1984 as he (Smith) sees it, Smith’s rebellion and affair with Julia and Smith’s interrogation, torture, most importantly, his re-education at Miniluv. Winston Smith live in the now ruined London, “chief city of Airstrip One” as quoted in the

Analysis Of The Book ' 1984 ' By George Orwell

Winston 's current situation working there is the major factor which lets him realize how Big brothers hold back the peoples opportunity to freedom. However, Winston keeps his thoughts and hate about Big Brother and the party for his own secret in his diary because the party will not allow anyone keeping a rebellious idea. After a while Big Brother realizes Winston’s suspicious behavior and has an individual named O’Brien sent to watch over Winston. O’Brien is a very smart man from the Ministry of truth, who is a member of the 'inner party '(the higher class). Winston comes to trust him and shares his inner secrets and ideas about the rebellion against Big Brother. O 'Brien tells Winston about a man named Emmanuel Goldstein whom claims to know the leader of the rebels against Big Brother. This also promises Winston to get a copy of the book he Longley desires. Suddenly O’Brien goes against Winston as Big Brother had already planned. Showing major secretive external conflict.

Analysis Of George Orwell 's ' 1984 '

As human beings, there are distinct characteristics that separate us from feral animals; the ability to create, to appreciate art, to curiously question the world and most importantly to sympathize for our kind. However, when that exact nature is stripped from us, we tend to become mindless, restricted, cold, and degraded as an entire race. This is the setting of George Orwell’s last book, 1984. A world where human thought is limited, war and poverty lie on every street corner, and one cannot trust nobody or nothing. It is all due to the one reigning political entity, the Ingsoc Party, who imposes complete power over all aspects of life for all citizens. There is no creative or intellectual thought, no art, culture or history, and no

The Analysis of Totalitarianism in 1984 by George Orwell

In “1984,” Orwell describes a terrible society where totalitarianism reaches the top. In this circumstance, personality and freedom are strangled and thought is controlled. The most frightening aspect is that citizens have no sense right and wrong. Without a doubt, the reason why these happen is the governing of the Party, which is controlling everything in the country, Oceania. Orwell uses the control of language to show the idea that the Party solidifies its dominant position.

Analysis Of 1984 By George Orwell

The novel 1984 is a futuristic totalitarian society where everyone is kept under close surveillance and is forced to follow all rules and laws of the state. The novel 1984 was written by George Orwell and published in 1950. The main characters were Big Brother, Winston Smith, Julia, O’Brien, Syme and Emmanuel Goldstein. Winston Smith is a low man on the totem pole when it came to the ruling Party in London, Oceania. His every move is watched by the Party through devices called telescreens. Posted everywhere around the city is the face of their leader, “Big Brother” informing them that he is always watching. He works in the “Ministry of Truth” which is ironic seeing that they alter history to fit the liking of the Party. As this book continues Winston challenged the laws and skirts around the fact that he is always being watched. His shocking and rebellious act is “falling in love.” Throughout this novel George Orwell utilizes symbolism to further enhance the totalitarian features of the society. In many ways these symbols represent the things that this society hasn’t experienced and doesn’t understand.

Critical Analysis Of 1984 By George Orwell

Hopelessness, deep and gaping ever lasting hopelessness. If the course of humanity fails to change, to this everyone will succumb. That is the message that George Orwell has left for the future, and it would be in humanity's best interest to heed. Winston Smith of 1984 lived in a world that had been consumed by the everlasting abyss of injustice. Eventually this world became too much for our hopeful protagonist and thus, like the future that is bound to a horrific fate, he succumbed. “It was like swimming against a current that swept you backwards however hard you struggled, and then suddenly deciding to turn round and go with the current instead of opposing it” (Orwell 248). No one in this world is any different than Winston, they will follow his path like all of those before them, following the five stages of Kübler-Ross. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance make up the cycle that every feeble life will follow and that Winston grew to know all too well.

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Free A Literary Analysis Of The Novel 1984 By George Orwell Essay Sample

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Government , Literature , Politics , Books , Big Brother , Future , Propaganda , George Orwell

Words: 1700

Published: 03/10/2020


Nineteen Eighty Four is a dystopian novel written by Gorge Orwell in 1948 and was later published in 1949. The novel depicts a totalitarian dystopian world where all the citizens are constantly brainwashed and are forced to be equal. The people in the book are forced to work for big brother without any freedom as their rights are infringed. The party in the novel suppresses the people’s thinking by making them equal in addition to creating fear in them through strict laws and propaganda in order to stop them from resisting (Bowker 102). Through this book, Orwell warns us of our possible future in 1984 by using symbolism, protagonists, and antagonists throughout 1984. Orwell uses the novel Nineteen Eighty Four as a chance to warn the people about the dangers of a possible future autocratic government. Nineteen Eighty Four is a novel that is full of literary devices, and languages that are used to distort people’s minds and execute propaganda to stifle their thoughts. The party uses the words Doublespeak and newspeak which are used to obscure the actual meaning of words, and to condense people’s thoughts respectively. By explaining how these linguistic devices were used to suppress people’s intelligence, Orwell is able to warn the society about the possible society with totalitarian control. Nineteen Eighty Four is a book that depicts a totalitarian future world using the protagonist in the book. Winston Smith is the main character in the book. He is depicted as a man in his late 30’s and he was a member of the outer party, which is the lower of the two classes present in George Orwell’s world. In the story, Winston worked for the government in one of its ministries called the Ministry of Truth. Winston’s job was to rewrite the history books in order to prevent the coming generation from knowing what really happened in the past. The Party which was led by The Big Brother was controlled by a slogan "who controls the past, controls the future," therefore, the government wanted to control the future by erasing the past (Orwell, 68). Orwell was trying to show us that, the past governments are able to control the future. As the protagonist in the story, Orwell uses his resistance to the Party and the Big Brother as a warning to the future generation to be prepared to resist a possible totalitarian government. As the story progresses, Big Brother notices that Winston is contemplating to go against him and he orders that he be watched by O’Brien, who is an intelligent executive in the Ministry of Truth where Winston works. O’Brien was a member of the Inner Party, which was an upper class, and he pretended to be with him, but betrayed Winston later on. After the betrayal, Winston ends up "where there is no darkness," a room where criminals or those who defy Big Brothers strict laws. He was tortured, mentally murdered and forced to believe in the Big Party, and as the book ends, we see Winston loving Big Brother in the end. Orwell writes that, “He had won the victory over himself. He loved Big Brother” (Orwell, 298). Winston was tortured and brainwashed by the authoritarian government until his thoughts were changed into loving Big Brother. Orwell uses the Protagonists life and experiences to warn about a future totalitarian government that will brainwash its citizens as Winston was brainwashed. Initially, he was against the Big Brother’s ideas, but after he was arrested, tortured and brainwashed, he likes Big Brothers ideas, and he sees nothing wrong about The Party. As the book ends, the protagonist is completely mentally dead because, he is controlled by the party and can do nothing on his own, for he became a toy of Big Brother. Orwell warns us how a totalitarian government can brainwash its citizens through Winston’s experiences. The government in 1984 suppresses the people’s thinking and eliminates their freedom in order to have a total control over them. In the book, Lies and false information controls the people in the 1984 world. The people are meant to believe lies and since they are under surveillance, they are forced to conform to the strict laws set by the big brother. Orwell shows how The Party uses propaganda as a weapon of control. Through this Orwell warns us of how propaganda can be used in the future world to suppress people’s rights as it will make them believe in what the ruling party tells them. George Orwell uses symbolism in his book to warn us of our possible future in his book 1984. There is a famous phrase in the novel “Big Brother is watching,” which symbolizes that; the ruler of the party is watching people’s movements. Big Brother was the face of the party, and the people were made to believe that, he is watching them in every step they make. In this government, the people are only to follow the rules and laws that the Big Brother gives, or else they are imprisoned. George Orwell is trying to present a future government whereby, the people will be constantly watched by the Big brother. The entire book is full of symbolism which the author uses to show how the government was totalitarian, and the people had no say. In addition, Orwell uses the Symbol “Big Brother is watching” to instill fear in the people of the 1984 world. The symbol was everywhere and it instilled a lot of fear in the people since they knew they are being watched and they feared for their lives. The words were first seen by Winston when he was taken to the Victory Mansion, the word was all over the place on posters and it was used to make the people to fear the government and to do all the Party ordered them to do. The poster was a propaganda the Party used in order to instill fear in the people by making them believe that, big brother was tracking all their movements. Therefore, the author used the symbolism of the posters on “Big Brother is watching” in order to warn the future society of how they will be suppressed by propaganda that they are being watched by the “Big Brother is watching,” yet it is just to repress their thoughts and actions against a possible totalitarian government. Big Brother is also used to symbolize the party in its appearance, whereby, its leader is there to rule the people the way he wants. In addition, it meant that, the ruler who is the Big Brother is an open threat who cannot be escaped. Other symbols used in the book are telescreens and “the place where there is no darkness” (Orwell, 348). The tele-screens are a symbol of the Party’s continuous monitoring of its citizens. The Big Brother used the telescreens to pass information to its subjects and to spread propaganda which instilled fear in the citizens. In addition, the citizens were made to believe that, they were being watched through them and they feared being caught and tortured. Orwell used the telescreens to symbolize how a totalitarian government can abuse technology to instill fear in the people instead of using it to improve their knowledge. In addition, the symbol of “the place where there is no darkness” is used to symbolize a prison, where the people who defied Big Brother were taken. Winston ended up in the “the place where there is no darkness” after he tried thinking against what the Party was demanding from the citizens. In addition, “the place where there is no darkness” symbolizes the future of the people whereby, if a totalitarian government is possible in the future, people will suffer in the hands of the Big Brother. George Orwell wrote Nineteen Eighty Four to portray a possible totalitarian society in the future. It is evident from the book that, if this society is not opposed, it could be a reality in the coming years. He presents a society whereby the people are controlled and monitored even in their own houses. In addition, the people’s thoughts are monitored, as well as being forced to be equal and if anyone is found to be powerful that the rest of the people, he is made equal to the rest. Through his characters, Orwell is able to show the dangers of such a society, and it is a clear warning to the society that they should be ready for such a government. George Orwell was able to accomplish his mission of warning the world of a future totalitarian government. He used excellent symbolism, events, the protagonist and the antagonist to make it possible. Through his imaginations, and the use of technology and the protagonist, Orwell was able to show the dangers of a totalitarian government to the future society (West 205). Nineteen Eighty Four by George Orwell is a book that was intended to be a prediction of the future governments. It is a political novel that is to warn the society about the dangers of an authoritarian government. The author wrote this book as an alarm to the society of a government with absolute power. Orwell uses symbolism, the protagonists and the antagonists to view his opinion about the future possibilities of a new world order and a totalitarian government. Orwell wrote this book as a warning of a possible totalitarian future government. The book is a story about a man’s struggle against a totalitarian government which used technology to discover the thoughts of those against it and punish them.

Works Cited

Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-four. London: Penguin, 2000. Print. Bowker, Gordon. Inside George Orwell: A Biography. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print. West, William. J. The Larger Evils – Nineteen Eighty-Four: the Truth Behind the Satire. Edinburgh: Canongate Press, 1992. Print.


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