LNAT Free Past Papers, Worked Solutions and Answers

Free lnat questions & mark schemes for all lnat past papers.

Welcome to our LNAT past paper page, designed to support Oxbridge Law applicants! Below you will find LNAT questions and answers for all LNAT past papers . We recommend using these questions and LNAT past papers to self-assess your own abilities. You can revisit these in a few weeks to gain an understanding of how you're progressing with your LNAT prep. Alongside these LNAT questions, you can maximise your chance of gaining an Oxbridge Law offer with our other preparation resources such as LNAT preparation books or our specialist LNAT 1-1 programmes . Call us on 020 3305 9593 to find out more.

LNAT Practice Paper (Full Mocks)

233 | LNAT Practice Paper | Full Mock

42 | LNAT Practice Paper | Ethics and Education (Test 1)

40 | LNAT Practice Paper | Politics

42 | LNAT Practice Paper | Science (Test 1)

42 | LNAT Practice Paper | Science (Test 2)

LNAT Practice Papers (Mini Tests)

14 | LNAT Practice Paper | Ethics and Education (Test 2)

16 | LNAT Practice Paper | Science (Test 3)

25 | LNAT Practice Paper | Philosophy

31 | LNAT Practice Paper | Media

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LNAT Essay Examples 2024 – 2025 LNAT Essay Question Bank with Model Answers Sample Essays

  • Revised LNAT 2024 Edition
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The Law National Admissions Test (LNAT) is an essential part of the application process for some of the top law schools in the United Kingdom. The essay section, in particular, holds significant weight, as it gauges an applicant’s ability to critically analyze, form logical arguments, and effectively communicate ideas. The essay is also an opportunity for students to display their language skills.

In this article, we will take a comprehensive look at LNAT essays, including some examples, structure, format, word limit, scoring, questions, mark scheme, and essay writing tips.

Also included below is a comprehensive LNAT Essay Question Bank, with 90 essay questions or prompts – each linked to model or sample essay for that question.

Types of Questions

LNAT essay questions typically cover a range of topics, including politics, law, ethics, and social issues. These questions require you to form a well-reasoned argument on a complex, open-ended subject. You must demonstrate your ability to analyze various perspectives, draw upon evidence, and communicate your thoughts effectively.

Remember, essay type questions are subjective in nature – i.e., the same essay when read by two different assessors, may be perceived in two different ways. Therefore, it becomes essential to keep the essay as balanced as possible; displaying equal consideration to both sides of an argument.

Choosing the Right Question

When selecting an essay question, consider your familiarity with the topic, your ability to formulate a strong argument, and the availability of supporting evidence. Choose a question that allows you to showcase your analytical skills, critical thinking, and writing prowess.

Do not choose a question on the basis of how strongly you feel about the topic; instead, choose on the basis of how much can you write about the topic.

A common factor among all the LNAT Essay Questions is that they do not have any particular ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answer. They are just testing your ability to construct, convey and defend an argument.

LNAT Essay Question Examples

These are some examples of what the LNAT Essay questions or essay prompts look like.

LNAT Essay Example 1: “Should the death penalty be abolished worldwide?”

This essay can begin with a brief overview of the history of capital punishment and then proceed to discuss the moral, legal, and social implications of the death penalty. The essay can delve into the arguments for and against capital punishment, touching on issues such as deterrence, retribution, and human rights. The conclusion should summarize the arguments presented and offer a final viewpoint on the issue.

Click here to read a model / sample essay on the above topic.

LNAT Essay Example 2: “Does a strong welfare system promote laziness and dependence?”

This essay should explore the nature of welfare systems, their goals, and their potential drawbacks. The author can consider the arguments that support and oppose welfare systems, addressing concerns such as economic efficiency, social cohesion, and individual responsibility. The conclusion should weigh the pros and cons of strong welfare systems and provide a balanced, informed opinion on the matter.

LNAT Essay Example 3: “Should governments regulate social media to combat fake news?”

This sample essay can discuss the phenomenon of fake news, its impact on society, and the role of social media platforms in its propagation. The essay should examine the responsibilities of social media companies and the potential consequences of government intervention. By providing concrete examples and case studies, the author can present a well-reasoned argument on the issue.

LNAT Essay Example 4: “Do privacy concerns outweigh the benefits of mass surveillance in combating terrorism?”

In this sample essay, the author can discuss the balance between individual privacy and national security. The essay should explore the effectiveness of mass surveillance in preventing terrorist attacks and consider the potential dangers of government overreach. The conclusion should address whether the benefits of mass surveillance justify the erosion of privacy rights.

LNAT Essay Structure and Format

A well-structured essay is crucial to effectively communicating your ideas and ensuring a logical flow of arguments. A clear structure allows your reader to follow your line of reasoning easily, resulting in a more persuasive essay.

The hook is the opening sentence or two of an essay, designed to grab the reader’s attention and pique their interest. It often includes a thought-provoking statement, an interesting fact, a quote, or a question. The goal of the hook is to entice the reader to continue reading and become engaged with the essay’s subject matter.


Following the hook, the introduction sets the stage for the essay by providing context and background information. It introduces the topic and provides an overview of what the essay will discuss. The introduction should be engaging and informative, giving the reader a sense of the essay’s purpose and direction.

The thesis statement is a crucial part of the essay, as it presents the main argument or point that the essay will address. It is typically included at the end of the introduction and serves as a roadmap for the rest of the essay. A strong thesis statement is clear, concise, and arguable, allowing the reader to understand the essay’s focus and what the author aims to prove or demonstrate.

Body paragraphs

Body paragraphs form the core of the essay, each one dedicated to a specific aspect of the thesis statement. They should be organized logically, with clear transitions between them, and each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence that outlines its main point. This structure helps the reader follow the essay’s argument and ensures that each point is developed and supported effectively.

Evidence is the factual information, examples, and data that support the essay’s arguments. It is crucial for establishing the credibility of the essay and convincing the reader of the validity of the author’s claims. Each body paragraph should include relevant and well-researched evidence to back up its main point and demonstrate the truth of the thesis statement.

Arguments and Counterarguments

A well-rounded essay not only presents the author’s arguments but also addresses potential counterarguments or opposing viewpoints. This demonstrates the author’s understanding of the complexity of the topic and adds depth to the essay. By acknowledging and refuting counterarguments, the author strengthens their own argument and persuades the reader more effectively.

The conclusion is the final section of the essay, in which the author restates the thesis, summarizes the main points, and offers a closing thought or call to action. It should leave the reader with a sense of closure and a full understanding of the essay’s purpose and main arguments. The conclusion should not introduce new information but instead tie together the essay’s main points and leave a lasting impression on the reader.

LNAT Essay Word Limit

The ideal length of the LNAT essay is around 600 words. In any case, the LNAT essay screen has a built-in word limit of 750 words.

Given that you will have to write, edit and polish your essay within 40 minutes, the 600 word length is the most practical approach.

These days, many users prefer using their smart phones or tablets / iPads for daily tasks – so it is essential to get a good amount of practice using a regular keyboard.

LawMint LNAT Practice Test series includes 30 full length timed practice tests – with 90 essay questions. We strongly recommend that you should select a different essay question in each attempt, to practice writing on a wide range of topics.

Strategies for Staying within the Word Limit

To stay within the word limit,

  • Take a couple of minutes to plan your essay before you start writing.
  • Type in the main section headlines first – hook, introduction, thesis, body paragraphs, arguments / counter arguments, conclusion.
  • Outline your main points and allocate a specific number of words to each section.
  • Remember – A crisp and well articulated essay will fetch more marks than a long and verbose one.

As you write, keep track of your word count and adjust your arguments as necessary to ensure that you do not exceed the limit.

LNAT Essay Score

The LNAT essay is not marked automatically or assessed by Pearson VUE. The essay is sent ‘as is’ to the universities you have chosen while registering for the LNAT.

Universities will evaluate your essay as per their own criteria. Some may give it significant weightage and assess it formally. Others may read the essay only if required to differentiate between two or more candidates with similar LNAT MCQ scores and academic achievements.

General Assessment Criteria

Your LNAT essay will generally be assessed based on your ability to form a coherent argument, use evidence and examples to support your claims, and express your ideas clearly and concisely.

Your essay will also be evaluated on its overall structure, logical flow, and the quality of your writing, including grammar, punctuation, and spelling.

Maximizing Your Essay Score: To maximize your LNAT essay score, ensure that you address the essay prompt directly and comprehensively. Develop a strong thesis statement, and build your essay around it, using appropriate evidence and examples. Be sure to maintain a balanced perspective by acknowledging counterarguments and providing thoughtful, well-reasoned responses.

Remember! – The LNAT Essay screen does not have automatic proofreading. Unlike in normal browser text fields, spelling errors will not be highlighted. Ensure that you proofread your essays carefully to eliminate any errors in grammar, punctuation, or spelling.

LNAT Essay Tips

Plan and outline.

Before you begin writing, take the time to plan and outline your essay. Identify the main points you want to make, organize them logically, and allocate a specific word count to each section. This will help you stay within the word limit and ensure that your essay flows smoothly.

Balance Your Arguments

A strong LNAT essay should present a balanced view of the issue, acknowledging opposing perspectives and addressing counterarguments. This demonstrates your ability to think critically and consider multiple viewpoints, which is an essential skill for a successful law student.

Edit and Proofread

After completing your essay, set it aside for a short period before returning to it for editing and proofreading. This allows you to approach your work with fresh eyes and identify any errors or inconsistencies. Make sure your essay is free from grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors, and ensure that your arguments are clear and logically organized.

LNAT Essay Question Bank

This is a list of 90 LNAT Essay Questions that are included in LawMint LNAT Practice Tests. Practice writing a 600 word essay on each of these questions. Click on the links to see the sample essays that can provide you with some ideas and suggestions.

  • Are mandatory minimum sentences for drug offenses an effective way to combat drug abuse?
  • Are remote work policies effective in promoting diversity and inclusion in the workplace?
  • Are safe spaces on college campuses beneficial for promoting open dialogue and inclusivity?
  • Are universal background checks for gun purchases an effective way to reduce gun violence?
  • Are whistleblowers morally justified in breaking the law to expose corruption?
  • Are zero-tolerance policies in schools effective in promoting discipline and safety?
  • Artificial Intelligence will not significantly transform the legal sector. Share your perspective.
  • Can a policy of complete open borders be justified? Discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks.
  • Can a universal basic income help to reduce poverty and income inequality?
  • Can automation and artificial intelligence lead to greater social equality
  • Can freedom of speech be limited in the interest of public safety?
  • Can hate speech laws infringe on freedom of expression? Discuss the potential consequences.
  • Can intrusive surveillance measures be justified in the name of national security?
  • Can societies achieve gender equality without affirmative action policies?
  • Can strict regulations on businesses lead to better corporate social responsibility?
  • Can the use of alternative energy sources alone solve the global energy crisis? Discuss the challenges.
  • Can the use of economic sanctions be justified as a non-violent means of conflict resolution?
  • Can the widespread adoption of electric vehicles significantly reduce air pollution?
  • Can there be valid reasons for withholding information from the public during a trial? If so, under what circumstances?
  • Discuss the ethical implications of regulating potentially harmful activities, such as extreme sports or certain sexual practices.
  • Discuss the ethical implications of using genetic screening for non-medical purposes, such as choosing a child’s physical traits.
  • Discuss the ethics and potential risks of using gene editing technologies, such as CRISPR, in humans.
  • Discuss the morality and effectiveness of implementing a universal basic income.
  • How essential is the right to privacy in a democratic society? Can it ever be limited?
  • Implementing a ‘Corporate Death Penalty’ could prevent businesses from violating the law. Agree or disagree?
  • In cases of conflicting patient and doctor opinions, whose perspective should take precedence?
  • In cases of online harassment or bullying, should platforms or individuals be held responsible?
  • In sexual assault cases, the accused should bear the burden of proof.
  • In the future, should parents have the option to genetically modify their children?
  • Is a wealth tax an effective way to address income inequality? Discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks.
  • Is censorship of media during times of crisis ever justified?
  • Is implementing quotas the sole solution for achieving gender equality in the workplace? Provide your perspective.
  • Is it ethical for companies to use unpaid internships as a form of labor? Discuss the implications for young professionals and the job market.
  • Is it ethical for employers to monitor their employees’ online activity during work hours?
  • Is it ethical for governments to use lotteries as a source of revenue? Discuss the potential consequences.
  • Is it ethical for governments to use targeted killings as a counterterrorism measure?
  • Is it ethical for researchers to use animals in scientific experiments? Discuss the scientific and ethical implications.
  • Is the Right to be Forgotten essential for maintaining individual freedom?
  • Laws should prioritize individual liberties over public safety. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Mandatory retirement ages should be abolished. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Organ donation after death should be made compulsory. Do you agree? Discuss the ethical implications.
  • Should access to higher education be a universal right? Discuss the implications for society.
  • Should corporal punishment be allowed as a form of discipline in schools?
  • Should countries adopt a four-day work week to improve work-life balance?
  • Should countries adopt a universal healthcare system?
  • Should euthanasia be legalized for patients with terminal illnesses?
  • Should governments focus on creating jobs or providing social safety nets?
  • Should governments focus on long-term sustainability or immediate economic growth?
  • Should governments prioritize environmental protection over economic growth?
  • Should governments prioritize space exploration over addressing pressing issues on Earth?
  • Should governments prioritize the well-being of their citizens over economic growth?
  • Should internet access be considered a human right?
  • Should legal measures be taken to prevent the ‘Uberization’ of industries?
  • Should mandatory diversity training be implemented in the workplace?
  • Should mandatory military service be implemented in all countries?
  • Should medical professionals prioritize patient autonomy or medical ethics in treatment decisions?
  • Should military intervention ever be justified on humanitarian grounds?
  • Should nations prioritize investing in renewable energy over maintaining fossil fuel industries?
  • Should parents have the right to opt their children out of sex education classes?
  • Should political advertisements on social media be regulated?
  • Should politicians prioritize long-term goals or short-term gains when making policy decisions?
  • Should politicians with controversial views be allowed to run for office?
  • Should public figures have the same privacy rights as ordinary citizens?
  • Should religious institutions be exempt from certain laws, such as anti-discrimination legislation?
  • Should restrictions be placed on strike rights rather than limiting CEO compensation?
  • Should social media platforms be held accountable for the spread of fake news?
  • Should social media platforms be responsible for moderating the content shared by their users?
  • Should standardized testing be the primary factor in college admissions?
  • Should the death penalty be abolished? Discuss the moral and practical arguments.
  • Should the government fund and promote the arts?
  • Should the government provide free internet access to all citizens?
  • Should the government regulate the content of news media to combat misinformation?
  • Should the legal age for marriage be raised to prevent child marriages?
  • Should the legal age for purchasing cigarettes be raised to 21?
  • Should the legal age to vote be lowered to 16?
  • Should the sharing economy be more tightly regulated to protect workers’ rights?
  • Should the use of animals for entertainment purposes, such as circuses and zoos, be prohibited?
  • Should the use of facial recognition technology by law enforcement be regulated?
  • Should the use of performance-enhancing drugs be permitted in professional sports?
  • Should there be a cap on campaign spending for political candidates?
  • Should there be a maximum age limit for political candidates?
  • Should vaccinations be mandatory for all citizens, with few exceptions?
  • The legal age for consuming alcohol should be raised to 21. Do you agree or disagree?
  • Under what circumstances is civil disobedience morally justifiable?
  • Under what circumstances, if any, can the use of nuclear weapons be justified or excused?
  • University admissions should be based solely on merit. Do you agree or disagree?
  • When selecting judges, should diversity be a factor in the decision-making process?
  • Which is more important, individual privacy or national security?
  • Who should have the final say on human rights: elected officials or constitutional courts?
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LNAT Essay Examples LNAT Essay Question Bank with Model Answers Sample Essays LawMint UK

  • Aug 11, 2020

By Katie Bacon

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Several universities, including Oxford (!), require the Law National Aptitude/Admissions Test (LNAT) as part of their application process. Preparing for the LNAT can feel quite daunting so hopefully this mini-guide will help!

The first thing to say about preparing is start early! The longer you give yourself to adjust to the style of questions the better position you’ll be in, both in terms of ability and confidence. The more time you have to practice the more opportunities you have to learn and progress before you sit the test. The other thing to do as early as you can is register, this means that you’ll have more choice over when you sit the test - make sure to check the Oxford deadline! Having a set date will give you a goal to work towards which will help guide, structure and motivate your preparation.

The test is split into two sections - (A) the reading and multiple choice section and (B) the essay section. Warning! - do not be deceived by the words multiple choice, the questions are difficult! Although the sections are different, there are two main ways you can prepare which work well for both.

1. Read the news ~ The passages you are given to read and the essay questions can be on anything (this will become very clear when you look at past papers!). By reading the news (actual articles not just headlines!) regularly you’ll become accustomed to reading about things you are not already familiar with and might not necessarily be your first area of interest. By doing this not only will the reading passages not phase you, you’ll have more ideas and context for the essay questions.

2. Keep doing practice papers ~ As hinted earlier, ultimately, the best way you can prepare is to do practice papers. This is the only way to know how you can perform and what you need to work on. The LNAT website has lots of past papers for you to use, there are mark schemes for section A so you can check yourself. It’s definitely worth asking a teacher you get on well with to have a look over your practice essays and give you some honest feedback.

A quick myth-buster for section A - there is no ideal or minimum score, really! Just do your best, if you prep well and in plenty of time you’ll be great! Good luck!

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LNAT Markers

Professor Rebecca Williams (Law Admissions Coordinator) is looking for 40+ markers to help with LNAT essay marking. The position is open to all members of the Faculty. 

Markers will use ‘No More Marking’ software to compare a selection of LNAT essays.  This is an entirely online process and you can log-in and out of the system when it suits you.  You will be working with a set of marking criteria and will be given training in both how to evaluate LNAT essays and how to use the software before we go live. Training is compulsory for any marker who not previously completed No More Marking training.

Duration and hours

Marking work is measured by marking load. Each marker will be expected to complete 12 workpackets, where one workpacket comprises 20 essay comparisons. It is expected that each workpacket will take one hour to complete, therefore the expected total time commitment is 12 -14 hours, which will be spread over 7 days. Payment will be made upon submission of an approved timesheet.

Start date: The training session will be held on Monday 17 October @ 3pm on MS Teams. If you cannot attend at this time, please contact Emma White ( [email protected] ), it will be recorded.

Essays are expected to be available for marking on Monday 24th October and all marking must completed by 5pm Monday 31st October.

The Faculty LNAT Markers will report to Rebecca Williams and Imogen Goold.


  • A general understanding of the field of law is essential
  • Good IT skills are essential.
  • The work can be done in any place where you have access to a good internet service.


This position is open to members of the Law Faculty who are current graduate students, stipendiary lecturers and junior research fellows and the hours are in line with the restrictions on working hours for students. 

We would like to highlight that although it is technically possible to be both a Faculty and a College LNAT marker, the workload would be tough and there are tight deadlines in which to have completed the work, so it is not recommended.

Rate of Pay

This work will be paid at the rate of at £15.15 per hour (which equates to University Grade 5, point 3) on the basis of completed and approved timesheets, which must be submitted to  [email protected]  by the last Friday in each month for payment on the last working day of the following month.

In addition, annual leave will be assumed to be taken in the month in which it was accrued.

How to Apply

To apply, please complete this online application form .

We will operate a rolling recruitment until 17th October.

By completing the form you are confirming you are available for the entire period. Informal enquiries may be emailed to [email protected]

Guidelines for Faculty members, line managers and students

Work must not commence without a letter of engagement or variable hours contract and a right to work check having been carried out by the Faculty Personnel Officer.

Full-time graduate students in the Faculty of Law may work up to 8 hours per week, or a common sense average across the year, regardless of the type of work.

Students may not work as Research Assistants for their own supervisor without the approval of the Associate Dean for Graduate Students.

Any queries regarding the eligibility of a particular student should be directed to Geraldine Malloy in the Faculty Office.

It is expected that the work will be undertaken in the UK.

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LNAT Scores - How LNAT Scoring Works

Learn the ins and outs of LNAT scoring through this comprehensive guide.

Guide to LNAT Scores

  • Learn how Section A scoring works
  • Discover the importance of the essay section
  • Find out key dates for your LNAT score
  • Read our special strategies to boost your LNAT score

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As you navigate the path to becoming a lawyer, understanding the intricacies of LNAT (Law National Aptitude Test) scoring is paramount. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll delve into the world of LNAT scoring, offering insights, tips, and a deep dive into the data that can significantly impact your success.

How Does LNAT Scoring Work?

LNAT scoring is multifaceted, with various elements coming into play.

Section A, the multiple-choice questions (MCQs), holds a score range of 0 to 42, showcasing critical thinking abilities. Various universities, like King’s College London (KCL) and University College London (UCL), set differing score benchmarks.

Meanwhile, Section B, the essay component, although not officially scored, carries substantial weight, with Oxford University and UCL giving it high emphasis in their assessments. This section evaluates your analytical, critical reasoning, and writing skills, with universities having different weighting percentages for it within the overall LNAT evaluation.

Section A (MCQ): The Scored Section

Let’s dive into Section A , the multiple-choice questions (MCQs), where your critical thinking and reasoning skills take centre stage. In this section, LNAT MCQs are scored out of 42 points, encompassing a range from 0 to 42. A strong performance in Section A can lay a solid foundation for your overall LNAT score.

But what’s the score you should aim for, and how does it impact your university choices?

What LNAT Score Do I Need?

When it comes to LNAT Section A, these top London institutions are known for their competitiveness:

  • King’s College London (KCL) typically looks for scores around 27.
  • The bar is set a bit higher at University College London (UCL) and Durham , where scores of around 29 are typical.

What sets these universities apart is that they do not conduct interviews during their admissions process. As a result, your LNAT score and anticipated grades carry significant weight in your application.

If you believe that your LNAT score and academic performance will be the most critical aspects of your application, UCL, KCL, or Durham might be the perfect fit for you.

Average LNAT Score For LSE & Other Unis

Similar to the UCL, KCL and Durham, average LNAT scores for LSE are relatively high, with the average LNAT score for LSE   reported at around 26.

However, London isn’t the only destination for aspiring law students. The accepted LNAT score for Bristol Birmingham , Nottingham , and Glasgow   is around 25. As these universities offer excellent law programs, they do require a score higher than the national average.

If you don’t believe that the LNAT score will be the dominant factor in your application, one of these universities could be an ideal choice. The University of Glasgow, in particular, stands out as they have a slightly lower average LNAT score requirement, hovering around 23. 

LNAT Section B: Your Unscored Score

Now, let’s venture into LNAT Section B , the enigmatic essay-writing segment. While it’s officially not scored, don’t underestimate its significance. Your essay is a critical piece of your application, and different universities may have varying approaches to reviewing and assessing it.

The evaluation criteria for LNAT Section B are as follows:

  • Attention to the Question : Your ability to address the essay prompt effectively.
  • Critical Judgement: Your capacity for analytical thinking and critical reasoning.
  • Distinctions : How well you distinguish and elaborate on key points.
  • Clarity : The clarity and coherence of your writing.
  • Relevance : The relevance of your arguments and examples to the essay topic.
  • Sustained and Focused Treatment of Issues: Your ability to maintain a focused and in-depth discussion.
  • Awareness of Multiple Lines of Argument: Whether you consider and explore various perspectives on the issue.

Following your essay submission, you’ll receive an LNAT score, ranging from zero to one hundred percent. The grading method aligns with university standards, where 70 percent or more constitutes a first, 60 percent or more is a 2.1, 50 percent or more is a 2.2, and 40 percent or more is a third. Keep in mind that universities don’t expect perfection; they recognise that you’re not writing a flawless essay.

While self-grading can be challenging, you can use the LNAT website’s sample essays as a basic guide to crafting a high-standard essay.

University Preferences

While all universities that require the LNAT consider both Section A and Section B as part of your application, some institutions place a particular emphasis on the essay portion. Here’s a breakdown of universities and their attitudes towards LNAT Section B:

High Emphasis On Section B

Oxford University and University College London (UCL) stand out as institutions that value the essay component significantly.

Moderate Emphasis on Section B

  • University of Bristol places 60% weighting on Section A and 40% on Section B.
  • King’s College London, University of London , University of Nottingham, and University of Glasgow also recognise the importance of Section B, albeit to a slightly lesser degree.

Lower Emphasis on Section B

SOAS typically considers Section B only if you score less than 24 on Section A.

Understanding how universities prioritise LNAT Section B can help you tailor your application strategy. If you excel in this section, consider applying to universities that value it highly. Conversely, if you believe your strengths lie more in Section A, you can explore institutions where Section B carries less weight. Remember, your LNAT journey is a multifaceted one, and your application should showcase your diverse skills and strengths.

What LNAT Score Do I Need For Oxford?

With results varying between the different LNAT universities, a good LNAT score for Oxford is generally higher than other universities.

According to Oxford University’s LNAT data for 2021/2022, the average score for candidates accepted onto an Oxford law course was 27.03 for multiple choice questions and 63.52 for the LNAT Essay section.

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LNAT Score Trends

Understanding LNAT scoring also means grasping the historical trends and averages. Let’s explore the data and trends that shape the LNAT landscape:

In the 2022/23 academic year, the average LNAT score was 24.2 out of 42 , equivalent to 57.6%. This marked a significant increase compared to previous years, but a decrease from the previous year’s average which was 28.2 or 67.6%

This is a chart showing Average LNAT Score Percentage Over the Years:

What’s A Good LNAT Score?

Defining the difficulty of the LNAT can be elusive, but it’s undoubtedly challenging. Since there’s no official pass score, universities take a holistic approach in assessing LNAT results. Here’s how to approach your LNAT score:

Aim for a score that surpasses the national average and aligns with the historical averages of successful applicants to your chosen universities.

Typically, a score of 27 or above places you in a favourable position. However, admission is not solely determined by your LNAT score but by your overall application.

What constitutes a low LNAT score? It’s a question that often plagues applicants. Let’s demystify the notion of a low score:

A low score can be defined as falling below the national average, which was 24 or less in 2023.

However, if your score significantly lags behind the average scores of successful applicants to your chosen LNAT universities, the university may deem it a low score.

It’s worth noting that while the lowest score accepted at Oxford was 14, this is an exception rather than the rule.

When Are LNAT Results Released?

Timing plays a crucial role in the LNAT journey. Knowing when to expect your results can help you plan your next steps:

If you take the LNAT on or before 26 January, anticipate receiving your results by mid-February.

If you take the exam after 26 January, you’ll have to wait until mid-August for your results.

Keep in mind that you won’t know your score when you apply to your shortlisted universities, so plan your application strategy wisely.

LNAT Score Validity

One aspect often overlooked by applicants is the shelf life of LNAT scores. Here’s a critical piece of information:

Your LNAT score is only valid for the year in which you took the exam. It does not carry over to the following year. If you’re reapplying to LNAT universities, you’ll need to book and take the test again through the Pearson VUE website.

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  • LNAT Guides and Practice Tests -This will not only familiarise you with the test format but also provide you with valuable resources to ace the test on the day of. 
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  • Creative Writing Workshops – To excel in the essay section, consider attending creative writing workshops. These workshops nurture your storytelling and argumentative abilities, ensuring your essays stand out.
  • Diverse Reading Lists – Broaden your knowledge base by exploring diverse reading lists beyond traditional legal texts. Incorporate literature, philosophy, and contemporary debates into your reading regimen to develop a well-rounded perspective.
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Here are a few sample essay questions for you to think about. Remember that you get 40 minutes to write a recommended maximum of 750 words – ideally about 500-600 words .  We also have sample answers to some of these questions. See download links at bottom of this page.

  • How should judges be appointed?
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  • ‘We must be prepared to sacrifice traditional liberties to defeat terrorism.’ Discuss.
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  • What is ‘political correctness’ and why does it matter?  Answer
  • There are more essay topics on our practice tests .

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As part of your preparation you may also like to look at some materials on critical thinking. Here is a selection. Some of them include exercises that can help you develop your LNAT skills.

A. Fisher,  Critical Thinking: An Introduction  (Cambridge University Press 2001) ISBN 0521009847

R. van den Brink-Budgen,  Critical Thinking for Students  (How to Books 2000) ISBN 1857036344

N. Warburton,  Thinking From A to Z  (Routledge 2000) ISBN 0415222818

P. Gardner,  New Directions: Reading, Writing, and Critical Thinking (Cambridge University Press 2006) ISBN 0521541727 (mainly for those who have English as a second language)

Sample answer: Make the best case you can for public funding of the arts

Sample answer: Does it matter if some animal and plant species die out?

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Department of Economic Policy & Development of the City of Moscow and Ors v Bankers Trust Co and Anr (No 1)

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Department of Economic Policy & Development of the City of Moscow and Ors v Bankers Trust Co and Anr (No 1), Arbitration Law Reports and Review , Volume 2003, Issue 1, 2003, Pages 159–174, https://doi.org/10.1093/alrr/2003.1.159

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  • What to see
  • Monuments and attractions

The Kremlin - a historical fortified citadel, and the religious and politcal nucleus of the city - is at the heart of Moscow and is one of Russia's most emblematic sights .

Originally built in the 12th century as a fortified citadel with wooden buildings, the Kremlin has grown to be a majestic complex and the political heart of Russia .

The word kremlin means fortified city, and there are a number of the Medieval citadels that form the nuclei of modern metropolises throughout Russia. Moscow's Kremlin is the best known , and has been recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site .

The enormous complex has a total area of 66 acres (27 hectares) surrounded by over 1.5 miles (2.5 km) of defensive walls including 20 towers measuring over 260 feet (80 metres) in height, the tallest of which being the Spasskaya Tower . Its imposing red walls and the star-topped towers are a strikingly recognisable symbol of the Russian capital .

What to see in the Kremlin?

In addition to state administrative buildings like the  Grand Kremlin Palace and the State Kremlin Palace , the citadel is home to a huge number of museums, historic buildings and churches. Don't miss the following highlights:

Assumption Cathedral

Also known as the  Dormition Cathedral , this Russian Orthodox church is a magnificent structure of white stone crowned with golden domes . Inside, it's equally beautiful, with colourful frescoes and impressive icons.

Annunciation Cathedral

Built between the 14th and 18th centuries, the Annunciation Cathedral was the personal chapel of the Tsars of the Grand Duchy of Moscow . Its iconic gilded onion domes are typical of Russian Orthodox architecture.

Archangel Cathedral

Constructed as a necropolis for the Tsars of Russia before Peter the Great moved the capital to St Petersburg, this early 16th century church draws from elements of Italian Renaissance architecture. The interior is home to a number of historic frescoes and religious paraphernalia.

Armoury Chamber

One of the oldest museums in Moscow, the Kremlin Armoury showcases an extensive collection of breathtakingly beautiful jewellery, clothing, weapons and armour from Russian history . Amongst its finest gems are a number of Fabergé eggs .

Ivan the Great Bell Tower

Towering above the Kremlin at over 260 feet (80 metres) in height, the Ivan the Great Bell Tower was the tallest building in Moscow for over 400 years. Climbing up to the top (entrance fee is not included in the Kremlin ticket price), you'll enjoy spectacular panoramic views over Moscow .


The Kremlin is one of  Moscow's most important tourist attractions , making it a must-visit on any trip to the Russian capital. Its location in the heart of the city centre, right next to other top sights like Red Square and Saint Basil's Cathedral , makes for a perfect day's sightseeing itinerary.

The Grand Kremlin Palace

In the centre of Moscow.

15 May to 30 September : 9:30 am to 6 pm. 1 October to 14 May : 10 am to 6 pm. Ticket office shuts an hour before closing time and is closed on Thursdays.

Cathedral Square Architectural Complex: Adults:  ₽ 700 ( US$ 7.60) Children under 16 years old: Free admission Armoury Chamber: Adults:  ₽ 1,000 ( US$ 10.80) Children under 16 years old: Free admission

Guided Tour of the Kremlin € 47 ( US$ 50.80)

Metro : Biblioteka Imeni Lenin, line 1.

You may also be interested in

Red Square, the Kremlin, Saint Basil's Cathedral... Make the most of your time in Moscow and ensure you don't miss the city's most important sights.


Known for its striking buildings - as large as they are elegant - Red Square is the heart and soul not just of Moscow but of Russia as a whole, and it is home to some of the city's most iconic monuments.

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In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Moscow

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Moscow by Adrienne M. Harris LAST MODIFIED: 28 July 2021 DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780190922481-0047

According to the 2010 census, Moscow’s 11.5 million inhabitants make it the largest city in Europe. The city has the distinction of having gained capital status in the 16th century, losing it in the early 18th century, and regaining it after the Bolshevik Revolution in the early 20th century. In the 10th century, Eastern Slavs colonized the area; Moscow first appeared in written chronicles in 1147, when Prince Iurii Dolgorukii established the city on a forested bluff overlooking the confluence of the Moscow and Neglinnaia rivers. Although Mongols destroyed Moscow in 1237, during the period of Mongol hegemony known as the “Tatar Yoke” (1237–1480), Moscow flourished and the city replaced Kiev as the capital of East Slavdom, the state of Muscovy born in 1547. The cluster of cupolas in the Kremlin attest to Moscow’s role as a seat of ecclesiastical power: after the Ottomans captured Constantinople in 1453, Moscow gained new cultural significance as the self-proclaimed center of “true Christianity.” In 1712, Peter the Great transferred power to St. Petersburg and Moscow was demoted to a regional capital. During the imperial period, Moscow became an important industrial center that attracted migrants who would continually overwhelm city resources. The destruction resulting from Napoleon’s invasion in 1812 led to reconstruction. After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, the city emerged as the capital of the USSR and the global communist movement and, after the Second World War, as the capital of the socialist “second world.” One finds ample scholarship about Moscow during the Soviet period, as it served as an example for the rest of this “second world.” Publications have focused on attempts to alleviate housing shortages and sanitation problems; on the development of public transportation, most notably the Moscow metropolitan—the subway, which remains an architectural monument; on migration; and, considering the Soviet experience, on labor history and social movements—especially as Soviet planners aimed to create new and innovative solutions for the “new Soviet man and woman.” The scholarship reflects the fact that problems that challenged planners in the past continue into the present. One should be aware of the ideological nature of Soviet books, especially those published during the Stalin period when scholars were required to approach their work from a Marxist perspective in line with Soviet ideology. Additionally, sources about contemporary Moscow published two decades ago will be more out of date than a similarly-aged source on a city that did not experience a cataclysmic event such as the 1991 dissolution of the USSR.

Although not solely about Moscow, Riasanovsky and Steinberg 2018 provides the best overview of Moscow history. Perhaps only the historians of the Russian Academy of Sciences have attempted to capture the entire history of Moscow from its founding in the 12th century in one endeavor, publishing a massive six-volume (1952–1959), seven-book edition covering Moscow until the invasion of Nazi Germany in 1941 in the form of Istoriia Moskvy v shesti tomakh . In addition to being out of date, historians commenced this project at one of the most-ideologically rigid Soviet periods—the postwar Stalin years. Nothing comparable exists in English. Colton 1995 remains the most comprehensive one-volume general overview dedicated to Moscow, although most of the book concerns the 20th century. While the title indicates that the book is largely concerned with governance and Colton is a political scientist, the book also covers Moscow history and urban planning, in addition to local governance in depth. For a comparative study covering late-19th to early-20th-century history, see Ruble 2001 . Murrell 2003 provides an accessible, one-volume illustrated history with a focus on architecture for students and travelers. The encyclopedia entry Harris 2019 serves as a short urban and cultural history of the city and concludes with a list of works (literature, cinema, and songs) that depict the city. Although outdated, Corona 2001 introduces the city to a juvenile audience. “Uznai Moskvu” (“ Discover Moscow ”) offers both searchable textual and visual, historical and contemporary information on the city. Leading American, Canadian, and British historians manage the Russian History Blog on which one can find multiple posts about Moscow. The English-language Moscow Times newspaper provides up-to-date information on Moscow events.

Akademiia nauk SSSR: Institut istorii. Istoriia Moskvy v shesti tomakh . 6 vols. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1952–1959.

This massive six-volume (seven book) set produced by historians at the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Institute of History, covers the history of Moscow from the 12th century through June 1941 from a Marxist perspective: Vol. 1: 12th-17th centuries; Vol. 2. 18th century; Vol. 3. 1800–1856; Vol. 4: 1860s-1880s; Vol. 5. 1890s-1916; Vol. 6. 1917–1941. It includes map, illustrations, and colored plates.

Colton, Timothy J. Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1995.

DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674283725

After introducing Moscow’s history prior to the October 1917 revolution, this comprehensive volume details its urban development intertwined with its role as the capital of not just the Soviet Union, but the socialist second world in general. Colton discusses both the city’s development under Soviet general secretaries as well as housing, migration, and planning, and covers local governance in the city across different regimes. The final two chapters cover the capital and its institutions during perestroika and the post-Soviet period.

Corona, Laurel. Life in Moscow . The Way People Live series. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2001.

Illustrated with black-and-white photographs of everyday life and Moscow landmarks, this book is an appropriate introduction to Moscow for a juvenile audience. It covers transportation, socioeconomic status, home life, education, careers, crime and law enforcement, and entertainment.

Discover Moscow .

“Uznai Moskvu” or “Discover Moscow,” a searchable online Russian and English-language guide to Moscow, provides information on houses, routes, museums, monuments, and other places. The site includes maps, photographs—both historical and contemporary, and historical information on notable sites.

Harris, Adrienne. “Moscow.” In The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Urban and Regional Studies . Edited by Anthony M. Orum, 1264–1271. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2019.

A concise introduction appropriate for undergraduates. Although the article is focused primarily on history, it concludes with a short list of literature and films set in Moscow.

The Moscow Times .

This English-language newspaper, having only recently moved to an all-digital format, began circulation in 1992 for an audience of primarily expats living in Moscow. It stopped publishing in print in 2017 and turned to an entirely digital format.

Murrell, Kathleen Berton. Moscow: An Illustrated History . New York: Hippocrene Books, 2003.

This accessible history covers the history of Moscow from its settlement by Slavic tribes through the first post-Soviet decade. It includes a map, chronology, and black-and-white illustrations.

Riasanovsky, Nicholas V., and Mark D Steinberg. A History of Russia . 9th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Although this authoritative history covers Russian history in general, there are several chapters dedicated solely to Moscow and the Muscovite state that provide the reader an excellent overview of Moscow history.

Ruble, Blair A. Second Metropolis: Pragmatic Pluralism in Gilded Age Chicago, Silver Age Moscow, and Meiji Osaka . Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2001.

In this excellent comparative study, the author compares Moscow, Chicago, and Osaka during a period (1870–1920) in which all three experienced robust industrial development, rapid population growth, and increases in both diversity and fragmentation. Three chapters cover Moscow’s development as an industrial center, the relatively successful education of Moscow workers, and the city’s housing ills. Ruble challenges Russian exceptionalism by highlighting similarities to other cities.

Russian History Blog .

Leading Western scholars manage the English-language Russian History Blog on which one finds multiple posts related to Moscow.

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The History of Moscow City

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  1. Marking LNAT Essays

    Marking LNAT Essays The Law National Aptitude Test (LNAT) is used as part of the admission process to help in the selection for the undergraduate law courses. The exam comprises of two parts: [1] multiple choice questions based on passages of text, and [2] an essay. ... The purpose of the scheme is to ensure consistency of marking and this can ...

  2. LNAT Past Papers Oxford and Cambridge Questions Collection

    Free LNAT Questions & Mark Schemes for all LNAT Past Papers. Welcome to our LNAT past paper page, designed to support Oxbridge Law applicants! Below you will find LNAT questions and answers for all LNAT past papers. We recommend using these questions and LNAT past papers to self-assess your own abilities. You can revisit these in a few weeks to ...

  3. LNAT Essay Examples 2024

    In this article, we will take a comprehensive look at LNAT essays, including some examples, structure, format, word limit, scoring, questions, mark scheme, and essay writing tips. Also included below is a comprehensive LNAT Essay Question Bank, with 90 essay questions or prompts - each linked to model or sample essay for that question.

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  5. LNAT Essay: Section B of the LNAT

    Writing the LNAT Essay. The following tips can help you write a compelling LNAT essay: Introduction: The introduction should be brief and clear. It should introduce the topic and provide a thesis statement that outlines the argument you will make in the essay. Structure: The essay should be well-structured and organised.

  6. LNAT Prep

    2. Keep doing practice papers ~ As hinted earlier, ultimately, the best way you can prepare is to do practice papers. This is the only way to know how you can perform and what you need to work on. The LNAT website has lots of past papers for you to use, there are mark schemes for section A so you can check yourself.

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    Deadline date: Rolling recruitment until 17th October. Professor Rebecca Williams (Law Admissions Coordinator) is looking for 40+ markers to help with LNAT essay marking. The position is open to all members of the Faculty. Markers will use 'No More Marking' software to compare a selection of LNAT essays. This is an entirely online process ...

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    With results varying between the different LNAT universities, a good LNAT score for Oxford is generally higher than other universities. According to Oxford University's LNAT data for 2021/2022, the average score for candidates accepted onto an Oxford law course was 27.03 for multiple choice questions and 63.52 for the LNAT Essay section.

  9. PDF Practice Tests 2010 mark scheme

    LNAT PRACTICE TESTS - MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS - MARK SCHEME Please note that because questions appear in random order on the test, you should make a note of the titles of the passage as you work through them. PRACTICE TEST 1 Physicians and Patients 1. a 2. d 3. b Top Civil Servants 1. d 2. a 3. a A New Strange Mask for Science 1. c 2. e 3. e

  10. &X1F4DA; How to Prepare for the LNAT

    Some universities also prescribe their own mark scheme to the LNAT essay and share these as part of their LNAT results. Oxford, for example, marks essays as a percentage, with 60-64 being a 'good' essay, 65-69 being 'very good', and 70 and above being 'excellent'. See the section below for more information on the average scores of ...

  11. LNAT Oxbridge Application Resources

    LNAT PREPARATION MATERIALS. In addition to official LNAT past and specimen papers on the LNAT Website, we at Oxbridge Applications have written a series of additional mock papers. Our students have 33% more questions to practise with. Our mock LNAT papers can be found here and are included with our admissions test tuition.

  12. Sample essays

    Sample essays; Sample essays. Sample essay questions and suggested reading. Here are a few sample essay questions for you to think about. Remember that you get 40 minutes to write a recommended maximum of 750 words - ideally about 500-600 words. We also have sample answers to some of these questions. See download links at bottom of this page.

  13. | Guides

    The LNAT essay topics will not be specifically about current affairs, and you will not be judged by what facts you know. But knowing how the world ticks, in general terms, will help you to write intelligently about a host of different topics. (Source: Oxford LNAT webpage 🔗, Accessed: 12/08/2020) Most paid resources are completely unnecessary.

  14. PDF Overall picture 192 46 2 12

    Centralised LNAT Marking The LNAT was marked using No More Marking, a comparison marking system that anonymised LNAT essays and allowed markers to compare 2 essays at a time. The system created a numerical score once the essay assessed. LNAT essays score of those shortlisted: Essay score Number of applicants 52 1 54 3 55 4 56 3 57 9 58 15 59 30

  15. Law National Aptitude Test (LNAT)

    The LNAT Package includes: Complete LNAT Mock Admissions Test with new and unseen questions, exclusive to Oxford Tutors (not available anywhere else) Designed for the latest specification; Sections A (Multiple Choice) and B (Essay) Full worked solutions for all sections; Includes answer key for multiple choice sections

  16. LNAT Past Papers

    Past Papers. The National Admissions Test for Law (LNAT) is a 2-hour exam used by several universities in the UK, including the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge, as part of their admissions process for law courses. The exam assesses critical thinking and analytical skills, as well as the ability to construct a persuasive argument.

  17. LNAT Essay Marking Criteria

    Z Sullivan 01 Medi 2021. Wedi anfon. Dear University of Oxford, I am making a FOI request for the Marking Criteria for LNAT essay used in undergraduate admission. Yours faithfully, Z Sullivan. Cysylltwch â hwn Report. FOI, University of Oxford 02 Medi 2021.

  18. Lnat Essay Mark Scheme Oxford

    Lnat Essay Mark Scheme Oxford - Dr.Jeffrey (PhD) #4 in Global Rating Give Yourself up to Extra Pleasures. Nursing Psychology Mathematics Healthcare +54. Finest Essay Writing Service & Essay Writer. Lnat Essay Mark Scheme Oxford: 4.8/5. Min Area (sq ft) User ID: 625240. 1(888)814-4206 1(888)499 ...

  19. Department of Economic Policy & Development of the ...

    Department of Economic Policy & Development of the City of Moscow and Ors v Bankers Trust Co and Anr (No 1), Arbitration Law Reports and Review, Volume 2003

  20. Kremlin

    Kremlin. The Kremlin - a historical fortified citadel, and the religious and politcal nucleus of the city - is at the heart of Moscow and is one of Russia's most emblematic sights. Originally built in the 12th century as a fortified citadel with wooden buildings, the Kremlin has grown to be a majestic complex and the political heart of Russia.

  21. Moscow

    Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1995. DOI: 10.4159/harvard.9780674283725. After introducing Moscow's history prior to the October 1917 revolution, this comprehensive volume details its urban development intertwined with its role as the capital of not just the Soviet Union, but the socialist second world in general.

  22. The History of Moscow City: [Essay Example], 614 words

    The History of Moscow City. Moscow is the capital and largest city of Russia as well as the. It is also the 4th largest city in the world, and is the first in size among all European cities. Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruki, a prince of the region. The town lay on important land and water trade routes, and it grew and prospered.