LNAT (National Admissions Test for Law)
What is the lnat, how do i register, when do i take the test.
- How do I get my results?
If you are applying for either Law or Law with Law Studies in Europe , you will be required to sit the LNAT as part of your application.
The Law National Admissions Test (LNAT) is a 2-hour 15-minute test divided into two sections.
Section A is a computer-based, multiple-choice exam consisting of 42 questions. The questions are based on 12 passages, with 3 or 4 multiple-choice questions on each. You are given 95 minutes to answer all of the questions.
You’ll be asked to read passages of text and answer questions that test your comprehension of them. Your answers to the multiple-choice section of the test are checked by computer, and a mark out of 42 is created. This is known as your LNAT score.
In Section B you will be given 40 minutes to write an essay from a list of three proposed subjects. This section is marked by the tutors at the college to which you apply, and this mark is taken into account as part of the selection process. The essay is your opportunity to show your ability to construct a compelling argument and reach a conclusion.
The LNAT isn’t designed to test your knowledge of Law or any other subject. Instead, it helps us to assess your aptitude for studying Law.
Why do I have to take a test?
Most applicants to Oxford University have outstanding academic credentials. It can therefore be difficult for us to choose between so many well-qualified candidates, especially as applicants come from all over the world and take different qualifications.
Tests give us an extra piece of information for every student who has applied for a given course, wherever they are from. Considered together with the other elements of the application, this helps us to identify the very best candidates. However, there is no specific mark that will guarantee that you will be invited to interview.
The tests vary each year, and your test score will be considered alongside the scores of other students who apply for your course.
Do I have to pay?
The LNAT is administered by an independent company who charge candidates a fee of £75 to take the test in the UK or EU. If you are taking the test in a centre outside the UK or EU there is a fee of £120.
However, we do not wish the cost of sitting the test to be a barrier to doing so. An LNAT bursary scheme is available to candidates struggling to pay for their LNAT test. Test fees will be waived for UK/EU students in receipt of certain state benefits.
You must apply for a bursary before booking the LNAT. It could take at least a week to process a bursary application from the date of receipt so you should allow for this extra time when planning your LNAT booking.
For more information on applying for a bursary please read the detailed information about LNAT bursaries on the LNAT website.
How are the tests designed and reviewed?
The LNAT is not run by Oxford University. The test is used by nine UK universities as part of their admissions process for undergraduate applications to Law.
The content of the LNAT is managed by the members of the LNAT Consortium (made up of six of those universities) and the test itself is administered by Pearson VUE, under contract to LNAT. A statistical report is produced each year for reviewing purposes and made publicly available.
Find out more about the LNAT .
In order to register for the LNAT you must follow these steps:
Step 1: set up an account on the LNAT website .
You can do this from 1 August in the year you intend to apply. There are further instructions on the information you will need to provide and how to do this are on the LNAT website .
Step 2: register with a test centre.
Unlike our other admissions tests, candidates sitting the LNAT normally do so in a registered test centre, rather than in their school or college. There are over 500 LNAT test centres around the world with 150 in the UK.
To find your nearest test centres you can use the LNAT live test centre locator . If you cannot find your country listed in the test centre locator or in the list of test centres scheduled to open soon, please contact the LNAT Administrator .
Step 3: book your test .
In order to meet our deadlines, you should register for the LNAT by 15 September and take the LNAT before 16 October in the year you apply.
You may take the test on any day when there is availability at your chosen test centre between those dates. The earlier you book, the more chance you have of getting an appointment on the day of your choice. You are therefore strongly advised to begin making arrangements as soon as possible.
Step 4: pay for your test .
The LNAT must be paid for online in advance of your test, either via credit or debit card. If you do not have to an acceptable payment card, or live in a country with credit card verification problems you can apply for LNAT vouchers.
Find out more about LNAT bursaries .
If you are normally entitled to access requirements in your exams (e.g. extended time for dyslexia, arrangements for impaired mobility, hearing or vision) you shouldn’t book your test online. Instead, you should follow Step 1 to register, then fill out an Examination Access Requirements form , which you should submit, alongside appropriate documentary evidence, before booking your test.
Please note that while some examination access arrangements, such as extra time, can be verified and accommodated within a few days, others such as booking a reader recorder will take at least three weeks. Please allow for this extra time when planning to take your LNAT.
Once your request has been approved you will be given instructions on booking your test.
Visit the LNAT website for further information on access arrangements .
Candidates for the LNAT must take the test before 16 October in the year they apply, but not before the summer holiday of the year in which they apply. Please see below for a summary of the important dates and deadlines:
- 1 August – 15 September : register and book the LNAT. It is highly recommended to register and book by 15 September in order to secure an LNAT test date before the 16 October deadline. A delay in booking may mean applicants have to travel further to an available LNAT location.
- before or on 16 October : take your test. In order for your score to be considered by us, you must sit your test before or on 16 October.
- 16 October : deadline to submit your UCAS form
On the test day:
It is important that you arrive at the test centre at least 15 minutes before the scheduled start of your test. Please note that on the day of the test, you must take a printout of your confirmation email and a recognised form of photo-identification (such as a passport). If you do not bring ID you will not be allowed to sit the test.
If you don't take the admissions test(s) required for your course, either because you didn't register or didn't attend on the test day, then your application will be significantly affected. Your UCAS form will still be viewed by our admissions tutors.
However, as the admissions test forms an important part of our selection process it will be extremely difficult for your application to be competitive when viewed against other candidates who have fulfilled all the admissions criteria.
It is not possible to re-sit the LNAT once completed. If you were ill on the day of the LNAT please contact the Law faculty ( [email protected] ) and let them know, include your UCAS PID and LNAT registration number. If there was some form of disruption at the test centre you should ask for an incident number on the day of the test and contact the LNAT Consortium as soon as possible afterwards.
Read more information on the complaints procedure .
How do I get my results?
Candidates sitting the LNAT will receive their results in mid-February.
All scores and essay will be made available to the faculty selection committee in time for them to make their shortlisting decisions in November, so candidates do not need to send their results to us separately.
Taking any type of test or exam can be stressful, but you can help build your confidence by doing a bit of preparation ahead of time.
You may also do better in the real test if you've had a chance to practise some sample or past papers, and got used to the format and timings of the admissions test you have to take.
Here are our top tips for preparing for the LNAT:
- Review the sample papers for the LNAT provided below. This will help you to feel familiar with the test paper and know what to expect. Make sure to have a look at the online simulation too.
- Sit at least one past paper in test conditions. This is really important as it will help you get used to how much time to allocate to each question.
- Have a look at the LNAT website, which contains lots of useful information on how to prepare including hints and tips from former candidates and an LNAT preparation guide .
Don't worry if you find the past or specimen papers very difficult - they're supposed to be! All our tests are designed to stretch you further than you have been stretched before – most candidates will find them really hard.
Section A practice papers
The first section of the LNAT is a screen-based multiple-choice test of 42 questions. You may find it useful to familiarise yourself with the format of the test using this online sample test . You may also like to attempt the following practice test papers which can be downloaded as PDFs. Remember you are given 95 minutes to answer all of the questions.
- Practice test paper 1
- Practice test paper 2
- Practice test commentary
- Practice test marking scheme
Section B essay questions
In the second section of the LNAT you will be given 40 minutes to write an essay from a list of three proposed subjects. Here are a few sample essay questions for you to think about. Remember that you get 40 minutes to write a maximum of 750 words – ideally about 500-600 words .
- How should judges be appointed?
- Make the best case you can for public funding of the arts.
- Does it matter if some animal and plant species die out?
- ‘It is right that students should contribute to the cost of their degrees.’ Do you agree?
- What disciplinary sanctions should teachers be allowed to use?
- ‘We must be prepared to sacrifice traditional liberties to defeat terrorism.’ Discuss.
- Should the law require people to vote in general elections?
- Should private cars be rationed? If so, how?
- What is ‘political correctness’ and why does it matter?
- Make the best case you can for public funding of the arts
- Does it matter if some animal and plant species die out?
- What is 'political correctness' and why does it matter?
You may wish to prepare by simply reading a good quality English-language newspaper. As you read, think about the issues being raised; what assumptions are being made? What information is being relied on to draw which conclusion? How would you frame a counterargument? This will help you to be aware of the world around you.
The LNAT essay topics will not be specifically about current affairs, and you will not be judged by what facts you know. But knowing how the world ticks, in general terms, will help you to write intelligently about a host of different topics.
We have listed some newspapers below worth considering. You can read the online versions (usually freely available, although registration may be required).
If you do read the online versions, remember to read the comment pieces as well as the news. (One question you might ask yourself: What exactly is the difference between news and comment? Is the contrast really apparent in practice?)
- The Economist
- The Financial Times
- The Guardian
- The Independent
- The Irish Times
- The New York Times
- The Scotsman
- The Sydney Morning Herald
- The Daily Telegraph
- The Washington Post
As part of your preparation you may also like to look at some materials on critical thinking. Here is a selection. Some of them include exercises that can help you develop your LNAT skills.
- Alec Fisher, Critical Thinking: An Introduction (Cambridge University Press, 2001)
- Roy van den Brink-Budgen, Critical Thinking for Students (How to Books, 2000)
- Nigel Warburton, Thinking From A to Z (Routledge, 2000)
- Peter Gardner, New Directions: Reading, Writing, and Critical Thinking (Cambridge University Press, 2006) (mainly for those who have English as a second language)
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Law Law with Law Studies in Europe
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Welcome to our LNAT past paper page, designed to support Oxbridge Law applicants! Below you will find LNAT questions and answers for all LNAT past papers . We recommend using these questions and LNAT past papers to self-assess your own abilities. You can revisit these in a few weeks to gain an understanding of how you're progressing with your LNAT prep. Alongside these LNAT questions, you can maximise your chance of gaining an Oxbridge Law offer with our other preparation resources such as LNAT preparation books or our specialist LNAT 1-1 programmes . Call us on 020 3305 9593 to find out more.
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- Aug 11, 2020
By Katie Bacon
Several universities, including Oxford (!), require the Law National Aptitude/Admissions Test (LNAT) as part of their application process. Preparing for the LNAT can feel quite daunting so hopefully this mini-guide will help!
The first thing to say about preparing is start early! The longer you give yourself to adjust to the style of questions the better position you’ll be in, both in terms of ability and confidence. The more time you have to practice the more opportunities you have to learn and progress before you sit the test. The other thing to do as early as you can is register, this means that you’ll have more choice over when you sit the test - make sure to check the Oxford deadline! Having a set date will give you a goal to work towards which will help guide, structure and motivate your preparation.
The test is split into two sections - (A) the reading and multiple choice section and (B) the essay section. Warning! - do not be deceived by the words multiple choice, the questions are difficult! Although the sections are different, there are two main ways you can prepare which work well for both.
1. Read the news ~ The passages you are given to read and the essay questions can be on anything (this will become very clear when you look at past papers!). By reading the news (actual articles not just headlines!) regularly you’ll become accustomed to reading about things you are not already familiar with and might not necessarily be your first area of interest. By doing this not only will the reading passages not phase you, you’ll have more ideas and context for the essay questions.
2. Keep doing practice papers ~ As hinted earlier, ultimately, the best way you can prepare is to do practice papers. This is the only way to know how you can perform and what you need to work on. The LNAT website has lots of past papers for you to use, there are mark schemes for section A so you can check yourself. It’s definitely worth asking a teacher you get on well with to have a look over your practice essays and give you some honest feedback.
A quick myth-buster for section A - there is no ideal or minimum score, really! Just do your best, if you prep well and in plenty of time you’ll be great! Good luck!
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There are many ways that you can practise the LNAT. You’ll find links to all of them on this page.
Online practice test
You can access this test with your browser and it will run on any computer. There is no limit on the number of times the sample test can be taken.
It is an onscreen simulation of the LNAT. It is a simulation of the real LNAT exactly as it will appear on-screen at the test centre . You can use it to familiarise yourself with the format of the test and the skills it requires.
Guided Tour of LNAT Test Screen
The best way to familiarise yourself with the system is to try out our two practice tests. If you don’t have time to try out the practice tests here are some screenshots of sample questions to be going on with. Click on the screenshots to see larger versions.
Multiple Choice Screenshot (click to enlarge)
The screenshot above shows a multiple choice question. The passage always appears in the left-hand pane of the LNAT test window. If the passage is longer than a single screen-length will accommodate, it appears with a scroll bar. The associated questions appear (one at a time) in the right-hand pane, with the possible answers. You click a button on the screen next to the answer you choose. The system will only let you choose one answer at a time.
You can change your answers at any time until the end of the 95 minutes set aside for the multiple choice test. The system lets you flag questions for review, so that you can go back to unanswered or difficult questions when you have completed the rest. You cannot go back to the multiple choice section from the essay section. Each is separately timed. Your time remaining for the section you are on always appears on the top right of the screen.
LNAT Essay Screenshot (click to enlarge)
The screenshot above shows an LNAT essay question. Each question appears at the top of its own screen. You can browse through them using the ‘Next’ and ‘Back’ buttons until you find a topic you like. You should answer only one question. The system has ‘cut’, ‘copy’, ‘paste’, ‘undo’ and ‘redo’ functions (using the buttons above the essay pane). There are no other word-processing functions, eg no spell check. The system has a built-in word count at the bottom of the essay pane. The recommended maximum length for an LNAT essay is 750 words.. Ideally you should write about 500-600 words. You have 40 minutes to write it. Your time remaining for the essay section always appears on the top right of the screen.
United States LSAT tests
If you want to do more practice beyond our practice tests, you could consider trying some similar practice questions from other sources. Many are freely available. For example, the LSAT (Law Schools Admissions Test) used by law schools in the United States contains similar multiple choice items. The LSAT passages are typically shorter and the calibration of the questions may not be the same (law is a graduate-entry programme in the US) but the skills involved are identical. Visit the LSAT website for their preparation materials .
Paper-based LNAT practice tests
If you don’t want to download the test simulator, or if you have no access to a computer that runs Windows we’ve prepared paper versions of the tests that are delivered through the simulator. You can download them all, as well as selected commentaries and the test marking scheme here.
Practice test paper 1 (PDF)
Practice test paper 1 (RTF)
Practice test paper 2 (PDF)
Practice test paper 2 (RTF)
Practice test commentary (PDF)
Practice test commentary (RTF)
Practice test marking scheme (PDF)
Practice test marking scheme (RTF)
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The Law National Admissions Test (LNAT) is an essential part of the application process for some of the top law schools in the United Kingdom. The essay section, in particular, holds significant weight, as it gauges an applicant’s ability to critically analyze, form logical arguments, and effectively communicate ideas. The essay is also an opportunity for students to display their language skills.
In this article, we will take a comprehensive look at LNAT essays, including some examples, structure, format, word limit, scoring, questions, mark scheme, and essay writing tips.
Also included below is a comprehensive LNAT Essay Question Bank, with 90 essay questions or prompts – each linked to model or sample essay for that question.
Types of Questions
LNAT essay questions typically cover a range of topics, including politics, law, ethics, and social issues. These questions require you to form a well-reasoned argument on a complex, open-ended subject. You must demonstrate your ability to analyze various perspectives, draw upon evidence, and communicate your thoughts effectively.
Remember, essay type questions are subjective in nature – i.e., the same essay when read by two different assessors, may be perceived in two different ways. Therefore, it becomes essential to keep the essay as balanced as possible; displaying equal consideration to both sides of an argument.
Choosing the Right Question
When selecting an essay question, consider your familiarity with the topic, your ability to formulate a strong argument, and the availability of supporting evidence. Choose a question that allows you to showcase your analytical skills, critical thinking, and writing prowess.
Do not choose a question on the basis of how strongly you feel about the topic; instead, choose on the basis of how much can you write about the topic.
A common factor among all the LNAT Essay Questions is that they do not have any particular ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answer. They are just testing your ability to construct, convey and defend an argument.
LNAT Essay Question Examples
These are some examples of what the LNAT Essay questions or essay prompts look like.
LNAT Essay Example 1: “Should the death penalty be abolished worldwide?”
This essay can begin with a brief overview of the history of capital punishment and then proceed to discuss the moral, legal, and social implications of the death penalty. The essay can delve into the arguments for and against capital punishment, touching on issues such as deterrence, retribution, and human rights. The conclusion should summarize the arguments presented and offer a final viewpoint on the issue.
Click here to read a model / sample essay on the above topic.
LNAT Essay Example 2: “Does a strong welfare system promote laziness and dependence?”
This essay should explore the nature of welfare systems, their goals, and their potential drawbacks. The author can consider the arguments that support and oppose welfare systems, addressing concerns such as economic efficiency, social cohesion, and individual responsibility. The conclusion should weigh the pros and cons of strong welfare systems and provide a balanced, informed opinion on the matter.
LNAT Essay Example 3: “Should governments regulate social media to combat fake news?”
This sample essay can discuss the phenomenon of fake news, its impact on society, and the role of social media platforms in its propagation. The essay should examine the responsibilities of social media companies and the potential consequences of government intervention. By providing concrete examples and case studies, the author can present a well-reasoned argument on the issue.
LNAT Essay Example 4: “Do privacy concerns outweigh the benefits of mass surveillance in combating terrorism?”
In this sample essay, the author can discuss the balance between individual privacy and national security. The essay should explore the effectiveness of mass surveillance in preventing terrorist attacks and consider the potential dangers of government overreach. The conclusion should address whether the benefits of mass surveillance justify the erosion of privacy rights.
LNAT Essay Structure and Format
A well-structured essay is crucial to effectively communicating your ideas and ensuring a logical flow of arguments. A clear structure allows your reader to follow your line of reasoning easily, resulting in a more persuasive essay.
The hook is the opening sentence or two of an essay, designed to grab the reader’s attention and pique their interest. It often includes a thought-provoking statement, an interesting fact, a quote, or a question. The goal of the hook is to entice the reader to continue reading and become engaged with the essay’s subject matter.
Following the hook, the introduction sets the stage for the essay by providing context and background information. It introduces the topic and provides an overview of what the essay will discuss. The introduction should be engaging and informative, giving the reader a sense of the essay’s purpose and direction.
The thesis statement is a crucial part of the essay, as it presents the main argument or point that the essay will address. It is typically included at the end of the introduction and serves as a roadmap for the rest of the essay. A strong thesis statement is clear, concise, and arguable, allowing the reader to understand the essay’s focus and what the author aims to prove or demonstrate.
Body paragraphs form the core of the essay, each one dedicated to a specific aspect of the thesis statement. They should be organized logically, with clear transitions between them, and each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence that outlines its main point. This structure helps the reader follow the essay’s argument and ensures that each point is developed and supported effectively.
Evidence is the factual information, examples, and data that support the essay’s arguments. It is crucial for establishing the credibility of the essay and convincing the reader of the validity of the author’s claims. Each body paragraph should include relevant and well-researched evidence to back up its main point and demonstrate the truth of the thesis statement.
Arguments and Counterarguments
A well-rounded essay not only presents the author’s arguments but also addresses potential counterarguments or opposing viewpoints. This demonstrates the author’s understanding of the complexity of the topic and adds depth to the essay. By acknowledging and refuting counterarguments, the author strengthens their own argument and persuades the reader more effectively.
The conclusion is the final section of the essay, in which the author restates the thesis, summarizes the main points, and offers a closing thought or call to action. It should leave the reader with a sense of closure and a full understanding of the essay’s purpose and main arguments. The conclusion should not introduce new information but instead tie together the essay’s main points and leave a lasting impression on the reader.
LNAT Essay Word Limit
The ideal length of the LNAT essay is around 600 words. In any case, the LNAT essay screen has a built-in word limit of 750 words.
Given that you will have to write, edit and polish your essay within 40 minutes, the 600 word length is the most practical approach.
These days, many users prefer using their smart phones or tablets / iPads for daily tasks – so it is essential to get a good amount of practice using a regular keyboard.
LawMint LNAT Practice Test series includes 30 full length timed practice tests – with 90 essay questions. We strongly recommend that you should select a different essay question in each attempt, to practice writing on a wide range of topics.
Strategies for Staying within the Word Limit
To stay within the word limit,
- Take a couple of minutes to plan your essay before you start writing.
- Type in the main section headlines first – hook, introduction, thesis, body paragraphs, arguments / counter arguments, conclusion.
- Outline your main points and allocate a specific number of words to each section.
- Remember – A crisp and well articulated essay will fetch more marks than a long and verbose one.
As you write, keep track of your word count and adjust your arguments as necessary to ensure that you do not exceed the limit.
LNAT Essay Score
The LNAT essay is not marked automatically or assessed by Pearson VUE. The essay is sent ‘as is’ to the universities you have chosen while registering for the LNAT.
Universities will evaluate your essay as per their own criteria. Some may give it significant weightage and assess it formally. Others may read the essay only if required to differentiate between two or more candidates with similar LNAT MCQ scores and academic achievements.
General Assessment Criteria
Your LNAT essay will generally be assessed based on your ability to form a coherent argument, use evidence and examples to support your claims, and express your ideas clearly and concisely.
Your essay will also be evaluated on its overall structure, logical flow, and the quality of your writing, including grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
Maximizing Your Essay Score: To maximize your LNAT essay score, ensure that you address the essay prompt directly and comprehensively. Develop a strong thesis statement, and build your essay around it, using appropriate evidence and examples. Be sure to maintain a balanced perspective by acknowledging counterarguments and providing thoughtful, well-reasoned responses.
Remember! – The LNAT Essay screen does not have automatic proofreading. Unlike in normal browser text fields, spelling errors will not be highlighted. Ensure that you proofread your essays carefully to eliminate any errors in grammar, punctuation, or spelling.
LNAT Essay Tips
Plan and outline.
Before you begin writing, take the time to plan and outline your essay. Identify the main points you want to make, organize them logically, and allocate a specific word count to each section. This will help you stay within the word limit and ensure that your essay flows smoothly.
Balance Your Arguments
A strong LNAT essay should present a balanced view of the issue, acknowledging opposing perspectives and addressing counterarguments. This demonstrates your ability to think critically and consider multiple viewpoints, which is an essential skill for a successful law student.
Edit and Proofread
After completing your essay, set it aside for a short period before returning to it for editing and proofreading. This allows you to approach your work with fresh eyes and identify any errors or inconsistencies. Make sure your essay is free from grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors, and ensure that your arguments are clear and logically organized.
LNAT Essay Question Bank
This is a list of 90 LNAT Essay Questions that are included in LawMint LNAT Practice Tests. Practice writing a 600 word essay on each of these questions. Click on the links to see the sample essays that can provide you with some ideas and suggestions.
- Are mandatory minimum sentences for drug offenses an effective way to combat drug abuse?
- Are remote work policies effective in promoting diversity and inclusion in the workplace?
- Are safe spaces on college campuses beneficial for promoting open dialogue and inclusivity?
- Are universal background checks for gun purchases an effective way to reduce gun violence?
- Are whistleblowers morally justified in breaking the law to expose corruption?
- Are zero-tolerance policies in schools effective in promoting discipline and safety?
- Artificial Intelligence will not significantly transform the legal sector. Share your perspective.
- Can a policy of complete open borders be justified? Discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks.
- Can a universal basic income help to reduce poverty and income inequality?
- Can automation and artificial intelligence lead to greater social equality
- Can freedom of speech be limited in the interest of public safety?
- Can hate speech laws infringe on freedom of expression? Discuss the potential consequences.
- Can intrusive surveillance measures be justified in the name of national security?
- Can societies achieve gender equality without affirmative action policies?
- Can strict regulations on businesses lead to better corporate social responsibility?
- Can the use of alternative energy sources alone solve the global energy crisis? Discuss the challenges.
- Can the use of economic sanctions be justified as a non-violent means of conflict resolution?
- Can the widespread adoption of electric vehicles significantly reduce air pollution?
- Can there be valid reasons for withholding information from the public during a trial? If so, under what circumstances?
- Discuss the ethical implications of regulating potentially harmful activities, such as extreme sports or certain sexual practices.
- Discuss the ethical implications of using genetic screening for non-medical purposes, such as choosing a child’s physical traits.
- Discuss the ethics and potential risks of using gene editing technologies, such as CRISPR, in humans.
- Discuss the morality and effectiveness of implementing a universal basic income.
- How essential is the right to privacy in a democratic society? Can it ever be limited?
- Implementing a ‘Corporate Death Penalty’ could prevent businesses from violating the law. Agree or disagree?
- In cases of conflicting patient and doctor opinions, whose perspective should take precedence?
- In cases of online harassment or bullying, should platforms or individuals be held responsible?
- In sexual assault cases, the accused should bear the burden of proof.
- In the future, should parents have the option to genetically modify their children?
- Is a wealth tax an effective way to address income inequality? Discuss the potential benefits and drawbacks.
- Is censorship of media during times of crisis ever justified?
- Is implementing quotas the sole solution for achieving gender equality in the workplace? Provide your perspective.
- Is it ethical for companies to use unpaid internships as a form of labor? Discuss the implications for young professionals and the job market.
- Is it ethical for employers to monitor their employees’ online activity during work hours?
- Is it ethical for governments to use lotteries as a source of revenue? Discuss the potential consequences.
- Is it ethical for governments to use targeted killings as a counterterrorism measure?
- Is it ethical for researchers to use animals in scientific experiments? Discuss the scientific and ethical implications.
- Is the Right to be Forgotten essential for maintaining individual freedom?
- Laws should prioritize individual liberties over public safety. Do you agree or disagree?
- Mandatory retirement ages should be abolished. Do you agree or disagree?
- Organ donation after death should be made compulsory. Do you agree? Discuss the ethical implications.
- Should access to higher education be a universal right? Discuss the implications for society.
- Should corporal punishment be allowed as a form of discipline in schools?
- Should countries adopt a four-day work week to improve work-life balance?
- Should countries adopt a universal healthcare system?
- Should euthanasia be legalized for patients with terminal illnesses?
- Should governments focus on creating jobs or providing social safety nets?
- Should governments focus on long-term sustainability or immediate economic growth?
- Should governments prioritize environmental protection over economic growth?
- Should governments prioritize space exploration over addressing pressing issues on Earth?
- Should governments prioritize the well-being of their citizens over economic growth?
- Should internet access be considered a human right?
- Should legal measures be taken to prevent the ‘Uberization’ of industries?
- Should mandatory diversity training be implemented in the workplace?
- Should mandatory military service be implemented in all countries?
- Should medical professionals prioritize patient autonomy or medical ethics in treatment decisions?
- Should military intervention ever be justified on humanitarian grounds?
- Should nations prioritize investing in renewable energy over maintaining fossil fuel industries?
- Should parents have the right to opt their children out of sex education classes?
- Should political advertisements on social media be regulated?
- Should politicians prioritize long-term goals or short-term gains when making policy decisions?
- Should politicians with controversial views be allowed to run for office?
- Should public figures have the same privacy rights as ordinary citizens?
- Should religious institutions be exempt from certain laws, such as anti-discrimination legislation?
- Should restrictions be placed on strike rights rather than limiting CEO compensation?
- Should social media platforms be held accountable for the spread of fake news?
- Should social media platforms be responsible for moderating the content shared by their users?
- Should standardized testing be the primary factor in college admissions?
- Should the death penalty be abolished? Discuss the moral and practical arguments.
- Should the government fund and promote the arts?
- Should the government provide free internet access to all citizens?
- Should the government regulate the content of news media to combat misinformation?
- Should the legal age for marriage be raised to prevent child marriages?
- Should the legal age for purchasing cigarettes be raised to 21?
- Should the legal age to vote be lowered to 16?
- Should the sharing economy be more tightly regulated to protect workers’ rights?
- Should the use of animals for entertainment purposes, such as circuses and zoos, be prohibited?
- Should the use of facial recognition technology by law enforcement be regulated?
- Should the use of performance-enhancing drugs be permitted in professional sports?
- Should there be a cap on campaign spending for political candidates?
- Should there be a maximum age limit for political candidates?
- Should vaccinations be mandatory for all citizens, with few exceptions?
- The legal age for consuming alcohol should be raised to 21. Do you agree or disagree?
- Under what circumstances is civil disobedience morally justifiable?
- Under what circumstances, if any, can the use of nuclear weapons be justified or excused?
- University admissions should be based solely on merit. Do you agree or disagree?
- When selecting judges, should diversity be a factor in the decision-making process?
- Which is more important, individual privacy or national security?
- Who should have the final say on human rights: elected officials or constitutional courts?
Deadline date: deadline for applying is 20th October, and we will operate a rolling recruitment until this date
Professor Rebecca Williams (Law Admissions Coordinator) is looking for 40+ markers to help with LNAT essay marking in the latter half of October. The work is available to members of the Faculty who are graduate research students, stipendiary lecturers and junior research fellows.
Markers will use ‘No More Marking’ software to under ‘comparative judgement’ marking of LNAT essays. This is an entirely online process and you can log-in and out of the system when it suits you. You will be working with a set of marking criteria and will be given training in both how to evaluate LNAT essays and how to use the software before we go live. Training is compulsory for any marker who not previously completed No More Marking training.
Duration and hours
Marking work is measured by marking load. Each marker will be expected to complete 12 workpackets, where one workpacket comprises 20 essay comparisons. It is expected that each workpacket will take one hour to complete, therefore the expected total time commitment is 12 hours, which will be spread over 11 days. Payment will be made upon submission of an approved timesheet.
Start date: The training session will be held on line at 12 noon on Thursday 21 st October (on MS Teams). If you cannot attend at this time, please contact Emma White ( [email protected] ).
Essays are expected to be available for marking on Friday 22 nd October and all marking must completed by 9am Monday 1 st November
The Faculty LNAT Markers will report to Rebecca Williams.
- A general understanding of the field of law is essential
- Good IT skills are essential.
- The work can be done in any place where you have access to a good internet service.
This position is open to members of the Law Faculty who are current graduate students, stipendiary lecturers and junior research fellows, and the hours are in line with the restrictions on working hours for students.
We would like to highlight that although it is technically possible to be both a Faculty and a College LNAT marker, the workload would be tough and there are tight deadlines in which to have completed the work, so it is not recommended.
Rate of Pay
This work will be paid at Grade 5, at the rate of £14.71 per hour (plus holiday pay of £1.78 per hour worked, so a total of £16.49/hour).
How to Apply
Please complete this form: https://forms.office.com/r/fc45rmvqJz
The deadline for applying is 20th October, and we will operate a rolling recruitment until this date
By completing the form you are confirming you are available for the entire period. Informal enquiries may be emailed to [email protected]
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LNAT Essay: Section B of the LNAT
Section B of the LNAT is an essay-style exam. You have 40 minutes to write your LNAT essay, and you are limited to 750 words. This guide offers tips on LNAT essay structure and exam preparation.
Guide to LNAT Section B
- Find out what Section B entails
- Take a look at some essay question examples
- Explore our tips for structuring and writing the essay
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Are you preparing for the Law National Aptitude Test (LNAT) and feeling nervous about the essay section? The LNAT essay or the famous ‘Section B’ is a critical component of the test that assesses your ability to critically analyse and communicate complex legal issues. In this article, we’ll provide you with essential tips, examples, and practice questions to help you ace the LNAT essay.
What is the LNAT Essay?
The LNAT essay section is a 40-minute task that requires you to write a maximum 750-word essay on one of three given essay prompts. The essay is used to assess your ability to argue a point, analyse information and communicate effectively in writing.
LNAT Essay Scoring
The section B of the exam does not carry an official score. Nevertheless, the significance of the LNAT essay varies across universities . Some universities disregard section B altogether, while others devise their own marking scheme.
How Do LNAT Unis Use Your Essay?
Universities that do consider the LNAT essay as part of your application may use it in a variety of ways. They may compare it against your personal statement or use it as a reference when asking questions during your interview.
Your LNAT essay score will certainly be a factor if admissions tutors have to choose between you and similar applicants for acceptance on their law degree course .
When it comes to the importance of Section B, Oxford University appears to prioritise it the most. They employ a percentage-based scoring system to evaluate the essay’s quality.
The essay is assessed based on several criteria, including:
- Clarity of thought and expression: This refers to the coherence and organisation of your essay. You must present your arguments in a clear and concise manner.
- Knowledge and understanding: Your essay must demonstrate a thorough understanding of the prompt and legal concepts related to the topic.
- Persuasiveness: You must present a persuasive argument that is well-supported with evidence and reasoning.
- Structure: Your essay must have a clear introduction, body, and conclusion.
Section B of the LNAT exam is designed to test the following attributes needed to study law:
- Your ability to follow a logical structure
- Your capability to be clear and persuasive
- Your capacity to develop a coherent argument
- Your ability to convey your argument
Overall, the purpose of the LNAT essay is to measure your ability to express your view on an issue in a clear, convincing and logical way.
The essay prompts provided in the LNAT exam usually revolve around legal and social issues, including topics such as criminal justice, human rights, and the role of the law in society. You do not need to have any prior knowledge of law or legal concepts to write an effective essay; however, having some background knowledge can help you analyze the question better.
You will be presented with three unrelated questions such as:
- Should women in the US have access to an abortion?
- Developed countries have a higher obligation to tackle climate change than developing countries. Discuss the extent to which you agree with this statement.
- Should the law require people to vote in elections?
When choosing your question, you will want to select one that you have some level of interest in and knowledge of because you will need to provide an informative answer.
Preparing for the LNAT Essay
Before you begin writing your LNAT essay, it is essential to prepare thoroughly . The following are some tips to help you prepare for the essay:
- Research the topic: familiarise yourself with legal concepts and current affairs related to the topic. Reading newspapers, legal blogs, and opinion pieces can help you gain insight into the issue.
- Prepare an outline: Create an outline to organise your thoughts and ideas. The outline should include an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. A well-structured essay is more likely to receive a high score.
- Practice writing essays: Practise writing essays on a variety of topics to develop your writing skills. You can find sample essay questions online, in LNAT prep books, or by taking a practice test.
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How to plan your lnat essay.
When sitting Section B of the LNAT exam, you will first need to choose a question. The question you choose will determine how you plan your answer. Take two minutes to read every question carefully and make sure you know what each question is asking.
Once you have selected a question, take five to ten minutes to plan your answer. The main purpose of your plan is:
- To pinpoint what your argument is
- How you are going to express your argument
- Creating a rough structure to keep your essay focused and organised
When creating a plan, generate ideas and write them all down – use bullet points, a pros and cons chart or a mind map to list your ideas. Determine which ideas are relevant to form your basic argument.
Next, review the balance of your argument and ensure that you have considered arguments for both sides of the debate. Include any examples of real-world information that you can use to support your arguments, and then assess your overall plan thinking about what conclusions you can draw from your arguments.
Once you have formed a plan, you can develop a structure for your LNAT essay.
Writing the LNAT Essay
The following tips can help you write a compelling LNAT essay:
- Introduction: The introduction should be brief and clear. It should introduce the topic and provide a thesis statement that outlines the argument you will make in the essay.
- Structure: The essay should be well-structured and organised. Use clear topic sentences to introduce each paragraph and transition sentences to connect them.
- Thesis statement: The thesis statement is the central argument of your essay. It should be clear and concise and should be presented in the introduction.
- Use of evidence: Use evidence to support your argument. This evidence can come from a variety of sources, including legal cases, academic journals, and newspapers.
How to Structure Your LNAT Essay
Your LNAT essay structure should be built around a solid introduction and conclusion. Everything in between needs to be included in a way that maintains the flow of your essay. Paragraphs should connect with each other and your points should feel natural, without any sudden changes of topic or tone.
Your LNAT essay structure should look something like this:
- A solid introduction outlining your main argument.
- A paragraph or two developing on your main argument with three to four valid points.
- A section that covers any counter-arguments to your argument and reasons why they can’t be substantiated.
- A strong conclusion with a summary of your main argument and how you have demonstrated the strength of your points.
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LNAT Essay Examples
To get a better understanding of what a high-scoring LNAT essay looks like, it’s helpful to look at sample essays and examples. Reading well-written LNAT essays can help you understand the essay format, style, and structure, as well as how to develop and support an argument effectively.
There are many sources of LNAT essay examples and sample essays available online. Some universities and colleges offer sample essay questions and essays on their websites, while other websites and books provide practice essay questions and sample essays.
When looking for LNAT essay examples or sample essays, it’s important to choose high-quality examples that follow the scoring criteria and demonstrate strong critical thinking and analytical skills. Some sample essays may be poorly written or may not follow the essay format and structure required by the LNAT, so it’s essential to choose reputable sources.
Good LNAT Essay Example
Topic: Should the death penalty be abolished?
The death penalty has been a highly debated issue for decades. While some people argue that it is a necessary punishment for the most serious crimes, others believe that it is inhumane and should be abolished. In my opinion, the death penalty should be abolished for several reasons.
Firstly, the death penalty is not a deterrent to crime. Countries with the death penalty have not shown lower crime rates compared to those without it. Moreover, wrongful convictions have led to the execution of innocent people, which is a grave injustice. The death penalty is also more expensive than life imprisonment due to the legal costs of appeals and lengthy court proceedings.
Secondly, the death penalty is a violation of human rights. It is a cruel and inhumane punishment that goes against the principles of a just society. The possibility of executing innocent people and the emotional toll on the families of both the victim and the accused are reasons to reconsider the use of the death penalty.
In conclusion, the death penalty should be abolished as it does not deter crime and is a violation of human rights. Alternative forms of punishment, such as life imprisonment without parole, should be considered.
Explanation: This essay is a good example of an LNAT essay as it presents a clear argument with supporting evidence. The author uses a clear structure to organise their ideas, with each paragraph addressing a separate point. They also provide specific examples to support their argument, such as the fact that the death penalty is more expensive than life imprisonment. Finally, they conclude their essay by summarising their points and presenting a clear position on the issue.
Bad LNAT Essay Example
Topic: Should smoking be banned in public places?
Smoking should not be banned in public places. People should have the freedom to smoke wherever they want. Smokers pay taxes, so they should be able to smoke in public places. It is unfair to ban smoking when alcohol is not banned. People should have the right to choose whether they want to smoke or not.
Explanation: This essay is a bad example of an LNAT essay as it presents a weak and unsupported argument. The author does not provide any evidence or specific examples to support their position. They also do not address counterarguments or consider alternative perspectives. The essay lacks a clear structure, with each paragraph containing disjointed thoughts and ideas. Additionally, the author’s grammar and spelling errors detract from the overall quality of the essay.
The LNAT essay is a crucial component of the LNAT exam , and performing well on it requires careful preparation and planning. Understanding the format of the essay, scoring criteria, and the type of questions that are typically asked is essential to achieving success.
To excel in the LNAT essay, you must be knowledgeable about legal concepts and issues, conduct thorough research, and develop a well-organised outline. It’s also important to carefully structure your essay, develop a strong thesis statement, and use appropriate evidence to support your arguments.
In addition to these fundamental strategies, there are many additional tips and techniques that can help you succeed, such as managing your time effectively, being clear and concise in your writing, and practicing with sample essay questions.
Ultimately, the LNAT essay is an opportunity to showcase your intellectual abilities and your potential as a law student. By understanding the exam and preparing carefully, you can set yourself up for success and take the first step towards a fulfilling legal career.
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LNAT Section A | Multiple Choice Questions
Lnat scores guide.
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How to Prepare for the LNAT
01/07/2022 Emily Watson
The Law National Aptitude Test (LNAT) is a university admissions test required by some top universities for Law. The aim of the LNAT exam is to help universities assess your logical thinking and essay writing skills, which are integral to university-level study. It’s critical that you prepare for the challenges of the LNAT exam and learn actionable strategies for success. That’s where The Profs’ expert LNAT tutors can help. With first-hand experience of the exam content, tried-and-tested strategies for approaching the questions, and an understanding of how it fits into the wider admissions process for top universities, our tutors are able to help you perform well in the LNAT and secure a place at your first choice law school.
What is the LNAT?
The LNAT (Law National Aptitude Test) is a university admissions test used to determine the most well-suited students for Law degrees. The exam doesn’t test any subject knowledge or your knowledge of the law. Instead, it helps universities assess your aptitude for certain skills required to study a law degree, including logic, critical thinking, and forming clear and convincing arguments. Despite not requiring specific subject knowledge, we strongly advise all students sitting the LNAT to practise and prepare for the exam in advance. Read on to find out how to prepare or get straight in touch with our team of LNAT experts to get started today.
Which universities require the LNAT?
The LNAT is not used by all universities. Only a handful of the most competitive universities use it in order to differentiate between Law applicants. They are:
- University of Bristol
- University of Cambridge*
- University of Durham
- University of Glasgow
- King’s College London
- London School of Economics (LSE)
- University of Nottingham
- University of Oxford
- SOAS University of London
- University College London (UCL)
*Previously, the University of Cambridge used its own test – the Cambridge Law Test – to assess its applicants, and this test took place on the same day as their interview. It has now switched to the LNAT, which applicants need to register for and take before the 15th October Oxbridge application deadline.
What is included in the LNAT exam?
The LNAT consists of two parts: Section A, which includes multiple-choice questions based on passages of text, and Section B, which is an essay question.
Section A: Multiple-choice
Section A is a computer-based test that will require you to read 12 passages of text and answer 42 multiple-choice questions that test your understanding of those passages. You will have 95 minutes to try and answer all of the questions. The passages of text presented to you will be on a wide range of topics, many (or any) of which will not be related explicitly to Law at all. Instead, they will include a mixture of news-style articles and commentary. In the 2010 practice test, for example, you will find texts on subjects including physicians and patients, car ownership, right and wrong language, and faith and the theologian. The questions asked on these texts are a test of your comprehension. You may be asked to finish a sentence with one of the options, choose the most appropriate quote, decipher the essence of an argument, and more.
Section B: Essay
In Section B of the LNAT, you will be asked to write one essay from a list of questions on a range of subjects. You will have 40 minutes to answer your chosen essay question. This section is your opportunity to show that you have a solid command of written English, that you are able to construct a compelling argument, and that you can reach a well-evidenced conclusion. There’s no way to predict which subjects your essay questions will be on, however they are often tied to moral, social, or existential problems that are nuanced and have many possible answers. Previous LNAT questions, for example, include: ‘In what circumstances should abortion be permitted and why?’ ‘‘‘Women now have the chance to achieve anything they want.” How do you respond to this statement?’ and ‘The internet and instant communication technologies are profoundly changing our world for the better. Do you agree?’ There’s no ‘right’ answer to the questions in that examiners won’t be looking for one particular opinion over another. It’s all about considering both your argument and the relevant counter arguments, and presenting these in a clear and logical structure.
How is the LNAT marked?
Your scores from the multiple-choice section of the test (Section A) are marked automatically and you will be given a score out of 42. This is known as your ‘LNAT score’ and will be used by all universities to compare candidates against one another. Each university will have its own ‘benchmark’ score that it deems good for that year, as well as give different weight to your LNAT score compared to other measures. For instance, some will treat it as the most important measure behind A level grades, while others may pay more attention to your personal statement and LNAT essay. Section B (the essay question) is not marked automatically by your test centre and does not contribute to your ‘LNAT score’. Instead, it may be used by universities for a number of reasons, including as a basis for interview questions. Universities may also compare your LNAT essay to your personal statement and school report, or use it to distinguish between borderline candidates. Most top universities will take your LNAT essay into account. UCL, for example, specifies that the LNAT essay is given considerable weight in its consideration as it is “the only piece of writing that we receive under exam conditions, and demonstrates a candidates abilities to reason, argue and to construct a cohesive essay.” Some universities also prescribe their own mark scheme to the LNAT essay and share these as part of their LNAT results. Oxford, for example, marks essays as a percentage, with 60-64 being a ‘good’ essay, 65-69 being ‘very good’, and 70 and above being ‘excellent’. See the section below for more information on the average scores of successful applicants.
What is a good LNAT score?
There is no fixed weight to the LNAT and different universities will utilise your result in different ways, as outlined above, so it’s impossible to say what a definitively ‘good’ LNAT score is. Nevertheless, by looking at the scores of previously successful applicants to some universities, we can get a good idea of what score is most likely to lead to an interview and then to a successful offer. The table below shows the average LNAT scores of applicants offered an interview and an offer of place on Oxford University’s Law course (2021-22).
Due to Cambridge having only used the LNAT (rather than the Cambridge Law Test) for one admissions cycle, there is no data on the average score of successful offer holders, however we can assume that it is similar to Oxford’s. The average LNAT scores of successful candidates at other universities tend to range from 25-28, with UCL’s average being 27 and LSE’s being 26 in 2019-20. We recommend that applicants to top universities aim to achieve 27-28 for the best chance of receiving an offer. As explained above, universities typically set their own mark schemes for the LNAT essay, and most universities do not share these scores, so Oxford’s average score is not comparable. However, with the help of The Profs’ LNAT tutors, many of whom have insider knowledge of the Law admissions process at Oxford, you’ll be able to use this as a guide when preparing for the LNAT essay. To get started with one of our experienced LNAT tutors, get in touch with our team today.
When is the LNAT?
Registration and booking for the LNAT opens on 1st August, with testing starting on 1st September (correct for 2022). You then have until 20th January to register and book your LNAT test, and until 25th January to sit the test, if you are applying for any universities other than Oxford, Cambridge, or LSE. If you are applying for Oxbridge, you will need to sit the LNAT before you submit your UCAS application by the 15th October deadline. If you are applying for LSE, you are required to sit the LNAT on or before 31st December. The LNAT can be taken on any day that there is an appointment slot free at your local test centre. The earlier you book your test, the more chance you have of getting an appointment on the day of your choice. In general, we recommend sitting the test sooner rather than later to allow yourself enough time to complete your university application and prepare for any required interviews.
All of these dates are subject to change and may be different year-to-year. Always check deadlines directly with your chosen university and on the LNAT website before registering to ensure you meet the necessary requirements.
How do you register for the LNAT?
Before sitting the LNAT, you must register for the test via the Pearson VUE online registration system. To set up your online account , you will need to register your contact details. You’ll then be able to book and pay for your test. If your booking is being made on your behalf by your school or college, remember that it is your responsibility to make sure your booking is accurate and meets any necessary deadlines. If you have examination access requirements (such as extended time for dyslexia, arrangements for impaired mobility, hearing or vision, etc.) then you should not book your test online. Instead, follow the instructions on the LNAT Exam Access Requirements page.
How much does the LNAT cost?
How much the LNAT costs depends on where you are taking it. If you are sitting the LNAT in a UK or EU test centre, it costs £75. If you are sitting the LNAT in a test centre outside the EU, it costs £120.
When can you find out your LNAT results?
LNAT results are emailed to candidates twice a year. Candidates taking the LNAT on or before 26th January will receive their results in mid February, while candidates taking the test after 26th January will receive their results in mid August. Both your LNAT score and essay are made available to your chosen universities without you needing to do anything. These are then considered alongside your UCAS application and any interviews you attend.
5 tips for preparing for the LNAT
1. read widely and think critically about what you’re reading.
The LNAT is designed to test your ability to think critically and apply logical reasoning when faced with new information. One of the best ways to prepare for an exam like this is to read widely from quality sources such as newspapers. Some examples of worthy sources include: The Guardian, The Financial Times, The Economist, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Times, and more. As you read these papers, consider the issues being raised in them and think about the following questions:
- What assumptions are being made by the author?
- What are the conclusions being drawn?
- What information is being relied upon to draw these conclusions?
- How would you frame a counterargument?
- Are there any subtle differences in meaning in the text?
- Is this a news or a comment piece? Is the contrast really apparent in practice?
Thinking through these questions and making notes as you read is a powerful way of programming your mind to think logically and form opinions and arguments. These skills are helpful for both the multiple-choice section and essay section of the exam. Though you won’t need to know any specific information for the LNAT, staying up to date with current affairs and reading from quality news sources such as those above will inevitably improve your writing ability and allow you to form intelligent, evidenced arguments. It can be helpful to also read about news in the field of Law, especially in preparation for any interviews you might need to attend. Make sure you read from reputable sources such as the Law Society Gazette and The Guardian’s Law section .
Joe’s tip: Don’t just stick to articles on topics that you’re interested in or already understand. Part of the challenge of the LNAT is comprehending texts on topics that you may have never heard of before or find difficult to understand. Familiarise yourself with difficult words and topics and learn to approach them using the same questions and logical thinking style as above to prepare yourself for the passages of text you’ll face in section A.
2. Get to know the question types
The first section of the LNAT consists of multiple-choice questions. While you might think you don’t need to/can’t really prepare for these types of questions, that’s certainly not the case; these are not easy multiple-choice questions and there are always ways you can prepare to maximise your marks in the exam. The multiple-choice questions in the LNAT require you to comprehend the initial text as well as decipher what the questions are asking you, identify the relevant areas of text they are referring to, and then choose the most accurate statement from the options available. It’s important not to make assumptions and instead deal with absolutes in these questions. Practising this type of thinking through wider reading (section 1), as well as practice tests (see step 3), is particularly useful. The second section of the LNAT is the essay question. This is your opportunity to impress university admissions tutors with your ability to make a concise and interesting argument using a good command of the English language. Examiners will be looking for a well-constructed essay that offers both arguments and counter-arguments in a logical way. This can be a difficult skill to learn, but our LNAT tutors are highly experienced and know just what examiners will be looking for here, so reach out for support if you need it. You can also find sample essays on the LNAT website to help you practise writing in the correct style.
3. Take practice tests under timed conditions
As with all exams, one of the best ways to prepare is to take practice tests under timed conditions to simulate the conditions you will face in the real exam. Make sure that when you complete practice tests, you do so without music and in a quiet place to truly test your skills and get a clear picture of what you need to improve on. You can access multiple practice tests on the LNAT website, including a simulation of the LNAT exactly as it will appear on-screen at the test centre. Use this to your advantage and make sure that you are familiar with the layout and content of the exam so that you can make the most of your time in the real exam.
4. Practise writing essays on subjects that you are unfamiliar with
There’s a chance that you won’t be familiar with some or all of the subjects of the essay questions in the LNAT. Many of them are relatively advanced philosophical, social, and moral questions that will require careful consideration and critical thinking. To help prepare for this, practise writing essays on subjects that you are unfamiliar with. This helps you to focus on the thinking skills, planning, and structure of the essay instead of getting too wrapped up in the subject detail. This will also help you gauge how much time you should be spending before you begin writing your essay.
Joe’s tip: Although you only have 40 minutes to write your essay, planning is essential to writing one that is logical, coherent, and stands out to your university. Practise the process of quickly planning a well-constructed and balanced argument. An example given by LNAT themselves is as follows: Question: ‘Do you think that national service is a thing of the past or could it perform an important role in modern society?’ Essay plan: Introduction:
- What is national service?
- Why was the national service used in the past?
- Why is it no longer used?
- How will you approach the question?
Arguments for reintroduction:
- Strengthens the armed forces capability
- Increases employability of participants
- Encourages patriotism and community pride
Arguments against reintroduction:
- An abuse of human rights
- Impact on commerce
- Prevents early career development
- Overall quality of service personnel is reduced
- Pros versus cons
- Alternatives to national service
5. Get help from a professional LNAT tutor
How you perform in the LNAT will impact how likely you are to be offered a place by top universities, so it’s really important that you are prepared to do as well as possible in the exam. Unfortunately, schools and colleges are oftentimes not equipped to provide specialist LNAT preparation due to a lack of experience, expertise or resources. As a result, we advise seeking a professional LNAT tutor to help you through the process. The Profs’ LNAT tutors have many years of experience preparing students for the LNAT exam, with many having actual experience as university admissions officers as well. Over these years, they have built a bank of previous questions and developed in-depth knowledge of the mark scheme, so they know exactly what examiners will be looking for. More than 90% of students who work with us receive offers from their first or second choice universities. If you work with The Profs, you are also more than three times more likely to get into Oxford and Cambridge, which are considered the second and third best universities in the world to study Law at respectively. You’ll also gain invaluable independent study skills that will prepare you for higher education, as well as a deeper and broader understanding of Law as a field. Plus, you can trust us to guide you through every stage of the admissions process to ensure that you don’t just succeed in the LNAT, but also achieve top A level or IB grades and perform well in any required interviews. Reach out to our team today to get started.
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How to apply
At Christ Church we welcome candidates from all backgrounds. If you have the academic ability and potential to study at Oxford, we welcome you to apply. Read on to find out how.
This page explains the application process for undergraduate study. If you're interested in applying for one of our graduate courses, see our graduate study pages .
The application process at the University of Oxford is the same whether you're applying to Christ Church or any other Oxford college. Your application must be made through UCAS (the Universities’ and Colleges’ Admissions Service ), even if you already hold an undergraduate degree.
The next round of applications will be for entry in October 2024. To apply you must submit your UCAS application by 6pm on 16 October 2023 .
Our tutors have to compare many excellent applicants, which means they take into account all the information available to them, including contextual information about your background.
Here are the main elements that our tutors consider when reviewing your application.
- Your grades . This includes your GCSE results, and AS Level qualifications if you’re from Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as your predicted or actual A-Level grades (or equivalent qualifications). We also get a sense of your academic record from your teacher’s reference.
- Your personal statement . This is is your opportunity to tell us about your academic interests and the reading that you’ve done around your subject and beyond your school curriculum.
- Your written work and admissions test score. After you’ve put in your UCAS application by the October deadline, for some subjects you’ll also need to submit an example of your written work and sit an admissions test.
- Your interview at Oxford. This is the final stage of the application process. If you're called for interview, you should expect to be invited to Oxford in early December. See our interviews page for learn more about the interview process at Oxford and to read our top tips.
Personal statement, interviews and tests
The personal statement is an opportunity to tell us about yourself and why you want to study your chosen course. It’s also a good way of checking you actually do want to study a particular subject – if you can’t think of anything to say about it, you might need to rethink your choice!
At Oxford the personal statement is sometimes used as a starting point for discussion at interviews, like talking about a book you’ve mentioned, so it’s a chance to highlight your interests within the subject.
We realise that this is probably the first time you have written something like this and that many applicants find it tricky, so here are our top tips. Good luck!
Shortlisted candidates are invited to interview at Christ Church. Scroll down to learn more about the interview process.
How do I plan the personal statement?
The UCAS website has lots of advice on what you need to include, so is the best place to start. It is, by definition, your personal statement , so you’re free to write it as you wish, but there are a few ways of thinking through your ideas to get started. The first thing to do is to look up the selection criteria for our courses, and then write down things about you that meet the points. It’s also a good idea to show you know what’s in the courses you’re applying for. Obviously, that doesn’t mean list the modules, but if you’re applying for slightly different courses at different universities, say with just one joint course: you don’t have to give each equal space, but make sure you definitely talk about both subjects.
Remember that a good personal statement is a simple one. We just want you to show us that you’ve reflected on what you’ve learned so far, and are curious to learn more. You don’t need to include quotes and it’s always best in any writing to avoid clichés.
Showing why you want to apply
The beginning of your personal statement ought to focus on how the things you’ve learned have spurred your interest in your subject, and how you’ve reflected on them. For example, a good personal statement might include something like:
I have been surprised by the breadth and potential of Biology while studying the subject at A-Level. I am particularly interested in developmental biology and look forward to studying it in greater depth at university.
This shows that you have been inspired by engaging with your subject, and the ways in which you are intellectually curious about taking it further.
Avoid statements like this:
I once read that “those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it”. From that moment on, I wanted to study History and Politics.
It might seem very grandiose, but it doesn’t really tell us much about how your engagement with the subject has made you curious enough to want to study it at university. It is bland and generic, while also quoting a cliché!
Rather than listing all the things you’ve done, or telling us how brilliant a student you are, you can show you’ve thought about your experiences and learnt things from them, and in turn demonstrate the qualities we’re looking for without actually having to state that you have them.
One of the best ways to do this is by reflecting on things you have read or engaged with in your subject beyond the school curriculum – these are known as super-curricular activities.
Reflect on what you have learned from these activities, alongside your school learning, and identify themes and questions that interest you. What are the skills or insights you have gains? What do you want to explore further at university?
A good example might be:
I developed my interest in the relationship between ecology and public policy through my Global Perspective project which studied the impact of re-introducing wolves to Scotland on the ecosystem of the Highlands.
Taking your interests further
Don’t just give a list of books or activities you’ve read and done, as impressive as those may be. Show us how your reading and relevant experiences have contributed to your academic interests and demonstrate your potential as a university student. (Also, don’t lie or exaggerate about what you’ve read or done – it will be awkward when you can’t back it up in an interview!)
Think about how your reading or experience has enhanced your interest and understanding of the subject – go deeper than just telling us you like or agree with an author. For example, the following is a good first try, but could go further:
I read philosophy in my spare time. I like Hegel and Marx, but my favourite philosopher is Rousseau because I agree with him that everyone should play a role in governing society.
Let’s try expanding this a bit. How about:
I enjoy reading philosophy at home, as I feel their different approaches and perspectives broaden my appreciation of how others experience the world. I find Rousseau’s arguments on the Social Contract particularly persuasive as I have seen how government by consent and compromise can work well during my time volunteering with my local councillor.
This is much more concrete in terms of a critical engagement with your reading, with a solid explanation of some reasons why you have reached those conclusions. This would be a particularly good example for a PPE applicant, as it connects Philosophy and Politics directly, and provides a link to then go on and talk about what the applicant has learned through their own engagement with real-life politics.
If you have participated in a programme with Oxford or any other university, don’t be afraid to use it as an example here. Those programmes exist to help develop your skills, confidence, and experience as a prospective candidate!
I greatly enjoyed reading Ted Hughes’ poetry on Prometheus and his translations of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, as they bring out the more human side of the gods and heroes of the ancient world. I pursued my interest in Greek and Latin poetry at the Oxford UNIQ summer school, where I enjoyed discussing the context of Sappho’s poems.
It’s something of a myth about Oxford that we are looking for all-rounders: mathematicians who are also concert pianists and captain the school football team. That’s not at all the case: we are looking for applicants who have potential to be great students in their subjects. Extra-curriculars that aren’t related to your academic subject in any way are not considered particularly relevant for Oxford. We’d recommend you spend no more than 20% of your personal statement talking about them.
Focus on super-curriculars where possible, as these will still be relevant to any university application! We’re not worried about how ‘unusual’ or ‘exotic’ your super-curriculars are, more whether or not you’ve engaged and learnt from your experiences regardless of how ordinary or different these might be. We absolutely encourage everyone to pursue the things they find fun and interesting, and certainly to talk a little about those on your application, but remember they’re not the main thing we’re interested in.
Watch our videos on admissions interviews to get an idea about how super-curricular content from your personal statement may be discussed.
Things to remember
- It’s your personal statement. Use it to showcase what makes you such a great candidate for your chosen course!
- Avoid clichés and vague statements. Be specific about exactly what makes you so interested in your subject, and why.
- Add depth to your reasoning by talking about specific things you’ve studied that have helped build your passion and interest in your subject, such as a project or aspect of your course. Is this similar to something covered in your degree course of choice?
- Show how your interests support your studies. Don’t just say that you like learning about topic X or agree with the points in book Y, tell us how it has enhanced your understanding, or linked together things you’ve studied and thought about.
- Use programmes you’ve participated in at Oxford or elsewhere as a good way of showing super-curricular engagement. What did you gain from them, and how does that connect to what you have already studied, and what you may wish to take further?
- Don’t worry too much about extra-curricular activities that don’t directly relate to the course you’re applying for. It’s great to pursue your interests, but Oxford is less interested in hearing about them than the things that most closely relate to your subject area. Of course, they remain important for other universities who might not get the chance to meet you during the applications process, so don’t neglect to mention them altogether! 20% of your personal statement is plenty for this.
How important is work experience?
Don’t worry about specific kinds of super-curricular activity; there is no hierarchy of them. We understand that not everybody will have had the same opportunities to access work experience, so the focus is not so much on what you have done, but how you have engaged with that activity and what you have learnt from it. This is regardless of whether the activity is reading a book, listening to a podcast, attending an academic taster, work experience, or something else entirely! Reflect on your experiences, draw connections, and you’ll end up with a great personal statement regardless of the nature of the super-curriculars.
What if I’m applying for different courses at different universities?
Try to think about the intersections of the different courses, so the personal statement can be as relevant as possible to all your course choices. Universities are aware that you are sending the same personal statement to all five choices, so there is some element of flexibility there as long as you are demonstrating relevant interest and critical engagement.
How do I write an application for joint degrees?
Each of Oxford’s joint courses is designed to combine complementary elements of each of the subjects studied. When writing your personal statement, we recommend that you think carefully about how and why these subjects complement each other. What might be the ways in which History and Politics overlap as academic disciplines? Where do Philosophy, Politics, and Economics intersect?
Can I use quotations?
Remember first and foremost the advice to make the statement personal and avoid clichés . We’d recommend only using one if it’s really meaningful to you and keeping it short – by definition, a quotation is something someone else has thought about. In your personal statement we want to hear about your thoughts!
Will I be asked about my personal statement in the interviews?
Your personal statement will definitely be read by admitting tutors and can be used in interviews. If that happens, it does not mean that tutors are trying to catch you out: it just means that they would like to talk to you about something you have said interests you. It may, however, be that you are not asked about your personal statement at all and you the interviewers go straight into discussing a particular problem, text, etc. You can learn more about interviews by watching the videos on our website .
Pick up some tips for your interview at Christ Church
A distinctive feature of the Oxford application process is the interview. That is because a lot of our teaching at Oxford takes place in small classes and tutorials, so your interviewers – who may become your future tutors – will be looking to see whether you would be suitable for this kind of learning and thinking, and for your chosen course.
Tutors will be looking to find out about your academic ability and potential, and your background or appearance will not matter.
While it’s perfectly natural to feel nervous, we’d like to encourage you to try to think of the interview as a mock tutorial, and – as much as possible – to be yourself.
Our applicants often have various qualifications from all over the world, so the admissions test gives tutors a common set of data to compare all applicants. You can check whether a test is required for your choice of course on the University website .
The test helps tutors to decide whether to shortlist you for interview (alongside the information on your UCAS form and any written work you've submitted). Here are some important points to remember:
- Register for the test by the deadline: registration isn't automatic.
- Check past/specimen papers, and the syllabus if available, found on the page for the particular test on the University website.
- Practice is the best preparation, including practising under timed conditions.
We've provided information and advice relating to the various admissions tests below.
Thinking Skills Assessment (TSA)
What is the tsa and how is the paper formatted.
The TSA is an admissions test taken by candidates applying for a range of Oxford courses and is split into two parts. Part 1 is a 90-minute multiple choice section. You will answer 50 questions that will test your problem-solving, critical thinking and reasoning skills.
Part 2, which will be the focus of this guide, is a 30-minute writing task. The written task will test your ability to organise and express your ideas with precision and clarity. You will choose one question outr of a possible four to answer, with each question being non-subject specific (meaning, irrespective of what you have learnt at school, you will be able to answer any of the questions).
Past questions for the written task have included ‘Should children strike to demand action on a major issue such as climate change?’ and ‘Should the main objective of a business be to make money?’.
What is the assessment criteria for the written task?
Markers are looking for:
- serious attention to the question asked
- good, well-argued content
- objections to be anticipated, and met or at least acknowledged
- all this to be done on two sides of A4 paper (or the equivalent word limit)
How to approach writing your essay
Make sure you answer the question and spend some time making sure you understand exactly what the question is asking you. You should also consider other sides of the debate, depending on the stance you take. Remember: an essay should be argumentative and be supported with evidence, so don’t sit on the fence! So, argue your case, acknowledge other sides of the debate and tell the marker why your side of the debate is most convincing.
Here is some guidance of how to answer the question ‘ Should convicted criminals be allowed to vote? ’ written by an Oxford tutor:
‘This is a nice, direct question, anticipating a conclusion of ‘yes’, ‘no’ or possibly ‘it all depends’. It’s very important for anyone wanting to argue for ‘it all depends’ that this isn’t a simple refusal to make your mind up between ‘yes’ and ‘no’! ‘Who am I to decide?’, you might think, but that’s exactly what the question is asking you to do.
Start by thinking of an argument for ‘no’. One obvious answer would be that criminals should be punished, and one form of punishment would be removing permission to vote. That of course implies that being allowed to vote is a good thing, which may make us wonder why it is – what sort of punishment is it to be deprived of a chance to vote? Is it worse to be deprived of a vote where otherwise one is merely permitted to do so, or where as in some countries it is compulsory?
One possible answer to the ‘Why is voting good?’ question is that it’s a chance to have a say in something – in who governs, in what policy is adopted, and so on. And criminals (one might suggest) ought not to have a say. We’ll come back to why that might be so in a bit.
Then what might count for an answer ‘yes’? Obviously we need to be talking about a situation where voting happens – it would be odd if convicted criminals were the only ones who were allowed to vote (in an absolute monarchy, for example)! Assuming there is indeed voting, we could say that whilst depriving criminals of their liberty and the chance freely to associate with friends and family is a perfectly proper punishment, depriving them of the chance to vote cuts them off from society, and we may hope that one day they will re-enter that society, so that they should have some chance to continue to shape it.
A thought that many people have about punishment is that it should ‘fit the crime’. If we think about depriving someone of a vote who has committed a serious assault against a neighbour, we may see no clear connection between a fitting punishment for the offence and losing their permission to vote. On the other hand, if the crime were a crime against the political system – murdering an MP or attempting to blow up Parliament as an extreme example, failing to pay Council Tax as a less extreme one – maybe it is indeed fitting to think of being deprived of a vote as a punishment. So that points us in the direction of an ‘it all depends’ answer, but one which has real content to it. It all depends on the crime committed – not so much its seriousness as the sort of crime it is.
One might also want to ask whether for a long sentence (20 years, say) one should be deprived of a vote at first but then – maybe 5 years before release, when returning to the community is no longer a distant prospect – voting is restored as part of rehabilitation.
All of this is quite abstract, but there is also a practical question. For a national referendum it may not matter where one votes. For a constituency-based democracy like that in the UK, prisoners would need to vote in a place. Should that place be where they are held prisoner? (Imagine a constituency with a very large prison in it, and a very close contest between two political parties.) Should it be where they last lived, even if that is miles from where they now are, and as part of their punishment they are banned, even when released, from ever returning there?’
Practically speaking, you should spend some time thinking about which parts of the question need to be addressed and formulating a simple and precise argument that directly answers the question. In the planning process, logically organise the points you are going to make in order to support your overall argument, for example starting with the broadest point or starting with the most important point, in your view. You want to make your essay easy for examiners to follow, so spend a bit of time thinking about how to best structure your essay. The planning process should take 5-10 minutes. This seems like a long time, but good planning will make the writing process much easier.
Answer the question in the opening line of your introduction. A top tip is to literally use the wording in the question to formulate your answer. So, for the question ‘Should convicted criminals be allowed to vote?’, a good opening sentence would be ‘Criminals should be allowed to vote’ or ‘Criminals should not be allowed to vote’. Use the introduction as a place where you define your terms, to show the examiner your interpretation of key terms.
With regards to the bulk of your essay, you will probably only have time to make two major points, with a third paragraph dedicated to what critics of your argument might say and why you are not convinced by them. In these arguments, make your point, offer some evidence and then explain. In terms of evidence, think about real world evidence or a thought experiment (which is a hypothetical situation) that can make your argument more tangible and possibly easier to understand. You should try and reiterate your overall argument throughout the essay, where appropriate, so the examiner can see you are answering the question.
Finally, your conclusion should tie your essay together, by reiterating your argument and the points you have made.
Advice on how to prepare
There are lots of great resources to help you prepare for the TSA. Here are a few you can consult:
Introduction to the TSA: https://www.admissionstesting.org/for-test-takers/thinking-skills-assessment/tsa-oxford/about-tsa-oxford/
Read the specimen papers and explained answers available on the ‘how to prepare’ tab here: TSA (Thinking Skills Assessment) | University of Oxford
Jesus College resource on how to write a TSA essay: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Buxa40ahGV4
Past Papers: https://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/applying-to-oxford/tests/tsa
TSA workshop video with advice from a tutor and current students: https://youtu.be/62Vq2MTFegA
Biomedical Admissions Test (BMAT) writing task (Section 3)
What is the bmat and how is the paper formatted.
The BMAT is a two-hour test (unless you have specific requirements that mean you need extra time) taken by those applying to Biomedical Sciences or Medicine courses. The test is split into three sections:
- Section 1 tests your problem-solving skills, as well as your ability to analyse data and understand arguments (in other words, it will test your thinking skills). There are 32 multiple choice questions and this should take you one hour.
- Section 2 is based on non-specialist knowledge from your GCSE science and mathematics courses. You will be asked to apply this knowledge, sometimes in unfamiliar contexts. There are 27 multiple choice questions and this should take you 30 minutes.
- Section 3 tests your ability to develop your own ideas, organise these ideas and communicate them in writing, concisely and effectively. You will be provided with three choices for the written task, from which you will choose one to answer. You will be given a statement and you will be asked whether you agree or disagree and why. Crucially, this is not a test of your knowledge (see below for more information about the assessment criteria).
We will be focussing on Part 3 in particular, given that writing essays may be a somewhat unfamiliar process for students taking the BMAT (Biomedical Admissions Test) | University of Oxford , including an overview of the scientific and mathematical knowledge which BMAT Section 2 questions can draw on.
You are asked to do the written task so that you can demonstrate your communication skills and highlight your ability to think logically and rationally. Your essay will be marked by two examiners and each examiner gives two scores – one for quality of content (on a scale of 0–5), and one for quality of written English (on the scale A, C, E).
The examiners will think through these three questions when giving you a mark for the quality of your content:
- Has the candidate addressed the question in the way demanded?
- Have they organised their thoughts clearly?
- Have they used their general knowledge and opinions appropriately?
Here is a breakdown of this marking scale:
- Score 1: An answer that is somewhat relevant to the question, but which does not address the question in the way they have been asked, is difficult to understand or unfocussed.
- Score 2: An answer that addresses most of the components of the question and is arranged in a reasonably logical way. There may be lots of confusion in the argument. The candidate may misinterpret some important parts of the main argument or its or may provide a weak counter argument.
- Score 3: A reasonably well-argued answer that addresses ALL aspects of the question, making reasonable use of the material provided and makes a reasonable counterargument or argument. The argument is quite rational. Some parts of the argument may be difficult to understand, or some aspect of the argument may have been overlooked.
- Score 4: A good answer with few weaknesses. ALL aspects of the question are addressed, making good use of the material and making good counter arguments or argument. The argument makes sense. Ideas are expressed and arranged in an understandable way, with a balanced consideration of the argument and counter counterargument.
- Score 5: An excellent answer with no significant weaknesses. ALL aspects of the question are addressed, making excellent use of the material and making an excellent counter argument or argument. The argument is convincing. Ideas are expressed in a clear and logical way, considering a range of relevant points and leading to a convincing conclusion.
For the quality of your English, the examiner will ask this question when arriving at a score:
- Have they expressed themselves clearly using concise, compelling and correct English?
Here is a breakdown of the marking scale:
- Band A: Good use of English; fluent; good sentence structure; good use of vocabulary; sound use of grammar; good spelling and punctuation; few slips or errors
- Band C: Reasonably clear use of English. There may be some weakness in the effectiveness of the English; reasonably fluent/not difficult to read; simple/unambiguous sentence structure; fair range and appropriate use of vocabulary; acceptable grammar; reasonable spelling and punctuation; some slips/errors
- Band E: Rather weak use of English; hesitant fluency/not easy to follow at times; some flawed sentence structure/paragraphing; limited range of vocabulary; faulty grammar; regular spelling/punctuation errors; regular and frequent slips or errors
Often, the question will ask you to complete the following steps:
Firstly, explain what you think the statement in the question means. This will allow the examiner to understand how you are thinking about the statement and the scope of your answer. More likely than not, you will be asked to present a counter argument or an opposite perspective. Then you will be asked to make a judgement about the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement in the question.
Your answer should clearly demonstrate how you are thinking about the statement. It is always best to plan, so that you can organise your thoughts into different sections before you write the essay itself.
It is best to organise your essay in relation to the various parts of the question you have been asked. Take this question as an example:
There is no such thing as dangerous speech; it is up to people to choose how they react.
Explain the reasoning behind this statement. Argue to the contrary that there can be instances of dangerous speech. To what extent should a society put limitations on speech or text that it considers threatening
For this question, you should have three paragraphs, answering the three parts of the question. Start by explaining your understanding of the reasoning behind this statement- why would someone make this statement, and can people say whatever they choose to?
Then make your counter argument, by explaining and giving an example of how speech can be dangerous. One student, for example, argued that there are times when, practically speaking, saying what you want can have dangerous consequences, using the example of patient-doctor confidentiality to explain why.
Finally, finish with a paragraph explaining the extent to which threatening speech or texts should be limited. For example, you could make the distinction between silencing a community, which should not be condoned, and monitoring speech which can incite prejudice or hate that makes some members of society feel unsafe.
Here is some advice offered by relevant faculties to help you prepare for the BMAT:
- Review the practice and past papers for the BMAT. This will help you to feel familiar with the test paper and know what to expect.
- Sit at least one past paper in test conditions. This is really important as it will help you get used to how much time to allocate to each of the three sections.
- We strongly recommend that you check the test specification and ensure that you have covered the relevant material.
- CAAT have lots of resources to help you prepare of the BMAT on their website .
- You may also find the BMAT videos , preparation guide (to the right at the top of the page) and webinar on the CAAT website useful.
Don't worry if you find the past or specimen papers very difficult - they're supposed to be! All the tests are designed to stretch you further than you have been stretched before – most candidates will find them really hard.
Philosophy Admissions Test
What is the philosophy test and how is the paper formatted.
The Philosophy test is a 60-minute paper (or more for students with special requirements who need extra time) sat by all candidates applying for Philosophy and Theology. It is used to test your philosophical reasoning skills by asking candidates to write an essay to a question as well as answer some comprehension questions. You do not need any prior knowledge or a background in philosophy in order to complete the test.
When you open the paper, you will see two parts- part A and part B. Part A is a comprehension exercise where you will read an extract and then answer a couple of questions about the text. You must answer all the questions in part A. In part B, you will be given a list of different questions, from which you need to choose on. You will be asked to write an essay that answers the question. Past questions include ‘is direct action a form of terrorism?’ and ‘could there by religion without ritual?’ You will be asked to spend about half an hour on each part.
The writing task for the Philosophy test is identical to Section 2 of the TSA.
What is the assessment criteria?
Tutors want to see students write an argumentative essay supported by evidence. You’ll be tested on precision and careful reasoning.
- all this to be done on two sides of A4 paper
The most important criteria is to answer the question and spend some time making sure you understand exactly what the question is asking you. You should also consider other sides of the debate, depending on the stance you take. Remember: an essay should be argumentative and be supported with evidence, so don’t sit on the fence! So, argue your case, acknowledge other sides of the debate and tell the marker why your side of the debate is most convincing.
This is a nice, direct question, anticipating a conclusion of ‘yes’, ‘no’ or possibly ‘it all depends’. It’s very important for anyone wanting to argue for ‘it all depends’ that this isn’t a simple refusal to make your mind up between ‘yes’ and ‘no’! ‘Who am I to decide?’, you might think, but that’s exactly what the question is asking you to do. Start by thinking of an argument for ‘no’. One obvious answer would be that criminals should be punished, and one form of punishment would be removing permission to vote. That of course implies that being allowed to vote is a good thing, which may make us wonder why it is – what sort of punishment is it to be deprived of a chance to vote? Is it worse to be deprived of a vote where otherwise one is merely permitted to do so, or where as in some countries it is compulsory? One possible answer to the ‘Why is voting good?’ question is that it’s a chance to have a say in something – in who governs, in what policy is adopted, and so on. And criminals (one might suggest) ought not to have a say. We’ll come back to why that might be so in a bit. Then what might count for an answer ‘yes’? Obviously we need to be talking about a situation where voting happens – it would be odd if convicted criminals were the only ones who were allowed to vote (in an absolute monarchy, for example)! Assuming there is indeed voting, we could say that whilst depriving criminals of their liberty and the chance freely to associate with friends and family is a perfectly proper punishment, depriving them of the chance to vote cuts them off from society, and we may hope that one day they will re-enter that society, so that they should have some chance to continue to shape it. A thought that many people have about punishment is that it should ‘fit the crime’. If we think about depriving someone of a vote who has committed a serious assault against a neighbour, we may see no clear connection between a fitting punishment for the offence and losing their permission to vote. On the other hand, if the crime were a crime against the political system – murdering an MP or attempting to blow up Parliament as an extreme example, failing to pay Council Tax as a less extreme one – maybe it is indeed fitting to think of being deprived of a vote as a punishment. So that points us in the direction of an ‘it all depends’ answer, but one which has real content to it. It all depends on the crime committed – not so much its seriousness as the sort of crime it is. One might also want to ask whether for a long sentence (20 years, say) one should be deprived of a vote at first but then – maybe 5 years before release, when returning to the community is no longer a distant prospect – voting is restored as part of rehabilitation. All of this is quite abstract, but there is also a practical question. For a national referendum it may not matter where one votes. For a constituency-based democracy like that in the UK, prisoners would need to vote in a place. Should that place be where they are held prisoner? (Imagine a constituency with a very large prison in it, and a very close contest between two political parties.) Should it be where they last lived, even if that is miles from where they now are, and as part of their punishment they are banned, even when released, from ever returning there?’ Practically speaking, you should spend some time thinking about which parts of the question need to be addressed and formulating a simple and precise argument that directly answers the question. In the planning process, logically organise the points you are going to make in order to support your overall argument, for example starting with the broadest point or starting with the most important point, in your view. You want to make your essay easy for examiners to follow, so spend a bit of time thinking about how to best structure your essay. The planning process should take 5-10 minutes. This seems like a long time, but good planning will make the writing process much easier. Answer the question in the opening line of your introduction. A top tip is to literally use the wording in the question to formulate your answer. So, for the question ‘Should convicted criminals be allowed to vote?’, a good opening sentence would be ‘Criminals should be allowed to vote’ or ‘Criminals should not be allowed to vote’. Use the introduction as a place where you define your terms, to show the examiner your interpretation of key terms. With regards to the bulk of your essay, you will probably only have time to make two major points, with a third paragraph dedicated to what critics of your argument might say and why you are not convinced by them. In these arguments, make your point, offer some evidence and then explain. In terms of evidence, think about real world evidence or a thought experiment (which is a hypothetical situation) that can make your argument more tangible and possibly easier to understand. You should try and reiterate your overall argument throughout the essay, where appropriate, so the examiner can see you are answering the question. Finally, your conclusion should tie your essay together, by reiterating your argument and the points you have made.
There are some resources to help you with the written task of the Philosophy test. A top tip is to look for resources about section 2 of the TSA, since there are a lot more students who take the TSA and, therefore, there are more resources dedicated to this admissions test:
Philosophy test past papers and guidance on how to write the essay (under 'How Do I Prepare' > ‘Preparation advice’): https://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/applying-to-oxford/philosophy-test
History Aptitude Test (HAT)
What is the hat.
The History Aptitude test is a one-hour exam (unless you have specific requirements that mean you need extra time) where you will be asked to answer a question in essay form based on an extract from an unseen primary source. There is only one question and one source, so you will have the full hour to read, plan and write.
Given how important primary sources are to history, the HAT is an opportunity for you to show off how you have interpreted the source. This isn’t a test of grammar or how much you already know. What the examiners want to hear is your ideas and what you think the source is telling you and why.
How is the paper formatted?
You will get a question, which is always formatted in the same way. The question will always be ‘what does this source say about x’. For example, the 2019 question, which was based on a letter sent to the King of Sri Lanka to the King of Portugal, asked ‘What does this document tell us about how power relationships worked, within Sri Lanka and between Sri Lanka and Portugal?’ You will also get a paragraph that gives you context about the source, such as who wrote the source and when.
Here are some suggestions on how to approach writing the HAT. Given you have an hour, spend about 10 to 15 minutes reading and planning. Take some time to break down the question and context so you understand it really well and then move onto analysing your source. Think about exactly what the source is telling you and highlight any examples that can help you answer the question directly. Also think about the limits of the source, what it doesn’t tell you and whose perspective is being highlighted. Then write a plan. In your plan, organise your quotes from the source into a few themes. A thematic approach is really important because you can then use quotes from different parts of the source rather than focussing on a small part of it.
In terms of structure, it is recommended that you have a small introduction, about three paragraphs and a small conclusion. The introduction should reference the question and give your reader a bit of an idea about what points you’re going to make. This only needs to be a few sentences long. It is a good idea to use the introduction to tell the reader a bit of context about the source that seem important to you, such as who wrote the source. Then move into the main part of your essay. Each paragraph should be for a different theme or point you’ve written up in your plan. Pick out key quotes from the source and start unpacking them, suggesting what the quote is telling you and how this supports the argument you are making to answer the question. Finally, your conclusion should tie everything together, making reference back to the question and highlighting that the source can tell us a lot but has its limitations. Give yourself five minutes at the end to quickly read through what you have written. You only have an hour, so the examiners will not expect a long essay.
Look at the past papers on the History Faculty website and sit at least a paper under timed conditions. Check your answer by using the mark schemes that are also on the website. Since the source is unseen, it can be helpful to practise your source analysis on any primary source you can get your hand on, including those collated by the faculty. Here are some resources you can access:
• Click here to look at the faculty website for past HAT papers and mark schemes
• Click here for a bank of primary sources to practice your analysis skills
• Click here for a video resource going through the HAT
National Admissions Test for Law (LNAT) Section B essay task
What is the lnat and how is the paper formatted.
The LNAT is a 2-hour 15-minute test (unless you have specific requirements that mean you need extra time) divided into two sections.
Section A is a computer-based, multiple-choice exam consisting of 42 questions. The questions are based on 12 passages, with 3 or 4 multiple-choice questions on each. You are given 95 minutes to answer all of the questions.
In Section B, which will be the focus of this guide, you will be given 40 minutes to write an essay from a list of three subjects. This section is marked by the tutors at the college you are applying to, and this mark is taken into account as part of the selection process. The essay is your opportunity to show your ability to construct a compelling argument and reach a conclusion.
The LNAT isn’t designed to test your knowledge of Law or any other subject. Instead, it helps the examiners to assess your aptitude for studying Law.
What is the assessment criteria for the essay?
The purpose of the essay is to see whether you can build a strong case, using evidence and analysis, so avoid sitting on the fence!
The first thing you should do, before writing any essay, is write a plan. You should firstly take some time to figure out your overall argument before starting. Write this as the heading of your essay plan- this will help ensure you always have the main argument in mind when you are planning which key points will support your essay. It might also be worth spending two minutes of your planning time writing down all the possible points and evidence you could use to support your overall argument. That will make it easier to pinpoint the three strongest and most convincing points. Spend about five minutes coming up with a plan.
Given you have 40 minutes, you should aim to have an introduction, about three paragraphs (one for each point) and a conclusion. Remember: your essay should be analytical, not descriptive! That means you should make a clear judgement and persuasively convince your reader that your argument makes sense, by using evidence. According to the Lawyer Portal, here is an example of how you can structure your essay, so that you can clearly express your ideas:
- Definition of key terms;
- Explanation of assumptions;
- Framing of the question;
- Signposting your approach.
- An introduction should be used as a way to clearly highlight your argument and introduce the points you are going to use to illustrate it.
2. Next section: Arguments in Favour of Your Position
- Reasons why you agree/disagree with the topic.
- Three clear, well-defined arguments with examples.
3. Arguments to the Contrary
- Identifying arguments against your position.
- An attempt to undermine these.
- What you believe and why.
- A conclusion , on the other hand, should be used as a final emphasis of your presented argument as the right one and should leave the reader feeling persuaded of your argument even if their personal response would be different.
Read some past papers so you feel more familiar with the paper. You can find these here: https://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/applying-to-oxford/tests/lnat
It may be useful to sit a few mock exams, so you can get used to the timings of the paper, which can be quite intimidating for those unfamiliar with the test!
To learn more about how to prepare, take a look at the official LNAT website: https://lnat.ac.uk/how-to-prepare/
English Literature Admissions Test (ELAT)
What is the elat.
The ELAT is a 90-minute exam (unless you have special requirements that mean you need extra time) for those applying to English undergraduate courses at the University of Oxford. You will be asked to write one essay, where you will compare two extracts of the same theme.
The ELAT will test your ability to closely read a text and write an articulate response to texts you have not seen before.
You will always be asked the same question:
Select two of the passages (a) to (f) and compare and contrast them in any ways that seem interesting to you, paying particular attention to distinctive features of structure, language and style.
When you open your paper, you will be presented with a list of six different extracts ordered chronologically, ranging from fiction, non-fiction, poetry, prose and drama although you won’t get examples of each type of text every year. The texts are all related to each other by theme. The theme will be made clear to you on the page listing the texts in your booklet. The following pages will have the text extract themselves. You will write your answer in a separate booklet.
For example, the theme in the 2019 paper was ‘parting’. The candidates were given a range of unseen texts linked to this theme, including a poem written in 1663 and a non-fiction memoir written in 1931. These texts have been chosen because they are unfamiliar to most candidates but still accessible and thought-provoking, so don’t worry if you don’t recognise an author or their work.
Generally, here is what the examiners are looking for:
- understanding of the passages
- analytical skills and responsiveness to the literary quality of the writing
- ability to structure your comparison clearly and effectively.
In other words, the examiners will be looking at how well you analyse the text, the quality of your quotes and how you move between one passage and the next. They also want to see a well-structured essay. It is crucial that you reference the ways in the writer has used structure, language and style to express their ideas.
This is a comparative essay, so the purpose is to closely compare and contrast your two chosen extracts throughout your writing. You are advised to spend about half an hour reading the texts, planning which two texts you want to write about and planning your answer. That will leave one hour to write your essay.
Your essay should be organised so that key similarities and differences between the texts are apparent. The purpose is to be comparative, so avoid spending the first half of your essay discussing one extract and the second half discussing the other text. Instead, you should decide on where connections lie and structure your answer around that. Given that the questions asks you to think about structure, language and style, it is also important that you think about how the author expresses their ideas using these features.
In terms of structure, to start with, think about the ‘big idea’ tying together your essay. In other words, what do these extracts tell you about the theme? Explain this idea in your introduction. Break this idea down into around three sup-topics: these sub-topics will form the basis of each paragraph in your essay. For each paragraph, it can be useful to use a ‘point, evidence, exploration’ model, so that essay is easy for the examiner to follow and also so that you sustain your analysis throughout the essay. For each paragraph, provide evidence from both texts side by side and weave your exploration of each extract together, so that you are always comparing the texts rather than discussing them separately. Make sure your quotes are verbatim (i.e., copy quotes from the text exactly how they are). By far, the most important part of your essay is the exploration, as this is where you can offer your own ideas!
Start with the most important point as your first paragraph, and then taper down in importance. This is a good way to express your response to the theme but it also ensures that, if you run out of time, your most important points are covered!
Spend roughly the same amount of time on each extract in your answer and choose quotes from the text that you think illustrate the point you are making well. Avoid referencing any other reading in your comparison of the two texts- you will not be awarded more marks if you make reference to texts you have read in school.
You don’t need to do any specific preparation for the ELAT, however here are some helpful resources:
For an overview of ELAT, please visit this website: https://www.admissionstesting.org/for-test-takers/elat/about-elat/ . You can also watch this video: (2) ELAT Overview - YouTube .
There are lots of past papers and examiners comments on the ELAT website: https://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/applying-to-oxford/tests/elat Remember, the structure of the test changed in 2018!
For a detailed walk-through of the ELAT, watch this video of current students discussing an ELAT paper: (2) ELAT Workshop - YouTube
Here are some recollections and advice from students and a tutor: https://www.english.ox.ac.uk/advice-taking-english-literature-admissions-test-elat#collapse2043011
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The Call of the Wild Essays
Buck is the canvas upon which London delineates the ruthless and predatory world characteristic of both civilization and wilderness. For London’s work offers no apology for Nature and her violent ways. Nor does it uphold civilization as a redeeming and cleansing mechanism from which emerges a...
1 341 words
In 1903, Jack London wrote his best selling novel, concerning the life of a sled dog that travels throughout Alaska, the Yukon, and the Klondike. Throughout this book Jack London uses personification to illustrate the dog's viewpoint. London describes what adventures the dog encounters after being...
In Jack London's book, The Call of the Wild, he symbolizes many things in the book. Buck, gold sacks, Mercedes, and others are looked on as symbolic. In this essay, you will find out what these items symbolize. The main character in the book is Buck, a half St. Bernard, half Scotch...
Call of the Wild Jack London's thrilling epic tale of adventure and bravery, through the eyes of a part St. Bernard, part German Shepherd named Buck. Our story opens with the author describing the lifestyle of this pampered dog on the premises of his master's home, Judge Miller, in the Santa Clara...
"Call of the Wild" Book Review By: Sheldon Shepard What if you were torn away from your home, your life, your family, and everything that was ever familiar to you, and got thrown into harsh, life threatening situations? Would you adapt in order to live and survive or would you be totally enveloped...
The Call of the Wild: Life lessons that are learned and thought Introduction As a student in Introduction to Literature I have had the opportunity to engage in reading and writing from the books listed: The Call of the Wild, Harry Potter and the sorcerer's, and I know why the cage bird sings...
1 042 words
Call of the Wild BUCK, A POWERFUL DOG, half St. Bernard and half sheepdog, lives on Judge Miller's estate in California's Santa Clara Valley. He leads a comfortable life there, but it comes to an end when men discover gold in the Klondike region of Canada and a great demand arises for strong dogs...
Depending on the author, there are some who are immediately identified by their specific style of writing, others by the themes they use. In The Call of the Wild, one of the themes Jack London uses is the theory "the survival of the fittest. " This theory, developed by Charles Darwin is based on...
Call of the Wild, By: Jack London Dear Judge Miller, Wow…it’s been quite awhile since I saw your warm smile. It’s been so long since “I sat by Judge Miller in the warm Santa Clara Valley sun”,-pg. 2. It’s been so long since that fateful night when Manuel took me for a walk, I was foolish to trust...
The Call of the Wild, written by Jack London, is an in-depth work of historical fiction, taking readers in to the life of a dog called Buck. This is not a book I would recommend. At times, the story becomes so in-depth it is tedious, causing readers to lose concentration and possibly even interest...
Abraham Maslow, a social- psychologist, developed a Hierarchy of Universal Needs to explain that it is difficult to become Self- Actualized or a Peak Performer, reaching the top of the pyramid, if one suffers need deprivation at a lower level. These needs include: survival, food, shelter, rest...
1 597 words
The Call of the Wild Suffering has been a part of human life since the dawn of time. It is part of our journey in this life. Some suffer less and some suffer more; however, in the end we are destined to suffer no matter what. The Call of the Wild by Jack London emphasizes suffering and gives...
2 699 words
Buck undergoes as he adapts to both the cold, harsh land and the hard work the humans force him to do. London portrays a pet's gradual evolution into a wild beast, ruled by nobody but himself. The amazing way in which Buck adapts and learns in his new environment is an important point to be...
Call of the wild Jack London was born in California, USA in 1876 and died in 1916 at the age of 40. He came to be one of the most successful authors at his time after releasing two great novels - Call of the wild and White Fang. The book I chose to do a book review on is London's breakthrough and...
Call of the Wild, by Jack London, begins in 1897, at the start of the Klondike gold rush. The discovery of gold in the Klondike region motivated thousands of men to head for the far north, all of them in need of dogs to pull sleds across the frigid arctic trails. Buck is an incredibly large dog...
Call of the Wild In the book, “Call of the Wild,” by author; Jack London, we will be comparing this wonderful piece of work and its characteristics to the early southwestern United States of American frontier literature. We will make a comparison of “The Call of the Wild,” to other great books...
1 208 words
The Call of the Natural World Mangled throats, empty eye sockets, gushing blood - Jack London's gritty, gruesome story of survival transports the reader to the uncharted Klondike of 1897. The Call of the Wild is an adventure tale of a dog named Buck who was kidnapped from his pampered life in...
Theme: Survival of the Fittest The Call of the Wild is a about a dog named Buck. More importantly, his transformation from the old Buck, the civilized Buck, to the new ferocious Buck, who must learn to adapt to the dangerous life of the Sled Dog, where survival is the only goal. In The Call of the...
Chapter 4 What happens when Chris/ Alex drives the Datsun into the Lake Mead National Recreation Area? A flash flood comes and floods the engine of his Datsun. He is frustrated, and in his frustration he kills the battery trying to get it restarted. Rather than go to the local authorities (He...
Zach Maes English 2 8-30-2011 Call of the Wild 1. Some readers see the hardships and suffering of the dogs in the sled team as symbolic of workers in a Capitalistic system. Identify and explain these similarities. “He had killed man, the noblest game of all, and he had killed in the face of the law...
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Plato’s Allegory of the Cave Tells Us Nothing About Our Word. Discuss (10 Marks)
In: Philosophy and Psychology
To explain the way in which Plato’s analogy of the cave could tell us something about reality, one could use the example that all human beings have a sense of “justice”. It of course differs between different cultures in its detail but it is present everywhere. The allegory provides explanation for this, the concept of perfect “justice” is present in the Realm of the Forms. Hence, as our soul is eternal humans through the use of anamneses have an imperfect reflection of what “justice” should be. This not only explains why all humans present this concept, even with no previous teachings of it. But also provides insight into why different cultures have a contrasting view of justice, such as the use of torture. As our understanding of the form of “justice” can never reflect perfectly, humans as a whole can never all agree on means of justice. This can be applied to any innate concepts humans portray, such ; “evil”, “beauty” and “morality”. Explaining some unclear aspects of our world. However, Plato’s theories have been heavily criticized over time, even showing flaws Plato never addresses. The third man argument developed by Aristotle directly challenges the Realm of the Forms. The argument asserts that for something to be a perfect form, it must have all the attributes of the being. Therefore, since it has all the attributes of the being, it would have to be the being not just a perfect form of a being. Simply put, if a man is a man because he partakes in the form of man, then a third form would be required to explain how man and the form of man are both man, and so on, ad infinitum. Plato states that our soul is eternal, allowing us for the anamneses of knowledge but asserts that it can be corrupted. Plato never addresses this motion. Furthermore, many people are convinced that empirical evidence gained through our senses is all that there is and that there is in fact no reality beyond our daily experience, what strengthens this viewpoint is that Plato would just deem you a prisoner is his cave completing his cyclical argument, which is found frustrating and ignorant by many.
Ray lewis leadership analysis.
...leaders get their peers to rally around their actions? Former National Football League linebacker Ray Lewis of the Baltimore Ravens epitomizes what a leader should be on the field. Lewis was a linebacker for 17 seasons (1996-2012) for the Baltimore Ravens, and the early 2000’s Ravens defense is considered one of the greatest units in sports history. However, while Ray Lewis was viewed as one of the best on the field leaders in NFL history, however his legacy, reputation, and image were tainted by actions away from the playing field.. How is it that a figure like Ray Lewis could be so revered on the field, but off the field he was heavily criticized for his actions and behavior? Throughout this essay I will analyze Ray Lewis’ upbringing and discuss how he developed his leadership qualities that caused former teammate Jamal Lewis to say, “In recent history, I can’t really think of a player who has been as valuable to a team as Ray Lewis has been. He’s a different player, as far as his physicality, his passion off the field, his work ethic, and at the same time he can lead vocally. You don’t have all of that in one player, and I think that’s what makes him a Hall of Famer and probably the best linebacker to ever play the game.” (Belmont 41). I will draw on...
Words: 5277 - Pages: 22
...mTELECOURSE STUDY GUIDE FOR The Examined Life FOURTH EDITION author J. P. White Chair, Department of Philosophy Santa Barbara City College contributing author Manuel Velasquez Professor of Philosophy Santa Clara University This Telecourse Study Guide for The Examined Life is part of a collegelevel introduction to philosophy telecourse developed in conjunction with the video series The Examined Life, and the text Philosophy: A Text with Readings, tenth edition, by Manuel Velasquez, The Charles Dirksen Professor, Santa Clara University. The television series The Examined Life was designed and produced by INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications, Netherlands Educational Broadcasting Corporation (TELEAC/NOT), and Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company (UR) Copyright © 2007, 2005, 2002, 1999 by INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of INTELECOM Intelligent Telecommunications, 150 E. Colorado Blvd., Suite 300, Pasadena, California 91105-1937. ISBN: 0-495-10302-0 Contents Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Lesson One — What is Philosophy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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...IRWIN PHILOSOPHY/POP CULTURE S E R I E S R Can drugs take us down the rabbit-hole? R Is Alice a feminist icon? curiouser To learn more about the Blackwell Philosophy and Pop Culture series, visit www.andphilosophy.com and WILLIAM IRWIN is a professor of philosophy at King’s College in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. He originated the philosophy and popular culture genre of books as coeditor of the bestselling The Simpsons and Philosophy and has overseen recent titles, including Batman and Philosophy, House and Philosophy, and Watchmen and Philosophy. curiouser RICHARD BRIAN DAVIS is an associate professor of philosophy at Tyndale University College and the coeditor of 24 and Philosophy. R I C H A R D B R I A N D AV I S AND PHILOSOPHY Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland has fascinated children and adults alike for generations. Why does Lewis Carroll introduce us to such oddities as a blue caterpillar who smokes a hookah, a cat whose grin remains after its head has faded away, and a White Queen who lives backward and remembers forward? Is it all just nonsense? Was Carroll under the inﬂuence? This book probes the deeper underlying meaning in the Alice books and reveals a world rich with philosophical life lessons. Tapping into some of the greatest philosophical minds that ever lived— Aristotle, Hume, Hobbes, and Nietzsche—Alice in Wonderland and Philosophy explores life’s ultimate questions through the eyes of perhaps the most......
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...Metaphysics From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to:navigation, search This article is about the branch of philosophy. For the work of Aristotle, see Metaphysics (Aristotle). |Philosophy | |[pic] | |Branches[show] | |Aesthetics | |Epistemology | |Ethics | |Logic | |Metaphysics | |Social philosophy | |Political philosophy | |Eras[show] | |Ancient | |Medieval | |Modern | |Contemporary | |Traditions[show] | |Analytic | |Continental | |Eastern | |Islamic | |Marxist | |Platonic | |Scholastic | |Philosophers[show] | |Aestheticians ......
Words: 48829 - Pages: 196
Art of Thinking Clearly by Rolf Dobelli
...(Part 1) 8 MURDER YOUR DARLINGS: Confirmation Bias (Part 2) 9 DON’T BOW TO AUTHORITY: Authority Bias 10 LEAVE YOUR SUPERMODEL FRIENDS AT HOME: Contrast Effect 11 WHY WE PREFER A WRONG MAP TO NO MAP AT ALL: Availability Bias 12 WHY ‘NO PAIN, NO GAIN’ SHOULD SET ALARM BELLS RINGING: The It’llGet-Worse-Before-It-Gets-Better Fallacy 13 EVEN TRUE STORIES ARE FAIRYTALES: Story Bias 14 WHY YOU SHOULD KEEP A DIARY: Hindsight Bias 15 WHY YOU SYSTEMATICALLY OVERESTIMATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE AND ABILITIES: Overconfidence Effect 16 DON’T TAKE NEWS ANCHORS SERIOUSLY: Chauffeur Knowledge 17 YOU CONTROL LESS THAN YOU THINK: Illusion of Control 18 NEVER PAY YOUR LAWYER BY THE HOUR: Incentive Super-Response Tendency 19 THE DUBIOUS EFFICACY OF DOCTORS, CONSULTANTS AND PSYCHOTHERAPISTS: Regression to Mean 20 NEVER JUDGE A DECISION BY ITS OUTCOME: Outcome Bias 21 LESS IS MORE: The Paradox of Choice 22 YOU LIKE ME, YOU REALLY REALLY LIKE ME: Liking Bias 23 DON’T CLING TO THINGS: Endowment Effect 24 THE INEVITABILITY OF UNLIKELY Events: Coincidence 25 THE CALAMITY OF CONFORMITY: Groupthink 26 WHY YOU’LL SOON BE PLAYING MEGATRILLIONS: Neglect of Probability 27 WHY THE LAST COOKIE IN THE JAR MAKES YOUR MOUTH WATER: Scarcity Error 28 WHEN YOU HEAR HOOFBEATS, DON’T EXPECT A ZEBRA: Base-Rate Neglect 29 WHY THE ‘BALANCING FORCE OF THE UNIVERSE’ IS BALONEY: Gambler’s Fallacy 30 WHY THE WHEEL OF FORTUNE MAKES OUR HEADS SPIN: The Anchor 31 HOW TO RELIEVE PEOPLE OF THEIR MILLIONS: Induction...
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...Bloom’s Classic Critical Views W i l l ia m Sha k e Sp e a r e Bloom's Classic Critical Views alfred, lord Tennyson Benjamin Franklin The Brontës Charles Dickens edgar allan poe Geoffrey Chaucer George eliot George Gordon, lord Byron henry David Thoreau herman melville Jane austen John Donne and the metaphysical poets John milton Jonathan Swift mark Twain mary Shelley Nathaniel hawthorne Oscar Wilde percy Shelley ralph Waldo emerson robert Browning Samuel Taylor Coleridge Stephen Crane Walt Whitman William Blake William Shakespeare William Wordsworth Bloom’s Classic Critical Views W i l l ia m Sha k e Sp e a r e Edited and with an Introduction by Sterling professor of the humanities Yale University harold Bloom Bloom’s Classic Critical Views: William Shakespeare Copyright © 2010 Infobase Publishing Introduction © 2010 by Harold Bloom All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For more information contact: Bloom’s Literary Criticism An imprint of Infobase Publishing 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data William Shakespeare / edited and with an introduction by Harold Bloom : Neil Heims, volume editor. p. cm. — (Bloom’s classic critical views) Includes bibliographical references...
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Reading a Novel in 1950-2000
...Reading the Novel in English 1950–2000 i RTNA01 1 13/6/05, 5:28 PM READING THE NOVEL General Editor: Daniel R. Schwarz The aim of this series is to provide practical introductions to reading the novel in both the British and Irish, and the American traditions. Published Reading the Modern British and Irish Novel 1890–1930 Reading the Novel in English 1950–2000 Daniel R. Schwarz Brian W. Shaffer Forthcoming Reading the Eighteenth-Century Novel Paula R. Backscheider Reading the Nineteenth-Century Novel Harry E. Shaw and Alison Case Reading the American Novel 1780–1865 Shirley Samuels Reading the American Novel 1865–1914 G. R. Thompson Reading the Twentieth-Century American Novel James Phelan ii RTNA01 2 13/6/05, 5:28 PM Reading the Novel in English 1950–2000 Brian W. Shaffer iii RTNA01 3 13/6/05, 5:28 PM © 2006 by Brian W. Shaffer BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of Brian W. Shaffer to be identiﬁed as the Author of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs,......
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...novel could not have been written without the generous assistance of countless individuals who shared their knowledge and expertise. To all of you, I extend my deep appreciation. To live in the world without becoming aware of the meaning of the world is like wandering about in a great library without touching the books. The Secret Teachings of All Ages ———————————— FACT: In 1991, a document was locked in the safe of the director of the CIA. The document is still there today. Its cryptic text includes references to an ancient portal and an unknown location underground. The document also contains the phrase “It’s buried out there somewhere.” All organizations in this novel exist, including the Freemasons, the Invisible College, the Office of Security, the SMSC, and the Institute of Noetic Sciences. All rituals, science, artwork, and monuments in this novel are real. ———————————— Prologue House of the Temple 8:33 P.M. The secret is how to die. Since the beginning of time, the secret had always been how to die. The thirty-four-year-old initiate gazed down at the human skull cradled in his palms. The skull was hollow, like a bowl, filled with bloodred wine. Drink it, he told himself. You have nothing to fear. As was tradition, he had begun this journey adorned in the ritualistic garb of a medieval heretic being led to the gallows, his loose-fitting shirt gaping open to reveal his pale chest, his left pant leg rolled up to the knee, and his right sleeve rolled......
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Cyrus the Great
...critical theory today critical theory today A Us e r - F r i e n d l y G u i d e S E C O N D E D I T I O N L O I S T Y S O N New York London Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 2 Park Square Milton Park, Abingdon Oxon OX14 4RN © 2006 by Lois Tyson Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business Printed in the United States of America on acid‑free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number‑10: 0‑415‑97410‑0 (Softcover) 0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number‑13: 978‑0‑415‑97410‑3 (Softcover) 978‑0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data Tyson, Lois, 1950‑ Critical theory today : a user‑friendly guide / Lois Tyson.‑‑ 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0‑415‑97409‑7 (hb) ‑‑ ISBN 0‑415‑97410‑0 (pb) 1.......
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Policies of Tcs
...KARACHI MELBOURNE SINGAPORE DAR ES SALAAM HONG KONG MADRAS NAIROBI TOKYO KUALA LUMPUR MEXICO CITY TAIPEI TORONTO and associates in BERLIN IBADAN © Rajiv Gandhi 1985 First published 1946 by The Signet Press, Calcutta Centenary Edition 1989 Sixth impression 1994 Printed at Rekha Printers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 110020 and published by Neil O'Brien, Oxford University Press YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi 110001 To my colleagues and co-prisoners in the A h m a d n a g a r Fort Prison C a m p from 9 August 1942 to 28 March 1945 FOREWORD My father's three books — Glimpses of World History, An Autobiograpy and The Discovery of India — have been my companions through life. It is difficult to be detached about them. Indeed Glimpses was' written for me. It remains t h e best introduction to the story of man for young and growing people in India and all over the world. The Autobiography has been acclaimed as not merely the quest of one individual for freedom, b u t as an insight into the making of the mind of new India. I h a d to correct the proofs of Discovery while my father was away, I think in Calcutta, and I was in Allahabad ill with mumps! The Discovery delves deep into the sources- of India's national personality. Together, these books have moulded a whole generation of Indians and inspired persons from m a n y other countries. Books fascinated Jawaharlal Nehru. He sought out ideas. He was extraordinarily sensitive to literary......
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Bloodlines of the Illuminati
...of the Union address. The speech was designed to push all of the warm fuzzy buttons of his listening audience that he could. All the green lights for acceptance were systematically pushed by the President’s speech with the help of a controlled congressional audience. The truth on the other hand doesn’t always tickle the ear and warm the ego of its listeners. The light of truth in this book will be too bright for some people who will want to return to the safe comfort of their darkness. I am not a conspiracy theorist. I deal with real facts, not theory. Some of the people I write about, I have met. Some of the people I expose are alive and very dangerous. The darkness has never liked the light. Yet, many of the secrets of the Illuminati are locked up tightly simply because secrecy is a way of life. It is such a way of life, that they resent the Carroll Quigleys and the James H. Billingtons who want to tell real historical facts rather than doctored up stories and myths. I have been an intense student of history since I could read, and I am deeply committed to the facts of history rather than the cover stories the public is fed to manipulate them. I do not fear the Illuminati...
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