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[ESSAY and GS ANSWER COPIES] Rank 36 SARANYA RAMCHANDRAN UPSC CSE 2019 TOPPER- IASbaba’s TLP Connect Student
- August 24, 2020
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- How to Prepare Philosophical Essays Topics for UPSC Mains
How to prepare for Philosophical essay topics for the UPSC Exam?
The UPSC Mains Exam consists of nine papers, one of which is an essay. The Essay Paper in the IAS Mains Exam is divided into two parts A and B, each containing four themes of 125 marks, for a total of 250 marks. Candidates must choose a topic from each area and write about it in 1,000 to 2,000 words in three hours. The essay paper is regarded as critical in deciding the ultimate outcome of a candidate’s selection and ranking.
Writing helps you to explore your own ideas, thoughts, and beliefs. What you put on paper will reveal to the reader how you argue, think, and defend your point of view. However, many candidates find essay writing to be a difficult task. Though one segment is relatively simple to tackle, with topics ranging from social, political, environmental, and economic aspects, writing an essay on philosophical topics is a huge challenge. In this article we will share some tips and tricks to approach a philosophical essay.
Selecting the topic for UPSC Essay
A good essay will undoubtedly have a variety of dimensions and components. There are certainly numerous fundamental guidelines for essay writing that should be followed when looking for these aspects and dimensions. The first and most important step is to choose a topic, particularly a philosophical one.
While choosing a topic, choose a topic on which you have sufficient knowledge and you can express yourself in 10-12 pages. If you are unfamiliar with a topic or do not have many dimensions to write upon, your ideas will be exhausted in 2-3 pages, and you will wind up repeating yourself. Unlike the GS topics or the current affair topics in the philosophical essay, marks will not be assigned purely based on the content of your essay but also, to its language, consistency, and organisation of your thoughts. Hence, select a topic on which you have sufficient information and on which you can express yourself really well. There are several concerns associated with how to address the philosophical topic in an effective and safe manner. This is what we are going to discuss in the next section.
Tips to write a Philosophical Essay for UPSC Exam
The idea of a philosophical essay for UPSC is not to use flowery language, use story-telling tactics, or surprise the examiner. The brilliance of a philosophical essay is found in your well-organised thoughts; the language you employ is just a powerful tool for communicating these ideas to the examiner. The subtle art lies in proving one’s points in a clear and concise manner.
Approaching the topic- the first thing after selecting the topic is deciphering or decoding the topic . Decoding the topic means drawing an outline of the essay before writing it. Outlining an essay entails determining what to say in the introduction/conclusion, which ideas come where, and even which quote to utilise for the essay, among other things. The knowledge of GS Paper-4 Ethics , can be used in writing this type of essay.
Defining essential concepts and connecting them will expand the scope of the essay. Furthermore, quotes, instances, reports, and stories greatly contribute to the attraction of philosophical works. Otherwise, simply writing philosophical thoughts becomes uninteresting in essays. For instance in the topic- “Courage to accept and dedication to improve are two keys to success”, one must have a firm grasp of the concepts of bravery, devotion, and achievement. And use these concepts to interlink with each other.
Adding dimensions to your essay- To make your essay comprehensive, it is important to cover more and more dimensions related to the subject. You can use the “ PESTLEE ” Approach (Political – Economic – Sociological – Technological – Legal – Environmental –Ethics Analysis). However, explaining each of these dimensions one should be extremely cautious about his/her ideological beliefs. The essay should not represent your viewpoint; instead, the topic should be written with a more rational approach. Keep the following points in mind when writing on the above dimensions-
- While writing an essay it is important to maintain the ideological balance that is required. When dealing with issues, one must also be democratic. When proposing remedies or analysing events or issues, the values of ‘freedom and equality’ should be the driving principles.
- Always adhere to and preserve Constitutional ideals throughout your essay. It is critical for a philosophical essay that the ideals contained in our Constitution are reflected in whatever topic, issue, or answer we explore. The viewpoint can be extra constitutional but not unconstitutional.
- Do not call into question the issue itself, which is to say, do not contradict yourself. Choose a stance (preferably, the middle approach) and stick to it throughout the essay.
- In general, one should avoid idealist or non compromising viewpoints. In reality, finding the middle ground is the greatest method to deal with difficult challenges. It is likewise important not to draw broad generalisations about any specific problem. Instead, while addressing or debating any specific issue, there should be suggestions of tolerance, fairness, and understanding.
- Never describe something as positive that is commonly perceived or used negatively, and vice versa.
Concluding your essay – For an effective conclusion, a ‘ cyclic return ‘ strategy is required. To put it another way, end concepts with the introducing ideas at the starting of your essay. It is critical to remember that a solid finish is just as vital as a strong start. Both are necessary for better scores, as is a fair amount of brainstorming.
Philosophical themes are more difficult to write about than others since they relate to so many complex concepts. This implies that, even if you address the core concept of the essay question in the UPSC exam, there may be essential components of it that you overlooked. Thus, using the PESTLEE approach will help you go over all the rewired dimensions, making your essay a comprehensive one.
Hopefully, the preceding article was informative, and it helps you to tackle the philosophical essays, ratio of which are increasing year by year in the UPSC exam. While essay writing takes time, with the above points reading the question attentively, analysing it, and writing it should be completed in a reasonable length of time.
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How to Write a Philosophical Essay for UPSC? Learn Some Pointers to Ace the Exam
Writing allows you to witness your own ideas, thoughts and beliefs. What you write on paper will reveal to the reader how you argue, think, and support your point of view. As a result, essay writing is required for the majority of academic entrance and competitive examinations.
Aspirants have a paper equivalent to the General Studies paper which also has a 250-point paper in the Civil Services Exam. Despite its importance, aspirants rarely give essay papers the attention they deserve.
First-timers believe they will write an excellent or outstanding essay on the final exam, whereas experienced candidates believe that because they have already studied extensively for GS, writing a good essay will be adequate. This is a fatal error in judgement. Let’s read some pointers in the article.
How to Write a Philosophical Essay for UPSC?
The essay differs from GS in that marks will be given solely on the basis of the content in GS. Examiners will pay close attention to not only the content, but also the language, coherence, and organisation of your essay.
As a result, you must take special care to organise your thoughts properly and avoid common spelling and grammatical errors.
UPSC Preparation for Essay
Nonfiction reading aids in the development of a mature thought process. They will allow you to come across good art of argumentation, figures of speech, powerful unique and rhetoric content, among other things, in addition to imparting knowledge.
You can refer to specific issues of EPW/Yojana/Economic Survey, etc. for specific topics. For example, if you’re writing an essay about tribal issues or public health, you can look through specific issues of these magazines to get the most up-to-date statistics (malnutrition levels, MMR, IMR, and so on) as well as information about the drawbacks and benefits of government programmes in those areas.
Also Read: Essay on ‘Secularism in India’ for UPSC: Present Your UPSC Essay Topics in the Best Way
Essay Tips for UPSC Exam Preparation
The language used in the writing should be simple and straightforward, with as little jargon as possible. If you want to use complex definitional terms like “Constitutionalism”, government policies, etc., define them in a sentence before using them.
The examiner will also be able to understand exactly what you’re trying to say. Writing clearly is the equivalent of thinking clearly. And that is exactly what a reader is looking for.
Keep your sentences succinct and to the point. It’s difficult to read and understand because of the long, winding sentences. When you use conjunctions to add one clause after another, you end up with a bad sentence sprawl.
It is not necessary to memorise complex words in order to write well. However, using a strong word or a clever phrase every now and then will give your article an edge.
Furthermore, believe that memorising a large number of words will not help them stick in your mind for very long. Reading English newspapers and nonfiction is the best way to expand your vocabulary.
If you come across a good turn of phrase or a word you don’t recognise while reading these, please jot it down in a book, look up its definition, and understand the context in which it was used. Long-term memory is aided by this. It also helps to have a dictionary or grammar app on your phone.
Avoid These Mistakes
Don’t put too much emphasis on a single point or dimension (such as the political or historical aspect) Your writing should be broad in scope and multi-dimensional in nature. We read a lot during the preparation process, so it’s understandable that we have strong feelings about certain topics. And, because writing allows you to write freely, it’s easy to get carried away with a topic like this.
But make sure you write what the question is, not what you think or feel. No, always stick to the topic’s main point. It’s a good suggestion to read the topic in the middle of your writing to make sure you’re not leaving track.
Also Read: Essay on ‘Poverty’ for UPSC: Improve UPSC Essay Topics Writing Skill with Ease
Avoid such questions if you are uncomfortable writing about abstract philosophical topics. Your topic selection has no bearing on your grades, so picking an unpopular topic just for the sake of it is a bad idea. Also, if the question contains a technical term, double-check that you understand it.
There will be no ranting. If there is a question about capitalism, do not rant or rail against it, even if you are a big fan of Karl Marx. You must present both the advantages and disadvantages of capitalism, and the writing must end on a balanced note.
Don’t spend an exaggerated amount of time on the initial writing and rush through the second. Both are worth the same quantity of points, so please dedicate the same amount of time to them.
How to Write a Good Introduction for an Essay?
The following is an example of an introduction:
a made-up story or event(in which you introduce a character or protagonist);
a quote; a true story; or a straightforward definition of the words in the question (not recommended in writing)
In GS, using a definitional approach to introduce your answers is a great way to get started. However, in writing, they are rather stale and devoid of any human element. We always believe that having a touch of warmth and humanity in your introduction is a good way to start your writing.
Introduction to Social Media Essay
In the same way, the introduction to the Social Media essay aimed to highlight the paradox of social media.
These anecdotes, true stories, and incidents can be found in abundance in our books and newspapers. So, as you come across them, jot them down and consider how you can incorporate them into your writing.
Also Read: Climate Change Essay: Step by Step Guide to Ace UPSC Writing Topic
How to Write the Body Content?
It’s like making a web out of a thread. Depending on the topic, you can select the best option from the list below.
Past, present, and future are all examples of temporal concepts.
Media, business, science and technology, politics, sports, religion, and administration, to name a few.
Family, Individual, Workplace, Community, Society, National, and Global Problem & Solution: Concept (historical evolution+status), Problems, Benefits, and Solutions
Social, administrative, political, economic, historical, environmental, scientific, security/defence, international, and legal standards are all applicable.
Each para in the main body must contain an argument or an idea, as well as reasoning to support that argument. You can back it up with a real-life example, a legitimate committee, a statistic, or organisational report, and so on.
Statistics, expert opinions, examples, and constitutional provisions are all important, and they lend authority to your arguments.
Concluding an Essay
The conclusion should end on a positive, futuristic note. You must summarise the entire essay in three to four sentences, after which you must write your future vision.
The speeches of Prime Minister Modi can provide you with some useful terms. Reform-Perform-Transform, Building A New India, Sabka saath saath vikas, and other phrases can be useful. To conclude your essay, use lofty expressions, rhetoric, Sanskrit slokas, constitutional ideals, and quotes.
However, if you mentioned a fictional character in your introduction, it’s always a good idea to end your article with a reference to that character. It gives the writing a sense of completion.
Also Read: Uniform Civil Code in India: Suggestions, Challenges and Essay for UPSC Notes
Think Before You Write
You shouldn’t start writing right away after you’ve chosen your topic. It’s a good idea to pause for a moment and collect your thoughts. Make a list of the points you want to make in pencil. This is critical because only then will you be able to write your points in the correct order.
For example, if you’re writing about India’s relations with its neighbours, you should start with historical facts and events. Assume you begin writing the essay and realise only near the end that you have forgotten to include a critical historical detail; it would be too late to add it due to a space constraint. As a result, it is beneficial to write down your rough points first.
# Don’t use slurs or insults. In your essay, never get too personal.
# Don’t hold extreme opinions. The Buddha’s middle path can assist you in this situation!
# Don’t just make a list of problems. Also, provide possible reforms/solutions.
# Don’t be too harsh on the government or administration.
# Your essay should not be provocative, even if the topic is. Create a picture that is well-balanced. You are not obligated to agree with the topic.
# Write utopian solutions sparingly.
# Remember, you’re a future officer, not a reporter!
Essay writing is a part of our daily preparation at UPSC Pathshala . There is a ‘Question Sheet’ for every 3-4 days of study that contains extremely difficult 3-4 subjective questions to attempt. Your mentor evaluates these on a regular basis. This continues throughout the entire year! In a year, you write about 350 responses. By that time, presenting your ideas in a logical manner has become second nature to you.
Hopefully, the preceding article was instructive and you now understand how to structure your essay. While essay writing takes time, reading the question carefully, comprehending it, and then revising it should be accomplished in a reasonable amount of time. These are some crucial steps that should be taken in the examination hall.
Also Read: Valuable Essay Writing Tips for UPSC that One Should Follow: Guide to Write a Perfect Essay
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UPSC Topper Ankur Kaushik AIR Rank 37 Essay Copy
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HOW TO TACKLE PHILOSOPHICAL ESSAY TOPICS FOR UPSC
Ever so often you will find topics like ” simplicity is the ultimate sophistication” and ” life is a long journey between being human and being humane” in the Essay paper of the USPC exam. While topics such as these are not exactly philosophical but consist of a subject-matter which is generic and non-technical.
It appears as if such Essay topics can be answered with common-sense alone. This is a mistake.
Philosophical or general topics are more difficult to write about than others precisely because they apply to so many phenomenon across the board. This means that even if you address the central theme of the essay topic in the UPSC exam, there could be important aspects of it which you failed to consider.
Your essay would not be wrong, but it would not be comprehensive either.
Is there a way to ensure both?
Yes and it is called Dimensional Analysis .
Dimensional analysis for essay-writing in the UPSC exam
The human world is as complex as the human being itself. Depending on one’s proclivity and training, people look at the world through different perspectives.
Just like the parable of the 6 blind men who were tasked to describe an elephant.
Since the elephant is much too big an object to be held and analyzed, they all described at as different objects based on the part of the animal they happened to inspect.
Because of their limited perspectives, the 6 blind men came to different conclusions about the same object. One thought it to be like a rope while another concluded that the elephant resembled a tree.
None of them were wrong. But none of them succeeded in painting a complete picture of the elephant either.
In a way we are not unlike the 6 blind men with our limited perspectives. Take the example of the Covid-19 pandemic as a differentiator-
- To a biologist or a doctor, it is a molecular virus causing disruption in the immune systems by side-stepping White Blood Cells and invading a cell to multiply and reproduce.
- To an economist, the pandemic might be an economic problem of supply and demand vis-à-vis hospitals and infected persons. It may point towards the stark inequality of society where the rich can sequester and isolate themselves while the poor remain vulnerable to exposure and disease etc.
- A Psychologist might see the pandemic as a challenge of large-scale behavior change or a complex interplay of group behavior. He/she be concerned about psychological ways to nudge people in to maintaining social distancing.
- A spiritually oriented person might see it as a personal challenge to be overcome or depending upon their level of religiosity, an example of god’s wrath upon humanity.
Such is the nature of truth in general and for the purposes of this article, generic or ‘philosophical’ of Essay topics in the UPSC exam, in particular.
A ‘dimension’ in dimensional analysis for essay topics in the UPSC exam, is a way of looking at the essay topic – an advanced, more abstract variant of th e Deconstruction technique .
Again , the point is that each of these perspectives are VALID and TRUE in their own right.
Your job in the UPSC exam is to illuminate all the relevant dimensions of an Essay topic instead of just one.
What are the Dimensions?
You should subject an Essay topic to Dimensional Analysis by considering 6 perspectives or Dimensions abbreviated as ‘STEPPE’.
S.T.E.P.P.E – SPIRITUAL. TEMPORAL(TIME). ECONOMIC, PSYCHOLOGICAL. PHILOSOPHICAL. ETHICAL.
These dimensions are universal and therefore, very versatile.
Below, you will find each of these dimensions introduced and explained by some of the best domain experts and teachers in the world.
About decision-making, irrationality and Behavioral Economics-
Here’s another gem-
Absorb the video resources shared in the lesson. While you do so, imbibe 3 things from them- content, expression and good prose. Note good points, impactful sentences and useful arguments. Try to insert them in your assignment.
How to use Dimensional Analysis for Essay topics in the UPSC Exam
You should be able to connect almost any Essay topic in the UPSC exam to each of the 6 dimensions explained in these videos in way or another.
In other words, while using Dimensional Analysis, your job is to inspect an essay-topic from the point-of-view of each of these dimensions.
You should spend some time watching and absorbing the contents of these videos. They have the potential to elevate your thinking to a much higher level than you might suspect. I suggest multiple viewings-
In the first viewing, focus on obtaining a big-picture view of the dimension. Note the important key-words and themes which are repeated or appear to be centrally important.
In the second viewing, turn on subtitles and begin to notice the language used by the speakers. pay attention to the expression and delivery. Pause the video if you need to and note down some of the specially impactful sentences for use later.
Then if you have the luxury of time, explore other content by these YouTube channels.
Super- important tip : The type of language and content used in these videos is very similar to the kind you should use in the UPSC Exam. In some videos, It is as if the speaker is RECITING a well-structured essay itself. Shamelessly borrow sentences, paragraphs, examples and narrative from these videos and use them while writing your Essays.
Your assignment is to connect the following topic to each of the 6 dimensions in STEPPE-
- Write 100 words or 2-3 paragraphs in proper English about each dimension after viewing the Essay topic from that POV (Point-of-View).
- Do not write in points or short-form. Use fully formed sentences like you would in the UPSC Mains Exam.
- The total word-count of your assignment submission should be at least 500 words.
- Submit your responses in the comments below.
I hope that you revel and enjoy this new process of learning and of expanding your mind.
Take precautions and stay healthy,
Ravi Kapoor, IRS
187 thoughts on “HOW TO TACKLE PHILOSOPHICAL ESSAY TOPICS FOR UPSC”
Sir I need to know where I have to write I mean in introduction we have to tell about thing 1 and 2 then relationship between thing 1 and 2 then I have to fallow body of the essay which as (bgins) method and finally conclusion (scoref) but we have world limit in introduction which is around 80-100 words in that condition how can we write STEPPE I read your book and I like it a lot and Iam following it but when I visited your blog for philosophical essay then I got little confused so will you please clarify me it’s my humble request please will you write any philosophical essay fully so that I can understand the every steps thoroughly
Culture is unique to humans.culture t consists both material and non material aspects.material aspects include art,architecture and non material aspect include belifs myths folklores Civilization it may be defined as advanced form of culture that may have started from Barbary and savagery . Culture and civilization are intertwined yet there exists a complex relationship between them. Culture tend to revolve between material and non material aspects.culture in cludes non material aspects such as myths,beliefs these gradually accumulate and takes the highest form called civilization as culture complexities increase civilization becomes more and more complex.more culture complexities.eg tool making was a simple culture in upper palaeolothic and using that lead to advanced cultures like agriculture which later lead to civilizations Culture gives a sense of oneness and also inner power.this inner power regarded as mana in some simple cultures plays a very important role in their belief system.the inner power mana increases as the civilization advances. cultures are not constant and are always changing from simple to complex and complex to simple and so do the civilizations eg initially cooking was done in clay pots then came the steel or plastic then replaced by non stick and we are again reverting back to pottery The advancement of culture can be seen with the exchange of cultures this can be regarded as culture contact this sometimes gives both positive and negative effects. positive like flourish in trade negative like when Europeans visited some islands also spread some diseases. there are many rituals that are associated with culture when rituals and myths takes highest forms they tend to influence how a individual thinks.psychological aspect is more linked to satisfy one owns belief for example in mayan culture every day they used to a kill a person because they believed that human sacrifice is necessary orelse sun god may get angry and may not come back. So psychological aspect of cultures and civilizations gains high importance when it is linked to rituals and beliefs Philosophical when culture gets advanced the norms,values and systems takes place. philosophy that may impart religious or world view.usually the philosophical aspects in any culture or civilizations arises in 2 aspects either positively or negatively for example negative aspects when caste based oppression took place lead to budhism and Jainism and positive aspect when quest for self inquisitivenss of knowing nature and its principles like many greek phisophers. when culture and civilization try to overtake beyond a point then comes a philosophical comes into play a role to maintain status quo Cultures and civilizations tend to show parabolic evolution it means ie cultures and civilizations moves from simple to complex ex nudity-semi nudity-complete clothing and vice versa.hence there is no beginning and end are they are always in culture civilization continuum.
spiritual – culture refers to the values, beliefs, language, norms, morals, religion, and practices that people share in common. It plays a crucial role in our social life as it is essential in shaping our society. Whereas civilization is a series of actions taken by society through ages in which culture reaches the advanced level of development in terms of social, economic, and political development, it also includes the spiritual development of an individual. Therefore we can say that civilization is an ocean whereas culture is the rivers that mix to form civilization. temporal – Culture has evolved through ages from generation to generation. Humans evolved from apes, after this evolution, they become the dominant species in the world. This dominance started from the cognitive revolution I.e the development of the brain, after the discovery of fire. With the cognitive revolution their thinking capabilities improved which led to the development of sign language to communicate, also they developed sharper tools to kill stronger animals. In search of food, they started migrating which led to the agricultural revolution. after 2000 years of the Agriculture Revolution, Homo Sapiens started agriculture everywhere and stopped hunting. Later they gradually develop various customs, traditions, values which led to the development of culture. After several generations, this led to civilization. Economics- With the development of culture the demands for the products also started evolving. Due to globalization, new cultures took place around the globe which led to trade all over the world. With the development money also started evolving from metal money to digital money. Philosophical- the beliefs of society are derived from their culture and its essence is held by its philosophical part. The values, tradition which is followed by them is passed from one generation to another. These cultures can be adopted through the process of civilization. Psychological – According to the concept of individualization, every individual is different and unique in their way. Each individual makes the culture therefore every culture is unique in its way. Ethical- Sometimes culture led the individual to do evil practices such as black magic, child marriage, and so on, which is ethically wrong. But it also allows doing some good things like respecting elders, not harming animals, the practice of non-violence and so on
Culture Is What We Are, Civilization Is What We Have.
At the micro-level, when an individual, group of people, or a society shared their common values, way of life, & thoughts that result in not-so-sophisticated activities, it is called culture. Culture may or may not evolve with time. Whereas on a macro level, when many such societies came together to integrate for something tangible, which also has some chances of frequent up-gradation over time is known as civilization.
Civilization within its basic sense can inhibit the perspective & notions of many societies and evolve with new and unfamiliar angles of different cultures. A culture may sometimes exaggerate itself to show its superiority, like culture originated from Vedas, Buddhists, Jainism, etc., which changes from time to time in societies. But civilization is something that cannot be exaggerated because it is more or less tangible. So, it is the advancement of various assets and spirituality, love, and care. At the time of multiple crises faced by humankind in the past, it is evident that all individuals or societies, no matter how different their cultures, are fought together. Because of their belief which originated from their cultures, they all together progressed as a civilization. (SD)
Time is the most powerful component in the development of any civilization. From the time of gurukul culture to the online educational platforms independent of cultural diversity and anyone from any society can access world-class knowledge is one of the examples of how societies together progress as a civilization. (TD)
Culture is directly associated with economic activities. Let’s take an example of the increase in trade & commerce during the festivals of any country, the countries that have developed themselves as an industrial civilization see this as an opportunity to sell goods and services. (EcD)
The good life built with good relationships. Culture would have comprised various activities that bring the people to form certain tasks together, where the quality relationship started developing. A recent crisis of covid has shown the importance of relationships among people; loneliness brought various miseries. People realized how psychologically it is important to have friends and families and cultural activities. (Psy.D)
Anyone from any culture or civilization who can feel sentiments and emotions, philosophy applies to them. Emotions can be considered as the highest ground of morality in many civilizations. The virtue of characters focuses on an individual which is the matter of culture. In contrast, intellectual virtue is part of civilization & ultimately, this is what leads to the highest good of civilization. (Phi.D)
From the coordination perspective, humans have covered a great journey. There are some negative attributes of human coordination that have also been seen. Still, it again depends on a civilization comprising various cultures as a whole of what they want to bring further by learning from their mistakes. From eradication sati practice, slavery, human trafficking to debates on women empowerment, human rights, etc. the ethical standards, parameters of civilization & dynamics of culture is keep upgrading. (ED)
SPIRITUALITY: There are no evidence about religion of IVC people but they had culture and a civilisation which people follow today as well. Power of imagination, rationalisation, articulation and comprehending is something that came as a bonus to human beings. Every culture and civilisation has different meanings and understanding of bodily and mental things which cannot be consider wrong at all. for example: children in US leave their parents’ home and live at another place by their own, which considers to be good. While here, in India, if children leave their parents when they become old is considered to be immoral child. Therefore, everybody perceives their morality differently and are right at their own positions. Hence, spirtuality is beyond religion, it is something when you are at peace with yourselves, spiritually conscious and something which is very enlightening in itself even if someone is an atheist.
TEMPORAL: culture move from generations to generations. Customs, traditions, art, dance forms, music, singing, knowledge, way of living, food is something humans have inherited from the past but its not something humans have inehrited randomly without putting-in any efforts. Our ancestors used to be the nomadics who hailed from Africa and migrated to different parts of the world. To sustain their survival, they used to do hunting-gathering, farming and so on. And later, gradually our ancestors successfully build customs and traditions, that people even today possess them as a legacy. Transition from the system of barter to issuance and cirulation of currency has shown the evolution of history through the aspect of temporal.
ECONOMICS: Later with time when people settled at one place in a society, achieved development in technology, they had to trade so as to fulfill some of their needs which could not be fulfilled domestically. People traded more and more to run the economy. Like, the surplus value derived from the agriculture cultivation used to play a huge role for driving the economy
PHILOSOPHICAL: there is an ample amount of information people can get through the accounts of some foreign travellers like Magasthenes, Fa Hein etc who has written tremendously on civilisation, culture, cities, markets, trade and political setup. Even today the historians and philosophers are likely to write about history. For example: the book “SAPIENS” written by Harrari is one the most amazing books ever been written on history. Philosophical aspects also include manuscripts, scripts, seals, inscriptions which tells about how things have evolved with time and space.
PSYCHOLOGICAL: various surveys , techniques and studies have shown about the way men think of women, what kept women inside the four walls of the house doing domestic chores, rearing childern and caring elderly while men going outside to earn for surviving because even survival comes at a cost. For example: Archaeological survey of india provided with lots of information through which can know about culture and civilisation people had and kind of they have it now.
ETHICAL: there used be some moral code for guiding behaviour and relationships among people living together in civilisation and infact culture also involves some of those traditions which guides people to do things in a particular way . for example: in Indus valley civilisation, people used to perform some rituals in great bath can be consider as part of some sort of culture . while comparing things with the contemporary times, even today as well, there are some sorts of code of conducts at workplaces be it public or private and some morals codes in our family which people are expected to follow.
Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have Spiritual : India is one of the ancient countries in the world having distinct culture. In my opinion culture is the outcome of a spiritual. When people were able to detach himself and look into the human behaviour and were able to differentiate them into sub-standard and acceptable. Spiritual ISM is something when we are able to look into almost everything from others perspective without getting affected.
Temporal : from the very beginning every living being is evolving but we are focusing on human right now. As Yuval Noah Harari says, seventy thousand year ago, there were six different human species on earth but today there is only one human species left : us homo sapiens. The evolution with time, changing climate, adaptation by human is reason of their survival. Adaptation of not just the natural processes but also of the behavioral and cultural aspect of their native.
Economic: pages of history proves that every culture has its own economic significant weather it is Harappan civilization or the modern culture that we have right now. In the vedic time the varna system divided people not only according to their caste class but also on the basis of their occupation which is the main source of economy. In present time due to globalisation none of the culture has separation of economic activities, for example: if the inflation rises in China or USA , it will definitely affect the Indian culture.
Psychology : all productive activity originates from here only. It is the study of mind and behavioral aspects of human which is largely influence by culture. All the subsidies and incentives are focusing on the human psychology only. There is very deep relation between psychology and culture. All the rituals, gender role, caste system and even patriarchy is the outcome of human psychology. For example, a woman a non Brahmin boy doesn’t think of being a priest.
Philosophical : there are a number of philosophers such as Aristotle plant or Mahatma Gandhi etc who have influenced our culture. Such as CSR and philanthropy as a culture is evolving from the philosophy that “good of a human is in good of the humankind”.
Ethical : culture has set and ethical standards for the society which is also moral in its very nature, such as having extra marital affair is unethical as well as immoral, and ethics also make us learn to respect others culture and not to hurt their sentiment.
Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have.
Culture and civilization
SPIRITUAL :- There is supreme power in universe, somebody have belief on them ,somebody not . our social life is guided by some rituals ,principles ,and beliefs and that is culture . Inculcated behaviour in ourselves is result of culture. civilization is a process which developed through ages. Culture taught us how to live and civilization is how we are living . culture embedded our body and soul with supreme power . TEMPORAL -: The history of humankind is continuously evolving throughout the years. we learn at every stages something better than past and set some new norms and rules. we are still discovering new horizons of life. Culture changes according to our behavioural changes. civilization also changes itself accordingly. ECONOMIC :- Our society was divided as per ‘varna’ system , it classifies and provide individual work for every section , work leads to their survival on daily basis. Festivals of various religion in Indian society maintain the law of supply and demand very effectively , which maintain the economic structure of country. PSYCHOLOGICAL :- Culture leads to happy life ,it always maintain harmony in society .The concept of making family is just to maintain the order , each and every member of family is dependent on each other in some way at some point of time. Culture helps us to understand the behaviour of society , and civilization is what we are reacting. PHILOSPHICAL :- How we know we live a good life, culture provide us the answer ,because it have already some answers of it. culture is a social constitution , which may is not written but, provide us some rules and definition of living good life. civilization is implication of that rules , which a set of people is already following. ETHICAL:- Ethics is branch of philosophy that ask the practical question. what is good or bad. what is right or wrong . As I already said culture is a set of values, principles ,beliefs and norms . culture give us the sense of purpose
That’s a great attempt!
I really like how you’ve come up with new angles to the dimensions in relation with the topic.
Try to work on your expression, so you can present the excellent ideas in a more comprehensive manner.
” Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have”
SPIRITUAL: Our national leader was taken vision of making India Independent sovereign country they are taken broad view of countries independence and peoples aspiration they have taken into consideration. This is most fearless and selfless step to making constitution this most ambitious thing they have given to the people of India where they can feel one among the country in India itself. hence at the present we can say that India is one culture, and festival like national independence day and Republic day like days we are celebrating shows unity among us.
TEMPORAL: Ancient practices like yoga, Ayurveda its our ancestors practices and treasure that we have and we are carrying further to our next generation to keep the prosperity that we have from ancient times the festivals we celebrate in all over the country, Festivals crop sowing celebration as in the community, etc The practice of town planning and city and drainage management we have taken from Indus valley civilization this has great impact on present day also.
ECONOMIC: Taking peoples aspiration into consideration like their needs, fundamental things are education, health. sanitation, security, safety these are the things are counted while making the policy for peoples welfare where no one gets neglect. where all gets the benefited mostly least vulnerable section of the society.
PSYCHOLOGICAL: Its is about making the rational decision while doing justice to all sections of the society or rational choices and well informed policy where least get most benefit and taking environmental norms into consideration in which its least affect to the environment while providing NOC to any new startup in chemical sector or objection on previously running industry. e.g. citizen charters, RTE, PILs
PHILOSOPHICAL: Philosophy behind our in constitution to provide justice to all part and each individual of the Indian citizen where he can feel safe, secure, freedom of choice, liberty, and people also has some responsibility to act as an responsible citizen to keep harmony among citizens, unity, cultural diversity this is the bravest step taken by our national leaders.
ETHICAL: Every institute or organization have pre-set their particular norms, ethics, culture to follows to achieve their aim of establishment to achieve some pre-set goals. So that discipline will be maintained and work will go in harmony and no conflict will create while following some protocols.
I like your take on the temporal dimension.
However, I do feel like you might’ve missed some points, and your answer reads like you didn’t completely understand the topic.
I suggest that you watch the recommended videos again after reading the blog, and try to think it over. I’m sure you’ll do great!
“Culture is what we are, Civilization is what we have.”
SPIRITUAL: According to Jawaharlal Nehru, ‘Culture is the widening of the mind and of the spirit’. This becomes evident when we explore how different cultures in their unique contexts have demonstrated on expansion of the thought process and a broadening of the spirit. For instance, countries with high population densities interact more with other people on a daily basis which tends to develop a collectivistic culture like China and India. On the other hand, countries like the USA, where large distances separate settlements, development of a more individualistic culture takes place. Every culture is distinct from other and has unique features. No culture can be called right or wrong and hence , in the acceptance and understanding of other culture, we find our mind’s frontiers expanded and our spirit refreshed.
TEMPORAL: Change in culture is observed with time, i.e; the old thoughts and traditions lost with the passage of time and new ones added to it and then transmitted from one generation to the other. On the other side, Civilization is continuously advancing i.e; the various elements of civilization like means of transportation, communication, etc are developing day by day.
ECONOMIC: Culture is defined by shared beliefs and preferences of respective groups. Economic Research usually treats cultural identity and individual preferences as exogenous fixed factors in which develops analysis and draw conclusions.Also, the transmission and inheritance of cultural traits are linked to a person’s preferences and resources.
PHILOSOPHICAL: Culture comprises those aspects of human activity which are socially rather than genetically transmitted. Each social group is characterised by its own culture which informs the thought and activity of its members in myriad ways.
PSYCHOLOGICAL: Culture is the sum total of our world views or of our ways of living. Cultural world affects our personality. Individual thoughts and actions influence cultural norms and practices as they evolve over time and vice versa.
ETHICAL: Culture reflects the moral and ethical beliefs and standards that says how people should behave and interact with others. They act as prescriptions for right moral behavior , lend meaning and coherence to life and provide a means of achieving a sense of integrity, safety and belonging.
I see that you have some great perspectives on culture in each dimension! I particularly liked the ethical outlook.
However, one half of the topic is civilization and you’ve only touched upon it once. You need to address both the keywords in the topic simultaneously, in order to draw the comparison efficiently. Moreover, try detailing your perspectives so a simple definition is not all that the examiner reads for each part.
Keep the good work going, your ideas are great!
1.) Spiritual Two powerful cultural factors that work against spirituality are materialism and individualism. In promoting the importance in life of money and possessions, materialism is a cultural antagonist of the spiritual, hindering or distorting its expression. Historically, individualism was concerned with freeing the individual from social regulation, including by the religious sites. But, it is a two-edged sword: the freedom we now have is both exhilarating and disturbing, bringing with it both new opportunities for personal experience and growth and the anxiety of social dislocation. The hazards of individualism are growing as it becomes increasingly associated with the belief that we are independent of others.
2.) Temporal Culture exists because it could be embodied in civilization. The process of civilization brings a place and people to a phase where they can be developed socially and culturally to realize a more advanced stage of human existence. More specifically, just as Darwin described biological/genetic evolution as comprising three key components––variation, competition (or selection), and inheritance––cultural change also comprises these same phenomena.
3.) Economic When taking culture into account, it’s important to consider the way it interacts with other factors that impact economics. It is believed that the complex interplay between culture and institutions is crucial for understanding why and how countries develop in different ways. Another issue is that culture itself is difficult to define. The vagueness and breadth of the concept makes it hard to draw clear conclusion about its influence on economics. “It’s not necessarily only based on objective measures,”. “There’s a degree to which it is very much subjective and how we measure subjectivity is an issue for economists.”
4.) Philosophy Culture comprises those aspects of human activity which are socially rather than genetically transmitted. Each social group is characterized by its own culture, which informs the thought and activity of its members in myriad ways, perceptible and imperceptible. Culture had other meanings as well. It meant the shared values of a group and the way such values explained human actions. Philosophy critically questions and confronts established beliefs, customs, practices, and institutions of a society and helps to liberate the individual from the imprisonment of ignorance, prejudice, superstition, narrow-mindedness.
5.) Psychology The relations between psychology and culture are multifaceted and dynamic, so inquiry into cultural psychology takes many distinct forms. Psychological processes influence culture. Culture influences psychological processes. Individual thoughts and actions influence cultural norms and practices as they evolve over time, and these cultural norms and practices influence the thoughts and actions of individuals.
6.) Ethical Ethics are the set of moral principles that guide a person’s behavior. These morals are shaped by social norms, cultural practices, and religious influences. Ethics reflect beliefs about what is right, what is wrong, what is just, what is unjust, what is good, and what is bad in terms of human behavior. They serve as a compass to direct how people should behave toward each other, understand and fulfill their obligations to society, and live their lives. Thus, As a backbone to the society, ethics play an incredibly important role to the society because it arises from the conscience or a sense to determine right and wrong.
I think you have some absolutely great ideas, Abhishek! Your writing style is on point.
There’s one thing I’d suggest as clarification though. The essay needs you to address the topics, keeping in mind the STEPPE dimensions and using them to structure your answer. However, it seems like you are addressing the dimension itself vis-a-vis the topic. Also try to include both halves of the topic, ie, when you’re talking about culture, align it with civilization so the examiner knows you’re not focusing on only one part of the topic that you’re comfortable with.
I believe this is a really good attempt, and hope that you keep the practice going!
Culture is what we had been following from the past. It is affecting a person living in a good or bad manner. We have to feel proud by following our culture because it’s our identity that makes us different from others. Give respect to others, believe guest as a god, wearing traditional dresses is all about culture. But every time stick on the culture is good to people? Should we have to follow the culture because it’s followed by patriarchy? Sometimes it becomes difficult. As an example, some groups never accept changes like wearing traditional clothes is mandatory for women, they do not accept western clothes. Follow the culture is not bad but do not accept modernity is the worst. Culture is differentiated by region and religion. It is also different from one group to another group. And this group make a civilization. Civilisation includes organisations, technological development, urban and ruler development along with culture. Indian civilisation is a perfect example which includes different culture group, society, technology, arts, etc.
It enhances the richness of culture if we follow cultural activities philosophically. Sati practise was abolished because it didn’t respect women life and no logic behind it benefit society and sati. Widow remarriage is also promoted. These activities improve and develop the state of civilisation.
Civilisation is a combination of culture that modified with time. In a past, culture was conservative without thinking someone feelings. But with a time change tradition is also changed. Nowadays, culture is not mandatory for each person of society to follow. And maybe in future, it will be more liberal and improve by people. Because people will be more educated which led to prevent exploitation of others.
Culture also affects the person’s thoughts which led to psychological development. Liberal traditions develop and accept new thoughts and ideology whereas conservative traditions do not. Thus it affects the development of civilisation which include a group of a different culture.
Different culture has different activities, various choice, various food, various outfits which promote to inventing new things more and more for their facilities which affect the economic growth. Different behaviour of culture asserts different things. These things get by productions and productions increase the economic growth. Thus cultures also affect the economy of civilization.
But many people believe that do not need to follow tradition. Every person has their own life and own rules and regulations which affect their individual life. But a group of individual lives affect whole civilization. I believe that follow the tradition with logic and feelings instead of following blindly which raises economy, personal development and environmental development.
I think you grasped the essence of the topic really well. You have tried to address the topic in its entirety, keeping in mind the dimensions throughout.
There is some issue with statements that say “should feel proud by following…”. Looking at culture as good or bad is subject to everyone’s opinion. Try to avoid such strong decisions in your essay, especially in the beginning. Maybe you could say “there are parts of the culture which we take pride in, and identify ourselves with”.
Focus on your language a bit more, practise, and I think you’ll be good to go!
“Culture is what we are, Civilization is what we have ”
SPIRITUAL – Culture refers to the learned pattern of perception, values, behavior, shared by a group of people, that are dynamic and heterogeneous. People understand the world through their cultural beliefs though it is learned, not genetically programmed. Where as , civilization is an advanced state of human society possessing the cultural development and unity. Spiritually, it involves the sense of compassion and ideals to connect the world in which we live and to promote these ideals more broadly.
TEMPORAL – As time goes on, cultural activites involves the aggregate of past culture and interprets it accordingly. Through which society or place reaches an advanced stage, where as the process of civilization transforms the beliefs, norms, values, and attitude outwardly. For example, women have more athletic abilities then thought of in the past. Thus, civilization leads to the cooperation and fraternity among societies and their beliefs, also provide insights to unfold the complexities.
ECONOMIC – It refers to the conditions under which a cultural group utilizes the capability of its individuals and the environment to derive benefits. Therefore, civilization aid in increasing global movement, trade,tourism, economic links, instantaneous communication and collaboration with global organizations. Both culture and values shape economic development and consequently civilization in the context of Achievements and orientations, which emphasizes in rapid economic upbringing.
PSYCHOLOGICAL – Here, culture touches on the knowledge and bring to light the meaningful link between individuals and the society. As the mental process is essential to identity the deeply rooted traditions, beliefs, and customs. Moreover, civilization characterizes the social satisfaction and codified beliefs . As ” the soul of our civilization depends up on the civilization of our soul and the imagination of our culture calls for a culture of the imagination “. Thus, it assist conscious and unconcious feelings and thoughts to respond the process and to accept the significant changes.
PHILOSOPHICAL – In this context, culture refers to the progressive accumulation of knowledge, beliefs, values , attitude, etc. It provides justifications that are accepted worldwide and also serve as the spur for improvement in values and notions. Over and above that,civilization soothe the espousal of meaningful ways of life, which includes social, educational, religious, restorational and economic life. Including both public and private spheres through extending human control over the rest of nature and other human beings.
ETHICAL – At this juncture, culture deals with the morality, integrity, principles, values, and in some case even religion. It usually differs from one group to another, as it gives meaning to our existence. Also , it reflects the morality of the society and therefore, it plays a crucial role in determining the appropriate behavior, social norms, cultural practices and religious influences in an organization. Thus human civilization aids to keep the human conduct in check to preserve the peace of the society.
An excellent attempt!
You have managed to connect both the aspects of the topic to the dimensions in a concise manner, backed with sufficient use of examples. I like how you’ve given thought to come up with original outlooks for every paragraph.
I do suggest that you consume more content on these dimensions, via blogs, youtube videos, etc. This will help you enhance your writing content wise, and make your essay a polished one.
Keep working hard!
Continue working hard
“Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have “
As a living soul, our intellect , behaviour and customs, make it easy for us to identify with collective group of people , which form integral part of our cultural grouping. But what lies beyond just this cultural identity is way more complex, for it integrates with collective dimensions of society which at its acme gives rise to what we call civilisation. Civilisation sprouted out of the practices, faiths and beliefs, we as living beings practiced together in structured forms of society . It all began with a trail to survive together, wheeling together to stones, fires, tools, weapons, domesticating animals with singing to sounds of nature , on huge farms sowed with seeds in collective fervour of a society that stayed together and prayed together. A being caring for another being, filled with benevolence , kindness and magnanimity brought us where we are today. No doubt there were instances of few perverted beings, taking it all to the other extremes with brutality and bone chilling meanness , but in the end, the very human essence of civility and cultural belongingness with a shared vision of harmony and peace , survived against all such odds. The wheels of time kept moving forward, and so does the notions of what culture stood for and finally we arrived at the civilizational reality we have today. From the hounds to the new found technogods , we as a civilizational covered a long journey. But dynamics of culture keep changing every now and then . Who had imagined marriages on virtual meets and people helping strangers on fundraising platforms like ketto. The internet brought an unexpected turbulence and depth to us as a society where miracles like helping a cancer patient get best treatment through fundraisers were more common now, and so were the threats evident in form of trolls and cults breeding in crevices of these parallel virtual social realities of humans today. We can only ponder over the extent to which they affect us. Overnight stardom over platforms like YouTube and Instagram , has inculcated The Super powersnabe-ness in pop culture today. On the other hand, it has also opened infinite doors of learning and growth for those who can’t go to degree colleges but have hunger for knowledge. We can only hope that the best in these instances get carried forward in our civilizational attributes .
The implications of these changes cannot be measured on absolute scales but it makes sense to track them on more visible parameters. One of them is the fictional concept of money around which the present day world reigns in ruins. The capitalism Vs communism never cease to end, but in both focus on the greater good of consumer . One ethically providing equal resources to all , while other by providing better diversity to choose from . Culture driven by capitalism fuel innovation and in turn fuel the progress of Civilisation. But we can’t deny the vice versa as well. Revisiting our roots , often inspires us and unexpectedly push for the greater good of all. Communism guarantees greater good as well, but with different terms and conditions applied. USSR showed the best of it and what we see in China is perhaps the worst form of it. Nevertheless, India is emerging like a leader on geopolitical graph, balancing between both these powers – the capitalists and the Communists. For we believe and so we profess- Vasudev kutumbukam . We do not choose from where we come, but where we want to go, is always our choice. Speaking of it on a psychological note, the pandemic has struck the wrong chord . Our erstwhile notions of sociability have been scrapped now, our hands folded and firm, with faces trembling beneath masks. A kind gesture like smiling to tensed strangers , has been taken away from us. But the elbow bumps and namaste have provided a sigh of relief in this touch maniac post Covid culture . Families distanced by quarantine facilities, have came closer then ever , on an emotional note. Human civilization now actually feels grateful to have blessings that were earlier taken for granted. Long walks with loved ones, picnics with children , the joy of basking in sun on shores , the first rain showers , all have become cherished moments . The breathe is more than just air, we realise it now. The doctors and nurses working endlessly, the strangers helping passionately and the children braving the situation heroically, gives a glimpse of a promising future. The Super powers would have kept it to themselves but the stature of big brother they attribute to themselves , thankfully keeps them working for the nations of a lesser God. This degree of belongingness as humans , is the best attribute we carried as a civilisation. We owe to the generations to come, the distilled goodness inherited with a tinge of diplomatic righteousness , just exact enough to survive in harmony and peace with all fellow beings. We can be greedier than this, but definitely there is always room for magnanimity.
Brilliant, Ashmita! One of the most well-rounded answers I’ve read so far.
You have a strong sense of ideation, with good writing to support it. I like the way you decided to choose both contemporary and ancient settings to write your answer.
I do suggest that you try to link some of your quaint ( but great nonetheless) ideas more explicitly with the topic, making it easier for the examiner to recognize the range of your arguments.
”Culture is what we are, civilisation is what we have”
Spiritual Culture involves imbibing human values. These practices and beliefs, when travelled across generations, makes a civilisation. The fact is that, even the greatest civilisations of Ancient world such as Mesopotamia, Egyptian, Indus Valley civilisation saw an end. Hence, the thinking must be broadened and for a farther horizon.
Temporal Previously, Culture was very conservative in nature. Presently, we are seeing a fusion of conservative values and liberal values. In future, we may see liberal values, or conservative, as the conservative values of future, will be the present liberal values.
Psychological Humans are not rational creatures, hence the cultural practices may sometimes be against basic human values. eg. Dowry, Triple Talaq, Santhara, caste system, untouchabilityetc.. Dale Carnegie said “When dealing with people, remember you are not dealing with creatures of logic, but with creatures of emotion“ . The emotional aspect is always present in culture. Various exceptions are made, when very strong emotions are involved.
Ethics Sometimes, culture may come in conflict with the civilisation. For eg. the recent woke culture, Feminazi ethics, have given rise to new ideas, which are partially against the current civilisation. Karl Marx, also proposed communism, which was very much different from what was being practiced at that time.
Economical Keeping the scarce resources in mind, culture of people changes. eg. People living in Rajasthan, will have cultural practices for conservation of water, while in Kerala, people may have distributors canals, for outflow of excess water. eg. People in Uttarakhand, have adapted to the cold climate, and come out for work only during sunshine hours. But in Tamil Nadu, which has a dry and hot climate, people prefer to work in dawn, or dusk.
Philosophical The doubt arises, that which Culture is best? Which one leads to Eudamonia? The answer is that all cultures are equally good, it’s just the perception which matters.
Great use of Dale Carnegie’s words in the psychological context. Really good attempt, Anurag! I like your use of knowledge and examples.
However, I do suggest steering clear of intense topics that may be read the wrong way by an examiner because of some lag in language. If word limit permits, elaborate on topics such as those included in your ethics dimension.
Keep working, read more and consume as much knowledge as you can. It will further enhance your writing!
Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have. Culture is the higher state of consciousness of a society which is made out of the collection of individual consciousness of the members of the society. So, the culture of a society represents its members, whereas a civilization refers to a complex society that is characterized by sophisticated social structures and lifestyle. Culture influences the formation and maintenance of a civilization. In a traditional society, culture is overwhelming and has a much higher control on the individual’s conscience and directs every aspect of individual’s life. However, in modern society, with the advent of scientific advancements, there is a rise in individualism and the impact of culture on the individual decisions have gone down. This change in the attitude of the individuals in modern society is manifested in the kind of civilization that we have currently as compared to ancient civilizations. Since the stone ages, human civilization is built on the foundation of its culture. Early Vedic period had egalitarian culture and we had a flourishing egalitarian civilization with equal participation from all gender and all sections of people. Later Vedic period introduced the idea of caste-based discrimination in the culture, which created a civilization marred with inhuman practices like untouchability and violence against women. Fast forward to early 19th centuries, with advancement in technologies, humans modified the culture to accommodate the new changes and led to creation of new civilization characterized by democracy, freedom of trade, liberty, and equality. So, culture is decided by the people of the society and hence the civilization is influenced by the culture to adapt to the new changes. As mentioned above, the scientific advancements led to economic growth and rise in capitalism in the 19th centuries. Capitalism made a huge impact on the culture. It changed the culture from metaphysical orientation of Hegel times to material orientation, induced culture of consumerism and conspicuous consumption, and individuals started to associate the meaning of good life to material success. This fundamental change in the culture towards material orientation led to a civilization focused on building advanced technologies to improve economic prosperity and achieve great heights in economic growth and profits. So, certainly the culture of a society is influenced by the economy of the civilization that we have at that particular point in time. In addition to economy, culture is determined by the ethics of society. Individuals are guided by the ethics of the society they belong to and that ethics is blended with cultural values and practices. For example, US society’s ethics values material wealth as a superior criterion to measure success of an individual and it is reflected in their material culture. However, Bhutan society’s ethics values nature over material wealth, so the country has over 75% of land covered in forests. The civilization that we have is nothing but the manifestation of the society’s ambitions and values. All society’s ambitions and values come from its culture which is shaped by its people. So, culture is the people and civilization are what we build to sustain ourselves as a community.
What an excellent take on the topic!
You have some absolutely great lenses on the dimensions, and the right level of writing skill to help you put it in words. I particularly loved the way you chose to set the keywords in the economics and ethics dimensions, as well as your ending.
The beginning could be a little better, with less repetition of big words.
Keep practicing and consume as much content as you can. Remember, there’s always scope for improvement!
‘Culture is what we are. Civilization is what we have’
Culture is what we are, we as in our social behavior, ideas, response to situations, thoughts, customs and everything at present. A culture can be as small as a group of people with similar taste in music like hip hop or could be an entire religion based on it. Civilization on other hand is knowledge and culture/tradition from past being constantly upgraded. Civilization can be a city or entire human race .
Culture and spirituality moves hand in hand. Every few decades a new culture rises and depending n the situation of world it accepts or declines spirituality. Spirituality can be related to religion more often and hence different religion gives different paths to spirituality but their goal is one. For atheist spirituality is something that give peace and not related to religion. Since civilization is a product of culture it had and will always have some or other form of spirituality related to it. It can go as far as spirituality can lay foundation to a separate civilization it self.
Culture being reborn time to time is evitable just like life civilization however is something that stays forever, in one way or other. Cultures change just like fashion, which is also a culture but civilization doesn’t matter vanished how long still impacts life today. Houses and agriculture started at Indus valley civilization is what that lays base to todays agriculture.
The economic development depends upon cultural factors . The society incorporated in cultural economics always contain values that helps in civilization.
Civilization gave birth to philosophy, and culture is what keeps it going. The philosophical beliefs of society are derived from their cultural traditions.
The psychological development of a human being is also based on his culture and the environment in which he lives. His traditions and practices largely influence his psychological development. These changes in culture have made together the various faces of civilizations.
Ethical theories itself creates cultures just like religion. Civilization on other hand consist it all the end and beginning. Ethics change from society to society, people and their beliefs.
In conclusion, Culture is the representation of life choices and its effects. Civilization is how culture grows and leads improvement in human life.
Good attempt! I like how you tried to end your answer.
You do have a good level of understanding of the dimensional analysis. However, I do suggest that before putting pen to paper you lay out the points clearly in your head. Try to watch more videos or read more content, it will help you create a more substantial essay. Work on your language, grammar and syntax. Overall it is a great attempt, keep practicing!
Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have are both demographic old-age roots of the whole manifesting the unique style of times perceived as in the very culture and civilization of the being as whole. Uniquely flagging the values, beliefs and fellowship of human relationships reforming the idea’s of living the life in a way that makes it existential. Culture are unique in nature and adorned by the hopeful practitioner as to live life full of cult stories and faithful patronage to the understanding of humans in a unique way, as an anthropological study for the period of duration to know more about human understanding and sustainable development. Civilization is a dynamic and homogeneous version of one-to-many diversified culture in yet unique style of existence, that makes the civilization eternally existence because of the “Artha” or economical dimension of deep rooted ideas manifesting the sphere of all dimensions focusing on the only single means of understanding the psychology of the mind to better interplay the convention of the said relationship, good relationship help us live happy and flourishing life, but on the contrary the followers, the believers and the practitioner all tend to find themselves in quest of life enchanting your actions to act on my half, what should we ought to do? Ethically speaking considering the hindsight wisdom of existentialism of culture is what we are, and civilization is what we have therefore what we are is culture and what we have is civilization the all dynamism of unique historical grounds of co-existence and human flourishing to find the priceless values amongst the civilized and cultural being of a noble society.
It is not what it seems it is rather it is what is it, as simple as that.
A really good attempt, Sunny!
You definitely have a flair of writing. Your ideas seem to be of weight.
Try to breakdown these ideas so they can be noted in the examiner’s head with ease. It’ll not only fetch attention to your writing, but also give due credit to the great perspectives you have on the dimensions.
Continue working hard!
Spiritual dimension: Culture is the way of living the people live and the civilization is at what standard the people live. Culture and Civilization exist interrelated in a community. Culture brings the people together and keeps in a circle of bond which is maintained by following certain rules and regulations by the people. There is a spiritual bond in the community with culture. Whereas, civilization defines how the community lived and developed their standard of living. Civilization brings out the economical bond among the people living in the community. The spiritual bond in the culture and the economical bond in the civilization together makes the standard of living better and valuable in a human life. Temporal: Culture and civilization both exists only when the community follows and maintains them with flexible cooperation in large number. Here, humans live in dual reality which are objective and fictional. Culture is objective and civilization is fictional life. Culture shows the way of living with cooperation and coordination in the community. Whereas Civilization brings out new technologies which develop the living standard but fails to increase in human kindness among them. Culture and Civilization with flexible cooperation and coordination in a community might lead to a better humane culture. Economic: The rituals and customs in a culture brings out the economic relations among the people in the community. And the economy is developed along with the civilization. The study of people and their choices explains about their civilization. Philosophical: Culture has a good value in life when it is followed by the community. The good relationship keeps us happier and healthier and the social connection is good for us. Ethical: Good and bad decisions values a community. The culture might guide for good decision making and sometimes it may take a wrong turn. Civilization with proper regulations helps in better decision making.
A good attempt!
You have some great analyses to put forth. However, I do find some debatable arguments in your answer. For example, how is civilization a fictional life? Isn’t it in fact the manifestation of many practices combined, and thus as non-fictional as it can get? Secondly, culture may not always have a good value when followed. There are certain cultural practices that are deemed outdated and hence harmful.
I suggest using diluted terms or taking time to structure the arguments well if you’re confident about them.
Keep working hard, you’ll do great!
Culture in essence is delineated by literature, art , food, music, custom, ideas and beliefs developed within a civilization. it helps connect people by caring and sharing for more than the self. We travel great lengths to quench our thirst to get to know the world better and in that process better ourselves.How we are is how we see the world.
Some people may opine that differences divide , while the beauty of these very perceptions help us appreciate and break egoistic boundaries of religion, region, race, castes too. Differences may cause awe or divide -hindering the furtherance of co-operation and development of society.In a book by Yuval Noah Harari called Sapiens it is beautifully traced that Hunters gatherers evolved supreme over other wild animals when they learnt to effectively co-operate and use technology to dominate the planet . In a one off fight of survival on an deserted island a chimp may fare better but when you have thousands of humans vs. thousands of chimps up against each other, humans will be victorious by sheer cooperation in large numbers even if we don’t know each other personally. we have learned to share our collective creative skills in technology of weapons, medicine, communication devices, robotics, IT and much more without knowing personally who invented them in order to use it. Thanks to barter system evolving into monetary exchange. Culture is ever evolving -it changes with time and is not permanent.
Though animals live in a tangible objective reality of trees, fruits, rivers- survival ingredients etc; humans live in a dual reality including objective is well is fictional reality. This common human fictional narrative birthed Industrial revolution, urban Proliteriate, organised ideologies, money, nations, new opportunities etc to qualitative and quantitatively enhance human lives through co-operation for our own advantage.
One may ask why culture emerged or what makes people co-operate? As resources are limited, judicious resource allocation is critical in different geographies and climates. Instead of one person producing everything, it proved more effective to specialise and share the bounty. Thus the choices we make determine if we thrive and survive. Desires irrespective of consequences of pursuing limitless growth leads to cultural decay. the opportunity cost shapes the culture through the choices and actions of each civilization.
A brilliant answer!
I like the way you tried to use certain theories to prove the evolving nature of culture. You do have great ideas!
I suggest you try to balance the answer by focusing on not just one, but both the aspects highlighted in the topic. Focus more on structuring using the dimensional analysis technique.
Culture is beliefs, thoughts, thinking,etc of a particular society ,group of people,etc. Civilization refers to society or group of people which comes together to make cultural and technological development. It seems difficult to find relationship between culture and civilization but culture is the way that gives to civilization a standard of living their lives. Civilization has been changing from ancient time , earlier the only way to live life was gathering resources of their need and live life simply.But in upcoming years it has been changing rapidly now some more challenges have arisen with development. Civilization in Mesopotamia from Egypt to civilization in indus valley these civilization in culturally or socially were in more advanced stage than we are now. In indus valley civilization sewage and drainage system in cities were more advanced without using any technology they had developed all these things. Culture in person shows behaviour of a particular civilization.
Good attempt, Harshit!
Try adding content to your answers, I’m sure you’ll do great !
“Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have”
SPIRITUAL “Culture” is the intangible inherent sense or perhaps the deeper manifestation of an idea of belongingness to a certain belief an individual have. This belief enables an individual to transcend to a whole new imaginative world or realm or dimension wherein he or she sees a larger perspective and the reason of his existence or perhaps purpose.
“civilization” is the realisation of the beliefs to tangible existence and in the process creating a timeless flow through the generations to the growth of culture.
TEMPORAL The century’s existence of mankind along with million of species and the dominant survival owes to the cultural diversity which has enable us to adapt and acclimatize to overcome all the existential threats. The history of evolution and evolution of our diverse cultures have displayed resonance since time immemorial enabling us to be what we are.
Today, if we are in a condition to decide and control our existence, its because what we have created across the human civilization under the influence of our cultures.
ECONOMICS When we speak of the creations, its these diverse creations of diverse cultures which intrigues the human mind to desire, to compare and to develop a sense of happiness and fulfillment upon experiencing or perhaps acquiring those cross culture creations. it all depends on the choices we make and the trade offs we do to prioritise the choices. This cultural exchange when looked at a micro level is nothing but the aspiration to have a better alternative and perhaps this aspiration runs the whole economic cycle. On a larger scale this microeconomics turned macro has resulted in great mighty civilisations.
PSYCHOLOGICAL Almost all the great civilisations has well developed and nurtured community living. Developed economically and nurtured culturally. The tangible and intangible both are complementary for an enriched happy and peaceful existence we the people, the social animals.
ETHICAL Since we ourselves are “animals”, one of the fellow beings to millions on our planet, we have some moral and ethical obligations or perhaps duties being the most advanced, so as to ensure the sustenance of what we have and what we have created through civilisations so far. The global awareness and more importantly acknowledgement of the environmental crisis is perhaps one of many right and essential steps towards fulfilment of our necessary duty. through the revolutions the world has achieved and the cultures have enriched and civilizations have thrived over time. not all the choices and decisions made were right but its now with this present day awakening and awareness, its us who n needs to decide whether to take the “harder right or the easier wrong”.
You’ve clearly given the topic due thought. I particularly enjoyed your take on the spiritual dimension. Try to read and consume more content, so that the distinction between your various perspectives gets clearer and prepares a better essay for you!
Culture is the widening of the mind and of the spirit – Jawaharlal Nehru. Culture is the presentation of what we act, how we behave. Civilization is the presentation of how we adapt and develop. Spiritual Indian culture practices Dowry system in some parts of India but we adapted, developed and as part of civilization we evolved to a strict No to this practice by developing our mindset. Yoga rich Indian culture and heritage is now providing good health and calms our minds and souls, has now achieved global fame and widespread popularity. Sanskrit language and different Vedas are also recited in different parts of the world.
Temporal Culture and civilization are not constant and they are interchangeable in nature. Both evolves over time. The perfect example is the use of water in playing holi has subsequently reduced and people are now more civilized to play with colours only.
Economic In India we have culture which reflects as ATITHI DEVO BHAVA and it has lead to expansion of our tourism industry to a great extent. Our hospitality rich culture has created new employment opportunities enhancing lives of thousands of people.
Psychological As culture evolves over time, it has also lead to evolvement in psychology amongst the people. Indian culture depicits worshipping female goddesses and on the other hand does domestic violence, kills girl child, does gangrapes. Thus it’s a high time to evolve not only physically but emotionally and physically.
Philosophical It’s the important part of our culture. It’s the lover of wisdom. Studying philosophy has lend to mental imbalance. It’s with the help of philosophy any person can represent to any culture.
Ethical Ethics are a set of rules which guide human conduct. Shall we move from the religious beliefs or culture but stick to it, the dilemma.
Culture is what we already have that can’t be changed, or can be change, but development and adaptation to it leads to great civilization and thus making the world a better living place.
Good attempt, Jevish!
I like the examples you took for the economics and temporal dimensions. Good thinking!
I do want to suggest some practice with the presentation of your ideas. At times, they seem to be blurring into each other which may become problematic, but is definitely workable.
CULTURE IS WHAT WE ARE , CIVILIZATION IS WHAT WE HAVE
Culture refers to the group of people’s beliefs, values, principles etc which are employed in decision making while civilization is the result of these complex decisions taken following culture.
Spiritually cultures and civilizations are dependent on each other for successful progression throughout the history, from ancient indus Valley civilization to current 5th industrial revolution era. Culture has produced different values which have been seeped in to the civilizations ex – in indian history Buddhism and Jainism propagated value of non-violence which later became tool in modern India’s fight against colonizers. Also ancient Indian cultural value of helping a helpless is still revered as a part of sensitive civilization.
Worldly desires and needs shape our civilizations ex – communist, socialist societies; which over long term become part of culture.
With culture of society which defines its economic motivation leads to the civilization which is economically motivated.
Creativity of mind has always led to inventions in society which have helped in modification of culture for ex- invention of fire led to cultural habits of contemporary civilizations regarding food habits.
How to behave with others and on what basis a particular decision to be made lead to deep rooting of cultural values that are followed in society. And these values guide people in shaping civilizations.
These are definitely some really good ideas!
Keep working on your language so you can do justice to your thought process. I see potential for a great essay!
Culture develops slowly as it takes time to be imbibed by us. Most often people moving from developing nation to develop nation gets cultural shock when they witness contrast lifestyle being followed by the host nation. But by living for few years they are get used to the same culture. So what has changed? It is perhaps them who after staying and soaking the surroundings get accustom to their way of life. Civilization develop at society level and are sum total of the practices followed collectively. At the start it was barbaric ad then it slowly moved towards agrarian and now at present we are in Industrial civilization. In India’s urban area, there is a mixed of western civilization due to globalization and we would find people eating burgers and Pizza and having mobile constantly buzzing away.
We have a mixture of both scientific and traditional beliefs where we study about gravitational, Darwin and big bang theory but also believe that we get all the answers in Gita ,Quran or Bible !Some believes in supreme being and other believe that god resides inside all living beings. From cultural perspective it is the individual journey which makes us accept some traditions and reject others. We always try to weigh in facts and constantly try to better ourselves. As Socrates has correctly said- : The unexamined life is not worth living ” . In current situation, civilization is moving towards making life comfortable for human with the help of their intellectual and we have become hedonist. So much so that some believe that we might have large number of population unemployed due to AI taking over the jobs. Leaving the economic aspect aside, in a civilization, people tends towards similar background in a society. Individual identifies themselves with a culture and would grow Philosophical by living with the same person with same interest. They would try to validate themselves through surroundings and would form strong relationship with person of similar interest.
All in all it is safe to say that it is easy to be part of a civilization whereas culture is having set of beliefs which is inherited from one generation to another
You have the skill of a great thinking process. If you work on your presentation and writing skills a bit more, it’ll be absolutely great!
Keep practicing and working hard!
Spiritual Culture is defined as a way an individual or a group live, think , feel and organise themselves , celebrate and share life. For many thinkers the need of the culture was felt by our ancestor in order to make life more organized . It plays a role to maintain social order and is designed in a way to go above the animal spirits . Since ages culture has been handed over from one generation to another . The basic purpose of which can be said to guide the coming generation in the ways of uncertain life and to live in harmony with oneself, society and surrounding. Whereas the way of being able to live better than yesterday is said to be civilisation
Temporal The future may witness a massive destruction of many civilizations due to the nuclear power that the nations possess today or another world which is extremely sophisticated and scientifically more advanced having many more abilities which were previously thought to be godly or divine like creating a new creature, becoming immortal etc.
Psychological – If we feed good things and virtues to human being mind in the learning stage. That will remain in the nervous system. When we grow up that is our strongest belief system. Easily we cannot change it. We can forgive a person but not our nervous system
Ethics: With all advancement in the civilized communities, the greed for more and more increased. A culture that taught us how to respect all living beings as equals started deteriorating. It is at this point that sensitisation and reconsideration to going back to roots gained popularity. The idea of sustainable development and peace and brotherhood are a result of this change in the perception.
Philosophical: A child may not choose to be born in a particular place, time, religion etc but on growing up may choose to follow traditions or rationally question who and what we are.
I really like your ideas, specially how you’ve expressed them in the beginning.
However, these is a sense of lagging in the last couple of dimensions, try to read or watch more videos so you can understand the various sides of the topic- which will then help you formulate a more substantial answer.
Good attempt, keep working hard!
Spirituality- according to spirituals, culture is way to attain spirituality. The one who is rooted in culture can find the real meaning of spirituality. Civilization kind of offsets one away from real state of spirituality.
Temporal- change is inevitable. Culture and civilization both had and will indeed change with time. Civilization like Harappan, Indus valley , culture like old bad customs such as Sati paratha, child marriage, have changed as time progress or as we progress.
Ethics- culture can very well imbibe the morality, values which is what ethics is about. In a civilized society one has to be conscious about his/her actions , and this consciousness can bring ethics but a forced one.
Economic- civilization is the major concern for an economist . As he/she would focus on how to increase their capitals by modifying civilization. Which would indirectly affect culture.
Psychology- culture and civilization are ways to make people connected with each other. A society which take care of each other, talk often will produce healthy people. Customs and rituals were made to get together people so that they can relax their minds off.
Try to be more detailed in your arguments, or they might not be read as well as they deserve to be. Also, i find some loopholes in some of your points. Someone rooted in culture may or may not find the way to spirituality. While it inculcates human values, it also exists with contentious sides that are direct roadblock on the path to journey. Differs from culture to culture, person to person.
Overall great ideas, keep practicing!
Topic.Culture is what we are, Civilization is what we have. Spiritual
If we say about Civilization there are many meanings of civilization the stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained. Civilization is a collective phenomenon. It defines the spiritual beliefs of the masses that has been produced through the centuries. Culture relates to daily practices that is influenced by civilization.There are many synonymous for civilization like culture, lifestyle etc.
Civilization is temporal. They have risen and fallen throughout time. It is a group of people at one of the most advance levels of development. Culture stays. It evolves. Culture does not break.Civilizations have grown into global interconnection on a planetary scale. Events that happen in any part of the planet have its direct or indirect influence on people’s actions on all other continents.
Civilizations are highly prosperous as they see people banding together. It is characterised by division of work, luxury, an urban market of goods. Culture decides what we do with this luxuries and goods.The globalisation of the world economy has left governments less powerful and threatened cultures with homogenisation. The Huntington thesis – that the world is now divided into rival civilisations and that they are likely to be the source of the next round of world conflicts – may seem weak in the light of this. In fact many people fear that economic efficiency will produce a single culture.
Philosophy has various definitions for culture. One is of course the traditions followed by a particular ethic grouping. The second is how we live. In a capitalist society, mass production of goods and advertisements form mass culture.Cultures are sometimes evaluated by the use of the designations ‘civilized’ and ‘primitive’. These terms have a deceptive simplicity, and attempts to document the differences implied in them have proved to be of unexpected difficulty
Culture is the product of the process of civilization, It defines our ethical values which vary across the world. Different cultures follow different sets of moral norms.
I like how you’ve tried to tackle every single dimension properly. I am not sure if you can explicitly state that ‘civilizations’ and ‘cultures’ are synonymous- that would defeat the purpose the topic altogether.
Also try to work upon substance in your argument. Though great and fresh already, your ideas could become even better with the right amount of work put into adding more weight to them with content and presentation.
Spiritual: C.U.L.T.U.R.E is an abbreviation of Compassion , Usefulness, Love , Traits, Union , Reverence and Empathy which imbibe the civilization. As a result of culture has been influenced either directly or indirectly a civilization based upon those values. Temporal: Since time memorial , Culture and Civilization had witnessed Tsunami changes on human civilization due to not only interwoven but also interconnected. For example: In Ancient times (4000B.C to 400AD) , Culture were mostly depended upon religious beliefs and its orthodox on its subjects whereas in Medival period after Fourth Century AD, Mainly deprived upon leadership traits or their whims and fancy. Eventually these aggregates even more worsen or penetrate under colonialism of their masterly inactivity. Thus,therefore, the accumulation of the past that we have in present which paves the direction to future I.e civilization what we have. Economic: Economic, for instance, most of a customs and human civilization were mostly dominated by cross culture nationalism or cultural materialism I.eExport -Import of cultural which resulted culture account deficit on civilization in the post Globalization thus our culture becomes glocalism. However, many of these has the potential to strengthen the socio-equity and sustainability on civilization with minimal distortions of any customs perpetually this culture what we have, is,profit oriented and manipulation of civilization same onto this as resultant of cultural and civilization has become business rather than prosperity to all including on environment. Psychological: As far as psychological is concerned on cultural and civilization, both has highly impact on any society. For instance , Culture Intelligence and Civilization Quotient were grossly emphasized on individual largely and society as a whole. If any, of either lacks equity then most probably that society could have been undergone malady culture as consequences civilization is also become unusefulness rather its disturb on human beings, particularly , vulnerable sections thus therefore welfarism underneath of culture what we are. Philosophical: Each Culture and its civilization has it’s own means to achieve its end. If it have maximum utility on its subject, it makes more pleasure rather than painful decisiveness to the end. Suppose, If a culture Example- A democratic nation had sovereign protection on its culture and civilization but in the interconnectedness of the world other nation has tried to influence on developing nations like India in order to achieve their endurance. China for instance, their trade and arms power culture or wolf civilization has had been always made other country underneath of them or persuade to do their whims and fancy this culture become purely become dictatorship that we have today. Ethical: Each cultural and civilization beads are hall mark of making a jewels -peace and Prosperity of a nation. If any one of these beads loosen from threads then it will threaten society as whole. For example, As per National Crime Bureau report suggests that, Rape Culture has been predominantly destroying even more than poverty on the society this civilization what we had is now grave dangerous due to wrong means. Thus culture what we are must makes better civilization but it depends upon two factors, one hand leadership of a culture .on other hand ,their subjects -people both makes culture and civilization of their own needs .
You are looking at the topic the right way. I like how you’ve tried to stick to the dimensions separately.
However, I’m not sure if I was able to grasp all of your ideas because of some minor issues in the language. But they’re definitely workable. Try to work more on your writing skills and grammar, and you’ll be great!
Spiritual – As a result a range of emotions that we would typically feel only in any relation. We might remove the pain of someone. So try to understand people’s emotions. Temporal – Form birth to death our parental figures, and relationship with change from person to person. Every human being blossoms from his nature. Molding in a predetermined shape once the mold is done remains in the same shape so the journey is vital. Psychological – If we feed good things and virtues to human being mind in the learning stage. That will remain in the nervous system. When we grow up that is our strongest belief system. Easily we cannot change it. We can forgive a person but not our nervous system. Philosophical – In Philosophical studies ideologies and theories most important topic is the human being. Its showcase the progressiveness of humans and their application in life journey. Ethical – kindly talking with people showing care, love, gratitude for what we have everything, showing empathy, what we have with us giving to needy one.
I think you might have missed out on reading the topic. I appreciate your attempt, and you do have good writing skills.
Read the article above once again, and I’ll be happy to see your answer then!
Both culture and civilization evolved and became multi-dimensional as time passed, this passage of time is what we know today as history. During the time of the early men there was neither of the two the need of co-existence could be viewed as the reason for the civilisation and as civilization progressed, men developed cultural values. As time passed evolution took place, the basic survival instinct of adaptation also had an effect in civilization. Man found ways to adapt and grow and evolve in every aspect of his life. Amidst the growth of civilization man also found a way for social interaction he realised that civilisation cannot be carried forward without the co-operation of the other humans, as a result, social interaction was of prime importance. These activities, as time passed gave rise to art, architecture, rites rituals, linguistic which we were a representation of culture which in turn became were the basic driving force and representation of civilization. The Roman colosseum was a centre of the biggest social event in ancient Rome, Nordic long houses were places where Norse men held feasts and celebrations, Bhramo Samaj, Araya Samaj were cultural and social movements that brought in a revolution in the nation and civilization the human race in the path of continuous advancement. All of the cultural activities were focused on the betterment, benefit of the individual who was the corner stone of civilization
As civilization continued to advance and grow money and wealth became a major factor in the lives of men and livelihood was on the extreme ends of the spectrum with one end comprising of people struggling for daily bread and the other end people were aristocrats. This division was the major cause of a variety of wars and conflict throughout history. This entire cycle was broken down by the industrial revolution in England, this was when civilization found a way construct an economic model where every single person will be contributing in a way that would improve the overall economy of the nation. Thus, the advancement of civilization was always spearheaded by the ideal that each person and their need must be full filled in turn the same person will work and contribute to the betterment of the civilization. This idea in itself became a culture that civilization follows till today
This is all I could think of till now sir, the topic is vast and I find it difficult to structure and link the POV to a complete essay I am close to the deadline that is why I am submitting it I will finish the essay for sure
It’s a brilliant attempt!
I really like the way you’ve chosen to weave your arguments in a flowing manner, makes the essay an interesting read!
I would just suggest structuring it in a way such that all the different dimensions have their own space in separate paragraphs, which can fetch your essay greater attention, owing to the clarity. Keep consuming more content, looking forward to reading your entire essay!
‘Culture is what we are , civilisation is what we have.’ Culture and civilisation have been regarded by many as the two aspects that are unique to human . Since ages the claims of being the most civilised have been entertained by many be it nations or be it communities and in these even the religions have made their presence felt in this debate. But is being civilised same as being cultured ? In this essay we’ll analyse these two concepts and how are they related to each other. 1) Spiritual Culture is defined as a way an individual or a group live, think , feel and organise themselves , celebrate and share life. For many thinkers the need of the culture was felt by our ancestor in order to make life more organized . It plays a role to maintain social order and is designed in a way to go above the animal spirits . Since ages culture has been handed over from one generation to another . The basic purpose of which can be said to guide the coming generation in the ways of uncertain life and to live in harmony with oneself, society and surrounding. Whereas the way of being able to live better than yesterday is said to be civilisation . It is considered to be advanced state of culture . But , if it so , then why are some society totally unrelated to one another are considered to be civilised or primitive in relation to one another ? The answer to this question lies in the nature of some person being ethnocentric . To them , their culture is superior and that of other’s inferior . 2. Temporal Goverment in many countries and many international organisations are making efforts to preserve the cultures of peoples . Even some of the regional organisation go door to door emphasizing the need to save their culture and keep following it . But , why is this emphasis on saving the culture when people themselves have made it to make their life more meaningful? Are they leaving their culture , if this is so, then how are above said functions of culture being done? The inability of a culture to survive the test of time makes it being abandoned and if there is a grave error present in it , it needs to be corrected as was done by the constitution writers by abolishing untouchability . The other reason may also be the people being influenced by the culture of other’s avoiding which becomes unavoidable in this globalised world where civilisation is mistakenly being regarded as same being westernised . 3. Economic Humans do work to fulfill their needs and according to Malinowski needs are culturally decided. And as R.C Brown says society forms societal institutions to fulfill these needs . Among these institutions also lies economy which is the basic for the survival of life . Be it simple society or be it U.S.A , every society has devised to fulfill their economic needs. It depends upon their level of technology and environment . Civilisation is characterised by the technology that one adopts . For eg . industrialised society is said to be more civilised then that of agriculturist. 4.Psychological Culture plays a role affecting human psychology and in turn being influenced by it . It is the psychology of their human along with their environment that led to the adoption of diverse culture everywhere. As said above the role of culture to form societal organisation , these organisations do play a role in decreasing pressure on humans and engaging them in activities that unknowingly releases their stress . For eg : meditation as promoted by indian sages since ages. Civilisation on the way of easing life has been said to have made it more complex with new sort of problems I.e diseases such as depression , the graph of which has raised much more than anything . Many may argue upon the ease of living which comes with civilisation be it modern day transport ,devices for communication , leisure time etc . But it is no hidden truth at which stage the relationships these days are at. But still the case depends on which part of glass one looks to. 5. Philosophical Culture does decide the philosophy that one follows . Most of the culture have established ways to make life worth living . Even with civilisation new aspects of worth lived lives have emerged and civilisation can also be seen as way of having life worthed if it is seen as a means of making life better. But it depends upon individual who in such gets to decide what he really wants .The concepts of philosophy differs from society to society with thinkers like Aristotle emphasising on the keenness to know . But in today’s world it is up to the person who have the choice of making life meaningful with ensemble of culture and civilisation and living in a way continuously improving oneself and being happy. 6. Ethical It is the culture which decides what is right or wrong and hence there is no universal morality . It differs from culture to culture . However in this civilised world , one of the feature of which is formally established law and justice institution and clear set of rules , uniformity is emphasised . Human rights , compassion towards all living beings and constitution guides the life .
Those are some really good thoughts!
You definitely have the potential for being a good writer! I really like your perspectives on the ethics and temporal dimensions, and even the rest are well thought-out!
Keep practicing your language command, and you’ll be absolutely great!
Thank you so much sir. I’ll really work to improve the flow of my writing as well as embedding diverse points on the essay.
Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have.
Spiritual: Culture is a social fact that is created by whole society and not by an individual. Values form the bedrock of the society from which different ideas, customs and social behaviors emerge which collectively form the culture of a society. The oblique perspective of existence where an egoistic mind ceases to operate helps reaching those values. Generosity, selflessness, compassion, love are few examples of those values that make most of the cultures. As humans progressed from groups following a culture to a civilization, the collective good and responsibility helped a them in the process. Many civilizations are a mix of different cultures.
Temporal: The world we live in is connected and complex. It is progressing continuously in space and time. The journey of us, humans from an insignificant animal to the most dominant creature on earth has witnessed culture as an important factor that helped humans. The ability of humans to cooperate flexibly and in large numbers has played a significant role in making maintaining culture and building civilizations that in turn has helped humans in achieving their cultural, social and economic goals. Culture can be seen as a end(values, goals) and civilization as a means(tools, techniques) to that end. Civilizations existed from ancient times, some of them declined and some continued. There are also present day civilizations based on modern values with mixed cultures. The future may witness a massive destruction of many civilizations due to the nuclear power that the nations possess today or another world which is extremely sophisticated and scientifically more advanced having many more abilities which were previously thought to be godly or divine like creating a new creature, becoming immortal etc.
Economic: All creatures on earth thrive on resources. Amongst all creatures, humans have the capacity to exploit these resources extensively. Since the scarcity of resources is a fact, all these resources come at a cost. The culture that always asks for cooperation is fundamental for resource sharing. This cooperation, knowledge acquired on resource sharing and making choices using costs, benefits and risks has been the cornerstone for the building civilizations across space and time.
Philosophical: Humans have always been in a search for good life. With this they always tried to find an answer to the question ‘what is a good life?’ and in the process they continuously examine their life which forced them to consider their actions. This makes them more responsible for their actions. Core of the most of the cultures is taking responsibility to one actions. With this responsibility, humans always try to search for meaning in all that they do to find if it is worth doing. In the search they always connect the purpose of the task and find the value to the task. They themselves can evaluate the greatness of a task in this way. This principle helped them in building the greatest civilizations of the human history and continues to do even today.
Psychological: Humans have their set of goals to be achieved through their life. They invest a lot of time and energy in this and eventually feel isolated. This feeling of isolation can leave serious impact on physical and mental health. A great way of staying healthy both physically and mentally while working towards goals has been to maintain good relationships with fellow beings. Family, friends, colleagues, community all have a role to play in our social circle with whom we make relationship. The quality of relationship is very important in determining the satisfaction an individual derives from it. The cultures that formed through centuries laid emphasis on the importance of the relationships and the efforts an individual should put to maintain a healthy relationship. The greatest civilizations owe their existence mainly due to the harmonious relationship which people had with each other on a greater scale. The behavior of people(abiding by the rules, not getting into conflicts often, not turning rebel, cooperating in finding and implementing solutions to problems) in a civilization helps in proper functioning and existence of the civilization.
Ethical: Every culture is built on its own values, the things people hold to be good and care more for them. These values give them their perception of good and bad. Many times they face some dilemmas where they might have to slightly deviate from their values. It is in such situation principles guide them. Principles are the acceptable ways of getting things that are valued by them. In short, principles help a person choose what is right where as values help them understand what is good. The judgement in such situation should be connected to the purpose. The purpose validates the choice. Many civilizations throughout the ages have been facing ethical dilemmas which were answered using some guiding principles which determined what is the right for them.
That is one great attempt, Ramona! I really enjoyed reading your answer.
Your usage of the means-to-an-end analogy for Culture and Civilization stood out, and I would suggest using something like this in the introduction part for a stronger effect.
I also want to suggest that you consume more content and read more on the Philosophy and Psychological dimensions; with such a good answer, it is unfair to let two dimensions hamper the flow. For your ethics dimension, I advise you to tie your “principles of good and bad” idea with culture, by pointing out how these principles are often sources from cultural regulations.
Great work, keep practicing your language.
The world is on fast pace of transformation. With every revolution that the earth takes around the sun, the human life evolves a little more than before. Throughout this evolutionary process, what remains as the basis for existence is the culture that is retained by the human kind. Civilization has taken different shapes and forms from ancient to modern ages. The binding force being the culture that has run for time immemorial. A culmination of culture and civilization is the modern day world that has progressed enormously in all domains.
Spiritual: Culture has it’s genesis in civilization. While the societies evolved, the cultural forces drove their ideas and beliefs. The Vedas, that were once an essential document for the civilized society transformed into the culture of the descendants of those civilized societies. Culture is a way of life and civilization is where life interacts with different cultures.
Temporal: Like all other beings, humans have evolved from the primitive forms of life i.e.the Apes in this case. With time, this theory Darwinism gave the man the capability to think and analyse. This allowed them to turn their new found rationality to the right use and gather the likes together to form a society. A society then performed the basic obligations and rights that were bestowed on them. This led to the formation of the cultural tendencies.
Philosophy: The divine law from the early schools of thought found the reason for human life to be driven by rationality and divine powers. This rationality slowly gained momentum and turned to positivism for being accepted. While the schools of thought changed, the human kind and it’s reasonableness/rationality remained the centre of all theories. What is important to understand is that every philosophical school was the result of a cultural advancement and the refusal to accept the old ideas that no longer fit the enhanced civilization. This change in theories and ideas resulted in the emergence of ‘Rule of law’ and the modern societies that are governed by it.
Psychological: Culture, being a more innate quality, plays a key role in bringing together the like minds. In the ocean of dissimilarities, every individual seeks to find someone who has some likeness to their own self. It is through this conformity that a societal construct is formed. United Nations, a result of like minded nations coming together to achieve world peace is a great example for such cultural likelihood that turns into an organised way of interaction.
Economical: Through the passage of time, as the homo sapiens progressed, their curiosity to experience and adopt different cultures increased. This led to more exploration and exchange of ideas and traditions. With the said exchange, the terms of wealth and capital found to be acknowledged in abundance. An economic system thus evolved to facilitate the exchange between different cultures. The present day global economy has managed to consolidate the whole world into one community that exchanges it’s ideas and commodities with minimum friction.
Conclusion: Culture and civilization find themselves interacting with each other in every aspect. The inheritance from a civilization is it’s culture and the cultural development results in civilization. While culture forms a more inherent aspect, the expression of it is the formation of a civilized life. Therefore, Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have.
I enjoyed reading your answer!
The potential for a good writer is absolutely evident in your language. The thinking process is also just as good, which will serve you well with the dimensional analysis.
I do have one small observation- in your philosophy dimension, when you say “humankind and its rationality remained the center of all theories”. You seem to be suggesting that philosophy was always anthropocentric, or humanist for that matter. However, that is not true. Maybe you can say that such philosophy often dominated over divine laws?
Keep practicing, you have the skills to write a great answer!
SPIRITUAL Culture is a set of ideas and beliefs that a particular group or people or society follows with certain set of norms. Whereas Civilization is an ever lasting process that keeps on replacing certain group of people by another with different ways of living.
Temporal: Culture and civilization are dynamic. They change with time. While civilization is always advancing, culture may or may not. It majorly depends on the people’s needs and mindset.
Economic: Economic progress is at the root of all civilizations. Economic policies tend to have significant impact on culture.
Psychological: Every human into the civilization is unique in every aspect of the identity of the self which is integral to the difference between people and their psychology.
Ethical: In ethical view culture is difference from different person. It tells only the judgement. This is right or wrong, ethical or non ethical. Both Culture and civilization are a result of contemporary conditions and how people tend to decide what is right or wrong.
It looks like you have grasped the essence of the concept here. Your language is quite good as well.
I hope you try to read more and watch more videos in order to be able to add more substance and ideas to your answer.
spiritual dimension: Culture is the way of life by people at that instant period about a single society.Civilization is complex combination of all other factors including culture that shapes up a soceity. Civilization makes itself a broader topic than culture on a larger notion.Both are the results of evolution from shorter to broader picture that makes them different yet interlinked with each other.It is clearly understood that both the concepts are meaningless when we had considered about only one person or personal likes. Temporal dimension: Culture is defining the way we live,eat ,sing etc at that particular period.Civilizations have been build by us with time having cultural aspects as one of its part. The complexity of civilizations is that the evolution that was happening simultaneously on all its factors.The complexity of culture lies right in its composition when its evolution makes its an another kind.It is the culture that differentiates the early man who ate plants and animal meat covering themselves with bushes and leaves from the morden man with different thalis and wearing clothes of diiferent materials. Economic dimension: Civilizations are the economic report presented after a fiscal year but culture becomes an important part in the budget allotment done at the beggining of the year.The cultural beliefs and practices priotorise the needs and settlement of the people greatly hence predicting the flow of currency and other aspects indirectly.Civilizations comprises all kinds of resources with cultural resources also as one.These two can be viewed as two braod branches of economics with macro as civilization and micro as culture. philosophical dimension: Culture can be considered the philosophy of live in different degrees measured.Certain cultures have actually more close to the philosophy of our living while others not much related to it.The birth of philosophy may be gradually understood with the diversity in cultures. Civilization can be more intellectual rather than being evaluated at that time itself but a future concept for improved good life.This intellectual change is important for the birth of new culture and also moves us close to that one goodlife to be lived. Pshycological dimension: Culture shows that like minded people are together forming a part of the society together.Civilization shows the different ideas in harmony forming a type of whole society.The other factors of civilizations are the driving forces that directly create an impact on the mentality of people of one culture by changing the beleifs and activities keeping the evolution moving ahead. Ethical dimension: The ethical perspectives had awakened the society by showcasing the unwanted customs and beliefs thus bringing the welcoming views for new or the same cultural activities.thus ethical principles have showed considerable effects in shaping a single cultural group and also complex civilizations comprising different cultural groups.The principles of living had brought the uniqueness and individuality to any cultural group or civilization.
Some of your ideas that have stood out to me are- Comparison of Culture and Civilization along the lines of Micro and Macro, and how it is culture that differentiates man of bygone ages and the modern man.
I do see some scope for improvement in the language area, as it may weaken your answer if not taken care of. Also try to delve deeper into the dimensions, particularly Philosophy, Ethics, and Spiritual dimensions.
Civilization is a collective phenomenon. It defines the spiritual beliefs of the masses that has been produced through the centuries. Culture relates to daily practices that is influenced by civilization.
Civilization is temporal. They have risen and fallen throughout time. It is a group of people at one of the most advance levels of development. Culture stays. It evolves. Culture does not break.
Civilizations are highly prosperous as they see people banding together. It is characterised by division of work, luxury, an urban market of goods. Culture decides what we do with this luxuries and goods.
Philosophy has various definitions for culture. One is of course the traditions followed by a particular ethic grouping. The second is how we live. In a capitalist society, mass production of goods and advertisements form mass culture.
Really good attempt!
I like the clarity of thinking that you’ve portrayed very well in your answers. I particularly liked your take on the temporal and economics dimension. Very concise, with a lot of potential for emphasized elaboration.
I encourage you to read and consume more content, so you can write a full answer without worrying about substance. It could be a great essay with just the right amount of work and practice!
Culture is what we are and Civilization is what we have. Culture is the outcome of social beliefs, practices, custom religion of a specific place which its people follow. Civilization is seen as whole state grouped together with its people, administration ,institution, economy etc. Culture and Civilization are complementary to each other. Culture of a Civilization is woven in the heart of its people. Spiritual – Culture lets the people see the world around them with different perspective. With the beliefs found in a specific cultural people tend to connect them to their soul. While in a Civilization spirituality is known on a whole as which deity the people worship amd what are the values they are known for.
Temporal – Culture and Civilization both evolve with time.Change is the rule of Universe. With respect to the practices and beliefs in a culture they change with time according to the need of people. Example the Culture of Sati pratha that was widely practiced in ancient india have been eradicated now aftermany revolutions .It signifies change in culture. Evolution of Civilization however is a bit different. It evolves gradually over many years not due to any revolution but as a result of changing climate, new discoveries , development of humans and their mental level.It cam be understood by example of Ganga valley Civilization in which we all live today. It started like ancient civilizations beside the Ganges people living like hunter gatherers in huts but evolved in 2500 years and here we are today playing between machines comfortably living in our Air conditioned houses.
Economic – Culture on another perspective is an economic opportunity of a Civilization. As in a civilization when people practice their beliefs, customs and follow the religion they tend to do produce, some consumption occurs amd some expenditures .Hence Culture indirectly participates in economy of Civilization. For example ,The temple cities grow around a timy temple where some peoplw engage in production of food , decors amd some other with administration and trade and millions come to worship. Moreover Economy has 2 branches Micro and Macro. As Macroeconomics deals with bigger subjects of market like unemployment, inflation etc Likewise Civilization refers to a bigger picture. It may have many sources of economy through its people and creatures like agriculture, animal rearing. But Culture tends to sought with small but crucial matters like customs, religion exactly like microeconimcs .It itself is a component of economy.
Psychology – Culture signify the type of people that makes a Civilization.Culture describe their mental ability and somehow physical well being too. Because in a blooming culture when people connects to each other socially they tend to live happily and are healthier than those without any culture residing lonely. But In a Civilation we can see patches of different cultures leaving different impact on minds of its people. For example The Present Civilizations is quiet different in terms of the culture it has adapted through the past years. When Britishers invaded India some of us rejected the western ideas but some relentlessly accpeted it .Amd today we are a mixture of more Western Indo culture. It affected the minds of people, their lifestyle amd what not
Philosophy – Philosophy is the practice of always thriving to know life better,tp bewise and virtuous, to accpet the truth with evidence . In our Culture we have undergone many changes for betterment be it, Schooling for Girls or abatement of Child marriage. On other hand Civilization is made up of its people. Like people , like Civilization. Hence Civilization is outcome of the culture people tend to follow. Like Your life is in your hands. It is upto you how to make it great and evaluate its greatness. Similarly , Civilization is made great by its people, the culture which blooms in its lap and not just by the mere discovery amd inventions. For example. When in an international conference Swami Vivekananda wore his normal attire Dhoti kurta , he was asked sarcastically by a British why dont you wear clothes like a gentleman? He answered gently In your culture Clothes make a man gentle , But in our culture It is the character of a person that makes him a gentleman.
Ethics – Ethics is at the centre of everyday life. It reside within us. It urges us to choose between right and wrong. Like culture is based on beliefs, practices and customs, Ethics is based on justice, knowledge, values and norms. In a Civilization millions of people live taking millions of decision daily chaging the fate of its civilizations in many ways. It is based on our perspective what to choose is right or wrong. For example When French people invaded America They thought them as uncivilized because they weren’t producing or using the nature for their benefit . Instead they were living close to the nature just utilising it for their sustenance. It wasn’t ethical to colonize people only on behalf of your perspective of them as primitive and backward. It was good in both ways as living close to nature as well as using its components for our use. But As MK Gandhi said Nature has everything for everyone’s need but not for anyone’s greed. Hence it was good for economy of France but not right according to Ethical values.
That’s a pretty good attempt!
I sense a really nice flow of ideas in your head. It would be better represented in your answer if you were to work on your language and writing skills a bit more. Also, I’m not sure if I agree with your last argument in the Spiritual dimension. Spirituality and Religion are two entirely different concepts. Spirituality centres its learnings on man’s position as a microcosm, however religion institutionalizes certain set of norms that are governed in man’s life by the existence of a power named God. You cannot exactly say that in civilisations, these two become one and the same thing.
I do like your ethics dimension. Maybe the French-American example could be moulded according to the need in a better manner.
Overall, I see great potential in your ideas! Keep working hard!
Culture is what we are, civilisation is what we have SPIRITUAL: Spirituality and culture are very closely linked.Spirituality has brought social change ,it made people travel to religious places and follow rituals and these have improved our culture. TEMPORAL:Different cultures understand time at their individual level.some cultures values time and some believes to control time,some cultures are punctual. ECONOMIC:Some cultures are achievement oriented,in some cultures independence is valued most and it is believed that independent upbringing of children leads to economic growth. PSYCHOLOGICAL:Culture influences psychological processes. Individual thoughts and actions influence cultural norms and practices as they evolve over time, and these cultural norms and practices influence the thoughts and actions of individuals. PHYLOSOPHICAL:Through philosophy culture justifies its values,beliefs and it helps in the progress . ETHICAL:Ethics helps us defining what is right and what is wrong.some cultures have certain values which may be right or wrong , in ethical terms it is important to recognise difference in values .
Really good, concise ideas! I suggest you spend a little more time on absorbing knowledge of these dimensions, so you can add value and elaborate on your ideas.
Culture is what we are and cultivation is what we have. culture is way we as a human live in this world it shows our beliefs ,faith in ones religion culture society.it makes our society for world of good deeds above social evils Example : buddhism, jainism Culture with evolution gives us civilisation in which times plays an important role .time advances the way of our livings which makes advancement in culture and civilisation as well. Example harappan civilisation The society makes up of economics . The rules and regulation we have example wake up early in morning or mantra in religious books Culture makes socially responsible for eachother and for society which are shows philosophical behaviour of human Psychological behaviour of human being based upon people and environment around him like people with diffrent region have different social aspects to live in society Culture and civilisation both are interconnected with eachother and depends on eachother
You’ve clearly understood the topic and the dimensions well enough. I think it’s time for some knowledge enhancement to make your arguments strong and comprehensive!
Good work, keep practicing!
culture is what we are, civilization is what we have
SPRITUAL- Culture is the set of ideals ,belief, rituals and moral values. A human is born with some culture and develops it in its own set of choices with age. culture is related to making of one individual . It is an intensity of enthusiasm that we restrict to one other ego is now distributed more erratically and generously across the entire universe and all its life forms. spirituality helps to develop culture in a more generous and better way .It helps to notice life in a way we never otherwise do.
TEMPORAL Early man in history focused on objectivity at first. With changing needs and time humans started to develop fictional stories which helped them to build civilization. Civilization is a complex society with specialized social structure and governments with set of rules and laws. Humans developed unique ability of imagination through which they made stories and convinced everyone to believe them. Humans developed sophisticated financial trade relations for building successful civilizations. ECONOMICS- the world has different cultures varied with region to region .every culture have different perspective and priorities with respect to economic development. Economists study various theories and study policies according to preferences of respective groups. Good economy contributes to social and economic well being of a civilization . Psychological- In the world full of competition, growing with success and money has become the need of a human being. in the mid of this journey humans rather than focusing on individual self(culture) focusses more on materialistic world. They keep on overlooking their relations and culture. But a human develops a happy and healthy life with good quality relations which are successfully made with devoting time and balance of decision making. Philosophical- Culture is what we are, it is our individual self and it definitely needs to evolve with time. we need to choose meaning to what we do, be creative and being able to question our own self and look deep. The choices we make in our life shape our life . Ethics- Ethics is the process of questioning, discovering and defending our values, principles and purpose. It is about building a life that is truly our own with cultural values.
I see that you’ve tried to approach every dimension in a systematic manner- this will definitely help you structure your answer well!
I do notice that you’ve strayed away from the Culture-Civilization in a couple of dimensions. Please keep in mind that the dimensional analysis is not just to talk about the particular dimensions, but to talk about the given topic in their context.
I see potential for a really good answer! Keep practicing.
“Culture is what we are, civilisation is what we have”
Often the usage of the term “culture” in English language is made referring to a man of manners and etiquette and an “uncultured” man is supposed to be its antonym. In actuality though, the term culture has a much broader meaning. Culture is the sum total of all the intellectual ideas, knowledge, beliefs, values, customs, material or immaterial which gets passed on from one generation to the subsequent. Every generation has the capability of adding to it, removing from it according to their experience. Culture encompasses innovations, events, developments and everything that we can possibly think of to take its form at a given time. It is a means by which human life progresses dynamically in every sphere. As they say, human being don’t always have to “invent the wheel” is only because our learnt culture get solidly entrenched into our existence. Civilisation on the other hand is nothing but a materialisation of this learned culture in a complex social setup. It not only includes the intellectual ideas, values, belief system but also an expression of these in more sophisticated forms. A civilisation may consists of multiple cultures. The Indus Valley civilisation is characterised by their culture of nature worship, ornamentation, intricate structure of roads, granaries etc. For someone looking at the whole of earth from a distance, the civilisation of Earth may be a peculiar civilisation in itself which could be characterised by multiple nation states, technological advancement and different societal structures.
Culture is a function of time. It is what we inherit and civilisation is what we make out of the inheritance. It is very clearly evident that culture undergoes transformation with time. The thoughts, belief system, practices, social construct and institutions, all of them are affected as time progresses. The institution of marriage in the Indian civilisation for example was very rigid a few decades back. Marrying outside ones caste was almost like a taboo. With time as the ideas of globalisation, women empowerment, migration seeped into the society, it also reflected as an increase in number of inter-caste marriages as they became more acceptable. What makes our civilisation unique from those of our ancestors is only how the cultures around the world have evolved with evolution in technology.
Our early ancestors were no different than any common animal that lived during that time period. With time humans have evolved in a way that we are now the master of this planet. As Yuval Noah Harari has explained that a major factor that differentiates us from chimpanzees was being able to cooperate flexibly on a very large scale and believing in dual reality. And this is where culture found it’s origin which later lead to the formation of a civilisation. Chimpanzees or any other being for that matter look at reality as it is i.e. in an objective manner taking things at their face value. Human being on the other hand have a unique ability to imagine which makes us look at reality not just objectively but also from a fictional point of view. We create fictions around the rules which govern our society. A larger fraction of people believing the same fictional story makes up our culture. This story needs modifications as technology progresses to be acceptable by a larger population and this goes on. The industrial revolution for example was a major technological shift in the 19th century. This advancement initially caused chaos in the minds of the people as the cultural pattern exhibited then was not able to answer them. Then came along thinkers like Marx, Engles Lenin who gave the concept of communism and socialism and so did Industrial Revolution find a place for itself in the civilisation of 19th century. A testimony to this is the development Indian Railways and setting up of multiple mills and factories by the Britishers.
The emphasis here is that new ideas are the building blocks of any culture. What might be unacceptable at one point may not be so a few decades later. Ideas, beliefs, value systems are under a continuous process of transformation which implies the same for our culture and can be readily seen in our civilisations. These ideas or belief systems need to have some meaning to be able to be accepted at a large scale and how meaningful something is, is also decided by us. Fasting for examples, was looked at as more of a religious practice a few years back and even today, depending on where we are looking but more recently fasting has also enthused the fitness enthusiasts who look at it not like a ritual but a practice to keep their bodies fit. Here fasting relates to the inherited culture and the meaning we attach to it is what we make from our civilisations. Human minds are inquisitive. From religion to science, inquisitiveness has led the path. We see a range of belief systems from complete atheists to spiritual to religious and extremely god fearing people today. The central idea here being the meaning we attach to our fictional existential reality transforms our culture in leaps and bounds. Back in the day, a successful woman was the one who was able to run a household, rear children and often educated women were looked down upon. Their ordinary lives were made heroic. But today, so is not the case.
Another major factor so as to how our specialised our civilisations are at any given time also depends upon how are the available resources being utilised and how does our political structure function. Man was a hunter-gatherer during ancient times. What he hunted, his family could consume. On the days when the hunt was unsuccessful, his tribe would contribute to feed his family. Hence, a hunter gatherer civilisation hardly left any leisure time which is why the cultures political and structures in those times was extremely simple. As culture evolved and man learnt the art of producing and storing food, the political structures started taking a more sophisticated shape and hence what we do see as a result is an agrarian civilisation. Now man could spend his leisure time in developing complex economic and political constructs for his civilisation. He could decide who would be the leader of his tribe and later emerged the concepts of nation states and democracies. A shift in economic culture in a particular time period shows ripple effects on the kinds of government and their policies. Our culture act as a guide, as a way or life in making the choices when our resources are limited. The choices we make then translate into our civilisation. To spend public money on poverty alleviation or space technologies is a kind of dilemma the government in many developing countries face. The proportion they allocated to each one might differ for depending on the way their cultural ideologies have evolved, I.e are they more capital centric or welfare centric in that sense.
The unique quality about human civilisations is it’s ability to reflect human thought which is guided by culture. What we can think, we can make make. This is not only true for material developments but also for social institutions. The spatial spread of civilisations and how they differ from each other adds another dimension to what man can make originating from a single place. The Indian civilisation, an amalgamation of various religions, their festivals, the rituals when contrasted with the American civilisation differ vastly. Even among the Indian civilisation, the extent of variation has no practical limits. A tribal civilisation in the deep jungles of the Chhotanagpur plateau vis-à-vis a rural civilisation of a village in Bihar or a more cosmopolitan urban civilisation in Bangalore have a wide spectrum of cultural variations. Social institutions of culture like family or marriage find its uniform presence across all of them but how they exist is what makes them inherently different as a civilisation. In tribal civilisations we might find families being closer to their community as they depend on them economically and culturally. Similarly in the villages, extended families might be common as the requirement of labour on agrarian land could be fulfilled by them. As we move on to cities, the size of the family eventually reduces as the cost of living rises and families become an independent unit. Spatial variation in civilisations is a reflection of various factors that man is subjected to.
These variations in culture, spatial or temporal can be looked at though multiple lenses. More often than not the ego ends up comparing them to their own background looking down upon others. But the essence that we are missing out here is that a particular culture cannot be weighed on the scales of some other culture and this is where the concept of cultural relativism comes in play. Norms or customs that one is used to are neither wrong or right but essentially they are only different. Hence, cultural norms and values derive their meaning within a specific social context. Cultural relativism tried to promote the understanding of cultural practices that are unfamiliar to other cultures such as eating insects or genital mutilation in Sudanese Civilisation or head hunting culture of the Nagas. The very famous debate between human rights and cultural relativism tries sheds more light on what is wrong or right within the sphere of any culture. The only result being that no culture is absolute and it is only a matter of time that it changes it’s shape again in changing the fate whole upcoming civilisation.
I really enjoyed reading your answer. It’s concrete, well elaborated and all of the arguments have been placed in just the right manner. It looks like you’ve understood the trick to approaching the dimensions.
I do not see much to find a fault in. However, I hope you keep enhancing your knowledge so your writing becomes formidable.
Keep up with the hard work, and don’t stop practicing!
“CULTURE IS WHAT WE ARE,CIVILIZATION IS WHAT WE HAVE”
Culture is a set of values followed and carried throughout generations, also set of rules and behavior of the society whereas civilization is the modernization of culture. SPIRITUAL: Culture represents the highest form of self-consciousness,From the ancient history, yoga, mediation is considered to provide”mukti” which is the highest form of self-consciousness.
TEMPORAL: As nothing is permanent, civilization changes as more advancement occurs over time.
ECONOMY: Since many products are introduced with advancement like mobile phones, Internet, laptops, more demand and supply occurs, with all aspects like agriculture, food,clothing etc which increases economy.
PSYCHOLOGICAL: people posses culture as a mental construct.They believe following culture is more important than any ethical path. They simply follow culture because it is said, without analyzing good and bad. The more advancement occurs, so does the mental state changes.
PHILOSOPHICAL: Philosophical according to culture provides some good ways to lead life, answers to human questions, and ideologies.
ETHICAL: Since in daily life we came across many problems or questions , we tend to follow our culture because it is more ethically correct and are followed by many people.
I think you can do more justice to your writing by trying to add to your knowledge base. Read and consume more content, as much as you can. I sense some diversion from the topic in a couple of dimensions, but I’m sure you’ll make up for it by practicing more.
Continue the hard work!
S.T.E.P.P.E – SPIRITUAL. TEMPORAL(TIME). ECONOMIC, PSYCHOLOGICAL. PHILOSOPHICAL. ETHICAL. Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have Spiritual Our culture,has been deep rooted amongst each one of us,which has helped us resist the barbarism of the invaders Culture is what has made us tolerant, vibrant and diverse .It shows how as people we are actually,and not to forget it had helped us dwell our civilization. Temporal Change is the rule of this world,if our diversity is unable to withstand the modern age,then it is the indication that change is needed.Nothing is permanent,so the changes incorporated in the society and civilization,so sure leads us to a more broad minded and open minded society Economical Culture is often the representation of different ideologies,lifestyle,learning style ,food habits of a people of a society. These factors determine the overall development of infrastructure,the growth of economical sectors of the civilization. Psychological Culture of a society,indicates how the society as a whole thinks.The individuality and uniqueness of different civilizations are the basis of culture,which is enrooted in each individual. Philosophical Different approaches to under stand an issue,topic,and dealing with them shows how important is culture to any civilization.The issues dealt maybe of similar nature,but how it’s approached makes all the difference Ethics The ethical code,moral behaviour of each culture is different,each culture has its own set of rules , regulations,punishments and the belief of what is right and what is wrong. Thus culture,plays a crucial role in all these aspects and influences the society/civilization,which maybe positive or negative. The example of discarding social evils like schools marriage,sati in the Indian society is one of the best cited examples in history.
That’s a good attempt!
It’s quite clear that you’ve grasped the essence of this method. All I suggest is some elaboration of your arguments, and make them a little more direct in the sense that they do not make your answer vague, but substantial.
Also, I’m not sure if it is okay to say that cultures make us tolerant, vibrant and diverse. Perhaps you can put it in this way- Cultures may or may not make us all of those things. The products will always be contingent on the past structures, and subject to new structures in the future.
Overall, it’s a great attempt. Keep working hard!
Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have
Spiritual Culture is a set of practices that mold one with love, compassion, peace, spirituality and helps to know the meaning of life. Whereas culture is a part of civilization. Where culture is passing over generations. Temporal Temporal means changes with respect to time. As the generation passes, culture may change in every aspect, which may lead to the betterment of civilization. Economic Economical growth of the individual is related to the economic growth of society, which may lead to the growth of country and so on. Finally the growth of civilization. Psychological Culture may be influenced by the thoughts of great persons in history in good ways. Also there are a lot of immoralities are happening in the name of culture, which may affect the civilization. Philosophical The philosophical part includes basic morel values to the civilization, which are followed by our ancestors. Ethical Ethics is all about what should we do. Ethical thoughts may lead to the betterment of civilization.
Try to talk more about your arguments or they might be read the wrong way. Reading more might help this.
I also suggest working on the writing skills part.
” Culture is what we are,Civilization is what we have “. Spiritual-: Culture helps one to determine its spirituality in the form of searching peace, wisdom, purpose of existence etc.as the Culture has evolved manifold so as the spirituality. Today’s civilization has become more of the materialistic concept. People have started to live in the Spiritual denial and are more incline towards shenanigans activities. Temporal-: It is right said that with time everything change so as the case of Culture. Human have evolved through various Culture. Each form of Culture offered its form of civilization, like harappan civilization, Mesopotamia civilization. So, Culture and civilization goes hand in hand and changes with time. Economics-: It is the large set of inter-related production and consumption activities that aid in determining how scarce resources are allocated in a civ civilization Culture determine the way of living of life. It is used to determine the tastes, preference and choice of the people. Philosophical-: in ancient Greece, philosophy literally meant a love of knowledge and wisdom. In modern times,the field of philosophy is more specifically the study of how we think through problems. By this one can understand that how Culture helped the civilization to deal with the problem. It is rightly said that to live a life one must stay connected to the roots.this is what philosophical aspect of Culture teaches society. Psychological-: Culture plays a crucial role in the way in which one’s think ,react ,behave.culture is also the one of the key factor in humans mental and cognitive development. Earlier human were calm, composed and self satisfied and hence a health one.it is rightly said in healthy body stays the healthy mind.in today’s society with the rise in number of physical problem,mental problem are also increasing. Earlier people follow the nature principle of ‘early to bed ,early to rise,makes a man healthy and wise’,but in today’s fast moving world one has completed forgotten this principle of nature. As a result there is rise in the case of anxiety, depression, loneliness, suicide etc. Ethics-: Culture defines ethnicity how moral a person is.culture ethnicity helps one to determine the difference between right and wrong, moral or immoral. Although it is not mandatory that people with same Culture has same pattern to approach things, female foeticide,ban on widow remarriage was in ethical code only. But with evolvement in time and situation, today’s civilization understood the impact of those on society and hence banned it.
The term culture means having the heritage of customs and traditions acquired from our ancestors and thus preserving it as precious treasure. Civilization means leading to a progressive lifestyle in a humane manner. If we look around us, we find that every human is somewhere connected to one’s culture and strives to lead a civilized lifestyle irrespective of its region on the earth. Human beings have the basic instinct to support its culture and civilization since always. Hence, as human beings are the rational animals who have responsibility to be cultured and protect the civilization. So, as culture and civilization are the two basic key factors of human life, they are influenced through different dimensions of beliefs in a different manner. Spirituality makes one connect to the infinite power of the universe, hence one develops into more cultured and civilized individual. Being cognitively pacified and able to connect oneself to others, spiritually one develops empathy, sensitivity and love for others and towards the nature. Hence, spirituality makes humans cultured and develops civilization. We are cultured a human beings and have evolved for millions of years, hence, leading to civilization and have cultured from chimpanzees to the human beings as today we are. We have changed our culture and tradition from wearing animal skins, domestication of cattle, stonage to modern era today. Whereas, many people of the society choose to develop themselves as modern symbols by imitating others’ traditions which look tempting and hence making oneself distance from its culture but many people choose to preserve their culture by having their own cultures and traditional norms in order to preserve their culture. With the economical view point, the culture can be taken as an asset of capitalism by concentrating on the trade within the cultural society as per the demand of their culture and many inventions have been made till present to civilize mankind today which can be understood by the principle of evolution, from drawing water from the well to just pressing a button, from taking months to trade by ships to supplying the goods by airplane within a few hours. Hence, the more civilized and cultured we have become, the more economic opportunities have escalated. Psychologically, the path of culture and civilization must be followed to have happy and healthy life. Being cultured, we treat others with respect, which improves our relationships with one another and leads to a happy life. Civilization has led to connect the world through various mediums and hence magnifying our social network. Hence, we can have a healthier and happier life by having social acceptance. According to eudaimonia philosophy, ” a life in which a person constantly striving for self-improvement, to be more virtuous, more wise, more thoughtful and self aware better.” Hence we can see that humans have been improving in every aspect of life and hence have been practicing civilization by developing their agricultural practices, domesticating cattle and making wheels to industrialisation and globalization, enhancing the human lifestyle and sharing the cultures internationally with respect to clothings, food , traditions, festivals, languages, human beings have been at advantage due to culture and resulting in civilization. Whereas, the culture and civilization bound us to make the right opinion according to the ethical view point, being unable to dissociate oneself from the subject matter. Hence, culture and civilization highly influence our decisions and will negate the right opinion, compelling us to take biased decisions. According to culture and civilization, where one thing is good for someone, the same can be harmful to the other. Hence, culture and civilization can affect our ethical decisions adversely.
“Culture is what we are Civilization is what we have”
Spiritual:- It means relating to people’s thoughts and beliefs, rather than to their bodies and physical surrounding It is the process of awakening from ordinary consciousness, rising above the ego and awakening to a wider consciousness. It can mean expanding the mind beyond limitations, thoughts, and limited viewpoints about life and the Universe. The social life is guided by some rituals . principles, and beliefs and that is culture. So behaviour in ourselves is result of culture and civilization is a process which developed through ages. Culture taught us how to live and civilization is how we are living. culture embedded our body and soul with the power called supreme power. Buddha said- ‘Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life. Temporal:- Culture is a way of life of a group of people–the behaviours, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept. It transferred from one generation to another. It is more about stability whereas civilisation is always in growing stage. Change in culture is observed with time, as the old thoughts and traditions and customs lost with the passage of time and new ones are added to it which are then transmitted. Culture can evolve and flourish even if the civilisation does not exist. Civilisation cannot grow and exist without any culture. Economical:- Culture is the set of knowledge, experiences, and behaviour which is commonly shared by a group of people. It is something that person gains through learning. This learning decides how the development of civilisation will take place. Different cultures have different food habits, different clothing, different preferences. These choices determine the development of infrastructure, industrialisation, economical aspects of a civilisation. It controls the demand and supply of the goods and services and other economic parameters also effected in the same way. Psychological:- Every human into the civilization is unique in every aspect of the identity of the self which is integral to the difference between people and their psychology and that is the reason why even the identical twins possess different qualities that makes them unique. Philosophical:- If humans are unique in their own sense, they are bound to be different with respect to their ideas & beliefs about the meaning of life which is philosophy. This presents dynamic aspects of things which might feel similar but are seen through different perspective. Ethics:- Ethics is a code of behaviour that a society considers moral and appropriate for guiding relationship with one another. Each culture has different standards of right and wrongs. The custom of sati pratha was the part of the indian culture and it was considered right at that time, but with the time people realised its ill effect and banned it. One thing could be ethical for one culture and unethical for another.Such as Female foeticide, tabacco consumptions.But in whole standards improve with the time and pave the path for the better civilisation.
” Culture is what we are,Civilization is what we have “. Spiritual-: Culture helps one to determine its spirituality in the of searching peace, wisdom, purpose of existence etc.as the Culture has evolved manifold so as the spirituality. Today’s civilization has become more of the materialistic concept. People have started to live in the Spiritual denial and are more incline towards shenanigans activities. Temporal-: It is right said that with time everything change so as the case of Culture. Human have evolved through various Culture each form of Culture offered its form of civilization, like harappan civilization, Mesopotamia civilization. So,Culture and civilization goes hand in hand and changes with time. Economics-:
“Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have.”
Culture is the set of beliefs and norms followed in a particular society whereas is civilization is a much broader concept consists of a mixture of various cultures. Spirituality (thinking beyond ego) culture enroots us to be loving, caring, and affectionate, and that too without fear. Nothing is permanent, hence the culture and civilization have gone through changes Civilization is much more what culture brings up to us today and vice versa. We are growing with time, hence society is changing. As the economy is the study of people and choices, so With an increase in sources of income today, we have better facilities to avail and leading to the present civilization. It has influenced cultural patterns. Psychologically, culture helps us to develop by providing an environment. Both culture and civilization are dependent on each other hence the change in psychological aspects of man in particular culture leads us to change or reform civilization. Philosophical beliefs and norms are derived from society in a particular culture and nothing to do with civilization. Being civilized and not forgetting our culture is what specifies the role of ethics.
Spiritual- Culture helps people to determine its spirituality by peace, love, purpose of existence, meaning of life.Today’s civilisation is more about the materialistic life than life of deed and doings. People have started believing the materialistic world than in the real world. Temporal: Culture includes believes, ideas, innovations in humans which shows light on civilisation. Humams are considered as the most civilised species due to their cultural believes, organized lifestyle and civilised mannerisms. It can be termed as an end in itself. Economy: It is the large set of inter-related production and consumption activities that aid in determining how scarce resources are allocated in a civilization. Culture determine the way of living of life.
psychological : The goal of civilization is to acheive better health facilities. It could be achieved by good healthcare facilities, proper care and treatment. Proper health leads to success and happiness among the people. Proper health tends to good mental health and ability to think and execute ideas. Philosophical: The meaning of culture depends morely on its philosophical part. Philosophy has an important role to play in culture and upliftment of civilisation. Moral believes which were excavated during ancient times are more relevant nowadays and people always much importance to them . Philosophical causes are termed to be important factors for the upliftment of civilisation and widespread of culture.
Ethical: Culture is defined as the value ,ideas and beliefs that develop over a time span which form the ethical reason for the society we live in . The social, economical, political, educational structure which our society holds are depends on the same ethics.
Dimensional Implementations : 1. SPIRITUAL : Culture which is a set of beliefs and practices helps us to know about exact meaning of life. Its a permanent concept of Existence of humans. Whereas, Civilization tells us about its non-permanence. As human beings have seen a number of civilizations till today but there is no permanent existence of civilization. 2. TEMPORAL : Culture evolves according to the practices done by the people. There are various shifts in cultural aspects like one as knowledge levels of society improved. Whereas, Civilization makes use of cultural strength to fulfill their aspirations. 3. ECONOMIC : It defines the opportunities and problems like agriculture in important parts of various states. Whereas, Civilization through economic dimension tries to extract maximum monetary sources. 4. PHILOSOPHY : Culture defines philosophy level of society and is neutral in terms of practices and beliefs. Whereas, Civilization makes use of philosophy to have decision making and best justification of their outcomes. 5. PSYCHOLOGICAL : Culture represents mental maps of human, their likings and dislikings. Whereas, Civilization try to assert its culture through various practices. 6. ETHICAL : Culture is a belief , which is biased from view of people following. Whereas, Civilization resolves to take a comprehensive view point of every human action and their proper implications.
Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have CULTURE Culture is a social practices and norms in the society.Culture has evolved from generation after generation.
CIVILIZATION Civilization is the development of society over a period of time. Development in culture leads to the civilization.
TEMPORAL Technological development leads to the development in today’s world.
PHILOSOPHICAL Culture is evolving from practice and development is evolving from upgradation of existence.
ETHICAL It differentiates the moral and immoral value of life.It questions the belief of human over the existence of human thought according to their activities.
ECONOMIC Economic means the conversion of civilized people to satisfy their earning to lead a socially respectable life and improve their social status in life.
“Culture is what we are, Civilization is what we have”
Culture is a set of values that helps us in the shaping the different behaviors of the society and civilization helps in the development of the man-made environment. Culture in spirituality teaches us that we have to love and care for each and every one irrespectively. Culture is like a mind with range of emotions for others. Spirituality helps us to make a better version of ourselves. Civilization is the physical development which can be compared to as body. It has no particular feelings or emotions. Both together is important for the enhancement of human. Culture without civilization and civilization without culture is like a mind without body or body without mind Temporal is related with time i.e., culture. Earlier we humans had different practices, cultural, clothing etc., but when we see today there are lot of changes that has occurred. These changes has been occurred with respect to the time. We can see the improvement in civilization from bullock carts, huts, dressing to the invention of vehicles, wheels, clothing, and houses etc., where there is a change in culture as well as civilization with respect to the time. Economic is not only the growth of the nation but it’s also the day to day improvement in the society. We buy things, we pay money. Some works like weaving, farming, doctors, teachers are part of culture which is still practiced today. This also helps in the growth of the economy. Therefore, culture and civilization are inter dependent to each other. “Health is Wealth”, we humans most of the time forget that a healthier life is more important than rich life. In search of money we lose our family, happiness, culture, festivals and we only just move towards civilization creating ourselves in isolation. Our culture is of festivals which brings all together and this makes us happier than being alone. If we are in search of good life then we should have a quality relations to maintain it. Good life is built with good relations. Philosophical is something dealing with the reality of life. This helps us in the improvement of civilization but lacks in the culture. Being practical doesn’t help our lives to be happy and satisfied because we humans are made of emotions. We are not examining ourselves we are just living for the opinions of others. We believe what others say rather than analyzing our own potential. In this situation we don’t get enough recognition for our imagination. Ethical is a branch of philosophy, when moving towards civilization somewhere we lose our culture. Sometimes may be unknowingly and sometimes knowingly. We are stuck in between our culture and civilization and without a quality decision we mostly choose over civilization. Actually we forget the purpose of our culture. Sometimes very hardly we follow them. But, when it comes to a decision we have to understand the best option based on the purpose. Otherwise, we will slowly move away from our culture by losing ourselves.
SPIRITUAL A civilisation is the result of cultural accumulation over a millennia. Culture signifies the refinement of human taste. For example; music, literature, food , basically the way we live. Spirituality in the form of a higher sense of being represents the best elements of a culture. The most enduring cultural signifiers of a national are those inspired by the spiritual state of mind of its people.
Culture is what provides us an identity; makes us grounded to our roots and helps us look beyond ourselves to the humanity at large. For example, Indian culture has emphasised the importance of self realisation as the aim of our life. Our Civilisational heritage is built around the human spiritual longings to find peace and meaning in their lives.
TEMPORAL Humans are unique and evolved over other species because of culture. The first civilisations were built around rivers because it provided almost all the essentials needed for survival and leading a settled life.
Culture belongs to the present, the actual, always evolving aspects of our life. Civilisation on the other hand is of past, of what we were and where we have come from. Thus a culture can have the influence of many different civilizations. For example the Syncretic Indian culture as we know it today is the confluence of cultures derived from Indus Valley as well as Central Asia.
A nation’s culture and economy are interrelated. Nations with flourishing economy which are centre of trade are also renowned cultural centres. An affluent population can afford the time for leisure and indulge in cultural pursuits. For example the Gupta period is referenced as the Golden period of ancient India because its kings patronised artists of great repute.
Similarly, Civilisation have often perished due to economic mismanagement.
Culture influences the psyche of Individuals. At the same time, cultures are shaped by the thoughts and Ideas of great men.
The practice of non-violence prevalent in Indic religions like Buddhism and Jainism shaped our freedom struggle. Mahatma Gandhi emphasised on bringing a cultural revolution in the psyche of Indians to gain independence from the British rule, for example his advocacy of untouchability, Swadeshi, use of Hindi etc.
Civilisation represents the achievements of our ancestors in living a good life. It provides us the context and tools derived from experience about how a person should live. Culture at the Individual level represents the thoughts and ideas of an individual regarding various aspects of life. At the social level, culture represents the aspirations of a society towards the human well being.
Culture can take many forms across time and space. Many culture have elements in it which are not conducive to the existence of a inclusive tolerant society. The modern International norms of human rights and democracy requires that cultural practices antithetical to basic Juan values be discarded. For example, recently the practice of triple talas was done away with by Indian parliament because of it being retrograde towards women.
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Spiritual: Culture helps one to determine its spirituality in the form of searching peace, wisdom, purpose of existence etc. As the culture has evolved manifold so as the spirituality. Today’s civilisation has become more of the materialistic concept. People have started to live in the spiritual denial and are more incline towards materialistic nature. Temporal: Culture includes set of beliefs in humans like flexible cooperation in large numbers which has enabled it to become the dominant species on the planet. It can be termed as an end in itself. Economy: It is the large set of inter-related production and consumption activities that aid in determining how scarce resources are allocated in a civilization. Culture determine the way of living of life
psychological : the ultimate goal of civilization should be to acheive good life with better health and happiness . this could be developed with the healthy social broad networks of relationships , cooperations and social cohesion. Philosophical: The essence and meaning of culture is holded by its philosophical part. It enunciates its basic character and core . Moral beliefs which are disseminated during buddha time are still alive and are more relevant in today’s world . These are also the prerequisites for the upliftment of civilisation .
Ethical: culture is the value ,ideals & morals develop over a period which form the ethical basis of the society we live in . The current socio – economic & political structure which we have in our civilization are basedas the same ethical infrastructure .
As I couldn’t think of the above dimensions separately, I have actually tried to write an essay with a flow and included those dimensions where ever required. Kindly evaluate the below essay.
Culture is the system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviours and artifacts that the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another and that are transmitted from generation to generation through learning. Civilization is an advanced state of intellectual, cultural and material development in human society marked by progress in art and sciences including political and social institutions. Culture is a part of every civilization. But if culture is removed from civilization or if we look at civilization ignoring its culture then we see only the physical or material possessions of the civilization.
Culture is in existence since the emergence of human beings i.e., from the ages when human beings are just hunter gatherers. As a group of human beings share a set of common beliefs and goals, they were able to co-operate with each other well and were able to hunt animals, thus gaining dominance over the other animals in the world. If the human beings didn’t have the same set of beliefs or goals, it would have been hard to hunt those wild animals and get food.
When human beings slowly discovered that they can get food with the help of agriculture, they have put a full-stop to their nomadic life and started settling. Thus, the settling of human beings in an area has given rise to the earlier civilizations. So, it can be said that agriculture served as foundation stone for the emergence of civilization.
When people started settling in an area, new cultures have risen like starting a family, polygamy, raising pets etc. Agriculture made human beings realized that they no need to work hard as before to find the food. People with plenty of time in their hands started working on other activities like tool making, pottery etc. This eventually led to the division of labour because of which different social classes have started rising. When people realized that the resources are limited in a civilization, they started taking economic decisions. They started exchanging the surplus things they have with the things they are in need of. Slowly people started to trade with other civilizations too. This intra and inter civilization trade has been evolved eventually. In the present scenario there is actually a team which is working dedicatedly towards running this economic system smoothly. Ex: In India today there is proper tax system to collect taxes i.e., GST and there are foreign policies which affect the exports and imports between countries. (Economic Dimension)
Initially when people started trading with other civilizations, people actually started travelling to other places where they have interacted people with cultures and traditions. Eventually when the trade relations have increased people in large number have moved from one civilization to other. This, few times led to differences in the culture and eventually to war between two civilizations in order to prove that their culture is better than other’s. If history has been looked up more wars have occurred to prove that their culture is better than the wars that have occurred for acquiring resources.
However, if people think beyond ego, with respect to culture, that would help in accepting people with different religion, race, caste etc., making harmony and providing space for others adhering to unity in diversity. (Spiritual Dimension)
People with different cultures can also live together if they have a common ideology. Ex: India, a land of different cultures, has been emerged only with an idea to throw British rule out of India. If there had been no British rule then there would not have been a concept of India.
It is also important to be observed that technology has played a crucial role in civilization. Technology has been evolved from the invention of fire to invention of nuclear weapons. When the civilizations have started people have worked on inventing new tools that would help them in making their daily routine easy. However, eventually with the evolution of the technology new problems have been raised. With the innovation of a revolutionary technology comes chaos are people are not very well accustomed with the new technology. Ex: Industrial revolution. Because of this there was the emergence of new labour class in the society and the difference between rich and poor has been raised quickly. Elite people started dominating the poor people. There was all chaos in the society. During those time few philosophers started searching for solutions in the old books like Bhagavad Gita, Quran, Bible etc. But that did not help them to solve the issue. Then few philosophers like Lenin, Marx actually started understanding the new technology and have come up with a solution called Communism. This communism unlike the religions didn’t promise paradise in heaven. It promised happiness and paradise here on earth, which made people to actually follow that idea and it eventually succeeded at that time. Communism can be called as the first Techno – religion. (Philosophical Dimension)
The emergence of factories and automobiles has also caused climate issues and global warming. All countries have come forward and are trying to work towards common goal to reduce the climatic issues and improve the health of people. (Psychological Dimension)
The innovation and usage of nuclear weapons have also caused a great destruction to people. Ex: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effect of radiation of the nuclear bombing in those areas can be seen till today. Whatever be the situation, countries should always take an ethical decision not to use these dangerous nuclear weapons. (Ethical Dimension)
Technology few times also helped people in solving issues that have emerged due to different cultures. Ex: In China there is a culture of eating different animals. Recently, Covid – 19 has come into picture as a man has drunk not well-cooked bat soup. This Covid – 19 has not only affected human lives but also the day-to-day life of the people and economies of the countries. Because of the help of great scientists and doctors outside, humans have been able to control this pandemic.
As humans have a good data set of problems and their solutions till now, people from all countries should come forward to actually work for the collective good for all people and should try to find a solution to the problems that come in the future with the evolution of new technology. Ex: AI, IoT. Because of AI it has been estimated that in future there is huge scope for a new class (useless humans) to emerge and soon humans have to find a solution for that. Otherwise, it would create chaos again in the society. As humans are always wise, hoping that they would definitely find a way out from that problem.
Thanks, Rajkumar Golla
Spirituality involves the recognition of a feeling or sense or belief that there is something greater than myself, something more to being human than sensory experience, and that the greater whole of which we are part is cosmic or divine in nature. Spirituality means knowing that our lives have significance in a context beyond a mundane everyday existence at the level of biological needs that drive selfishness and aggression. It means knowing that we are a significant part of a purposeful unfolding of Life in our universe. Spirituality involves exploring certain universal themes – love, compassion, altruism, life after death, wisdom and truth, with the knowledge that some people such as saints or enlightened individuals have achieved and manifested higher levels of development than the ordinary person. Aspiring to manifest the attributes of such inspirational examples often becomes an important part of the journey through life for spiritually inclined people.
Economics is a social science concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It studies how individuals, businesses, governments, and nations make choices about how to allocate resources. Economics focuses on the actions of human beings, based on assumptions that humans act with rational behavior, seeking the most optimal level of benefit or utility. The building blocks of economics are the studies of labor and trade. Since there are many possible applications of human labor and many different ways to acquire resources, it is the task of economics to determine which methods yield the best results.
Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feelings and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists also seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, linking the discipline to neuroscience. As a social science, psychologists aim to understand the behavior of individuals and groups.
Philosophical thought is the result of asking questions depending on the curiosity and wonder of the human being and it is a critical and questioning type of thinking against the problems related to human and human life.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that “involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior”. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concerns matters of value; these fields comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology.
In conclusion of spirituality, temporal,economic,psychological,philosophical,ethical is this is all our power or specific features that make us civilization, in future this features will help us to think more and more to and make us more advance .
The totality of knowledge, belief, customs, and art shared by a group is culture, whereas civilization on the contrary is the overall development of two or three cultures. Thus, culture and civilization are both interdependent.
The culture of a society depends mainly on its customers and beliefs. Especially the religious practices followed by the society manifests its culture. The festivals and traditions followed by various religions show their way of life and spiritual values. The ethics of life is defined out of these practices. The basic humanitarian approach to life is derived out of these traditions.
When we look at the past and the present, many of them have developed into a modern society largely maintaining the cultural aspects and not forgetting their values. The economic development of the society also depends upon cultural values. The society which beliefs in cultural economics will not be ready to forgo their cultural values in the process of economic development. But, there are others who think only about economic development, without thinking about their traditions. The wants and desires of the cultural economists are based on their cultural beliefs.
The philosophical beliefs of society are derived from their cultural believes and traditions. The faith and the religion a man follow are the continuations of his tradition. It is derived from the society he lives in. It does not have anything to do with civilization.
The psychological development of a human being is also based on his culture and the environment in which he lives. His traditions and practices largely influence his psychological development.
In conclusion, a man’s culture decides “what he is? “. The refinement of his beliefs is what civilization is. The culture is derived from his environment. This helps him to develop himself into a civilized human being.
Spiritual-In today’s world, spirituality is the thing on which someone has believe and someone has not.Culture shows what we are actually and civilization shows from where we belong to.Spiritual person care for everyone and also show concern for others so this shows what type of culture they are carrying with themself.Culture taught us how to live and civilization taught us how we are living in earlier days.In this world, different different types of religion are having their own culture to believe,festival to celebrate.Hence,we can say that spiritual things are present but it depends on individual whether they believe it or not.
Temporal-In the past evolution of mankind took place.Earlier we were monkeys but as time changes evolution took place .So according to time everything get changed.Technologies has been invented so much that earlier they used leaves to cover their bodies but now invented machines make clothes to wear .Culture changes according to time and also civilization too change with time.
Economic- The word economy doesnot only deal with money or how to earn money .It provide support or help for the betterment of society.While purchasing anything we help our government system for economic growth of our country.We pay taxes so directly or indirectly we all are helping for growth of our country.
Psychological-Every human being is different and unique in their own way.It is not necessary every individual person will think same or have same belief .So , according to our culture every individual think their culture is much more far better and important than any other culture so this all depends upon psychology of a person .Every culture is important in its own way.
Philosophical- Every individual person have different philosophy to live their life,they think according to their companionship.Just like spiritual things,some humans believe and some not ,so this show every person have different ideology to think.Culture is how we are living our life and civilization is development over existence.Every person should follow their own thought about life but they should examine their own life and make it worth for living.
Ethics- It’s a branch of philosophy that ask the practical questions what is good or bad ,what is right or wrong.Civilization is based on culture so culture should have good moral values to create a good civilization.
Spiritual Culture includes set of values love, compassion, empathy and other values which are beyond the ego, where I ceases to exist and others which shape the behaviour of a person. Civilization may be defined as the apparent physical development in the environment which has resulted in capitalism, consumerism, communism and socialism. It is important to maintain a fine balance between the two by following what Buddha calls as the middle path. Temporal Culture includes set of beliefs in humans like flexible cooperation in large numbers which has enabled it to become the dominant species on the planet. It can be termed as an end in itself. Civilization on the other hand includes the impact of the time on the culture transforming it. For eg the changing idea of the society from cooperative to socialist, communist and capitalist over the times according to the technology. Economic Culture includes the values like love, empathy, compassion and others which are infinite and will never end. These are very important to build trust in the society. For eg sympathizing with a person in the time of need would increase the credibility of the sympathizer. Civilization on the other hand has scarce resources associated with a time value. There is a rat race going for the resources. For eg growing digital content makers including Youtube, Netflix and others . There is certainly a need to enjoy the benefits of civilization but there is a dire need to make more credible society. Psychological The cultural values of selflessness, love ,compassion and others would result in the relationship building which would ultimately make a person lead a happy life. For eg Harvard study found that the person having healthy relationships live longer and happier. Civilization on the other hand has scarce resources wherein the surplus of resources to some can be achieved only through the scarcity of resources to many. For eg. Oxfam report suggests that 10% Indians own 77% of countries wealth. This would make difficult for the underprivileged to grow which would built insecurity in the society. Therefore we need a cooperative society to make every living being on the planet happy. Philosophical Culture can make a person feel sad in somebody’s sorrow and happy in somebody’s joy. This quality enables a person to bring changes in the lives of others. Socrates says that an unexamined life is not worth living. This s the best way to examine the life and be the judge to attain happiness. Civilization on the other hand has created a peer pressure amongst people where the opinions of others have become more important resulting in self doubt. Hence one needs to concentrate within himself/herself to strike a balance in making both oneself and others happy. Ethical Culture inherently includes the standard ethical values which can be used to make better decisions in dilemmas. For eg trust over deceit to win the trust of the person. Civilization on the other hand has practical principles and values that have developed over the time and can transform according to the situation. Therefore it helps us to make informed decisions according to the situation.
Spiritual: spirituality is not about believing in some natural and unnatural superpowers. But it’s about believing in soul. It is about reaching beyond your egoistic perspective. Even our culture has come from spirituality, which always teaches us to believe in something which is greater than oneself. And civilization is development and culture.
Temporal: temporal means which is not permanent which keeps on changing with time and so our culture is. There is nothing permanent in this universe. With the ticking of clock everything changes or develop with time which is known as civilization.
Economy: It help in building the structure of a nation. For example in India agriculture is practised from early days. It contribute maximum to our economy. Farming is a part of our culture. Today out of 10 peoples 7 are involved in agriculture and farming activities. This field has also gone through the development and changes and has got civilized with time.
Psychological: what we think we become. Culture is also made of someone’s thinking. Someone thought to adopt it and practice it and teach it to others. That’s how culture got spread and became a part of everyone’s life. And now it has become key factor in human’s mental development.
Philosophical: we practice culture but how do we know how we have to follow. This we learn from philosophy which is a theory and are based on reasons.
Ethics: without forgetting our culture when we civilize for development and betterment is called ethical. Living for righteousness is lawful and ethical.
SPIRITUAL Culture is a set of ideas and beliefs that a particular group or people or society follows with certain set of norms. For some a culture might be pure and really valuable to them but on the other hand for some it might be just non sensical bunkum. Like Yulin Dog meat festival in China is carried out in the name of their culture but this culture might be outraging.
Civilization is an ever lasting process that keeps on replacing certain group of people by another with different or we can say advanced ideas and way of living. From the past we can see a number of civilizations in India itself. Like Harappan civilization, Indus Valley civilization.
TEMPORAL Culture keeps on evolving as the time passes with different ideas disproportionately across the world. With changing time India is trying to adapt more of western culture.
Civilization is the result of culture itself. With the advent of time we are moving towards technological advancements and becoming digital natives.
ECONOMIC Culture effects the economy of the nation in a huge way. It determines the demand and supply of any product or service. Eventually it will be a major factor in deciding where will the government invest their money and research to make it cost effective. Like taking example of mobile phones, as the culture of having a communication device progressed thereafter a significant research and developments have been done it to covert it into a smart phone. This has been a game changer for countries with cheap labor that is necessary for the production of such items.
As a civilization changes the economy changes. In other words economy evolves with civilization. Like Mesopotamia tribes started the barter system in which the people having less perishable goods had comparative advantage over others. With the evolution of civilizations we moved to paper money that has categorized countries into developed, developing and least developed economies of the world and now with digitization we are moving towards paperless money.
PSYCHOLOGICAL Culture is a mental construct. Different people and countries have different cultures and people might follow a culture that is more attractive and convenient to follow as compared to other. For example- The principle of ahimsa in Jainism seems very attractive and ethical to follow but implementing it might be out of comfort zone for many. Therefore this culture got limited in ancient times.
PHILOSIPHICAL Believing in a certain idea by a large number of people becomes the culture of that specific group. It results in legal and political cooperation. As long as the people keeps on believing in the idea the culture sustains.
Civilization can be termed as a particular time of haves and have nots (Karl Marx). After each revolution when things are changes at a national level it lays down a stone of another civilization. Like the French revolution gave equality, liberty and fraternity to its citizens and the people came out to be more civilized than before.
ETHICAL As ethics tells us the difference between right and wrong, a culture tries to adopt right moral practices and beliefs and discourage the wrong practices. It may be varied from person to person as what might be more ethical for a person might not be for other.
A civilization always want to morally superior than the previous civilization and lay down some basic virtue of ethics.
Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have
1. Spiritual: Culture is a celebrated entity that shows the evolution of mankind. Culture is a set of norms and values that is defined to guide people in their journey of life. Culture is something above the individual and controls human actions, whereas civilization is the reflection of culture and depicts how well-informed we are about our surroundings.
2. Temporal: Culture, being an entity existing from the historical times has not remained stagnant but is evolving continuously as per the needs of human beings and the changing societies, and civilization to the best possible extent has been possible only because of the adaptability offered by the culture. For example, wearing a saree and dhoti was Indian culture, but we have evolved to encompass the western attires as well.
3. Economic: Culture in economic terms has also found a place wherein the ancient time’s rules of taxation were included under the cultural norms and people were following it religiously without having a question and in the sense, it was possible to run the economy smoothly. Whereas civilization was possible and was able to reach out to a maximum number of people because of the flourishing economy.
4. Psychologic: In terms of psychology, culture due to its common norms and values binds people and sets a stage for people to evolve in the best way possible. But cultures vary among different classes of people and nonetheless sometimes might lead to clashes while people debate on the greatness of individual culture. Civilization due to culture and due to the new things that humans learn allow them to co-exist peacefully. For example, in the Islamic culture, charity is vital and this definitely enhances the social cohesion between people.
5. Philosophical: Culture is a social entity and is defined based on the type of society people exist in and it varies from place to place. This difference that exists is in fact a good thing as it offers diversity but at times a common notion on what is valid and not valid cannot be reached. For example, throwing a tomato at any person in India might indicate the non-acceptance of that person in the society but when the same is done in the La Tomatina festival in Spain, it is a kind of celebration among people as a part of the entertainment.
6. Ethical: In terms of ethics, even before the terminology of ethics became popular, it was culture that acted as a guiding light and an inhibiting document to people by setting up constraints on what is right and what is wrong and when people were in conformity with those established norms, they witnessed less deviant behavior in the society, and civilization has been successful to the most part as there were and there are established norms on the right and wrong things. For example, respecting women is taught in every culture as they worship them in the form of goddesses and that is how the majority of the men respect women in the form of mothers, sisters, spouse, and daughters. ( Although we come across incidents like rape, female infanticide, dowry harassment, and many such incidents, they all are an entirely different issue that also deal with something called socialization and no culture preaches harm to mankind )
Topic : Culture is what we are, Civilization is what we have.
Introduction : Culture plays a vital role in definitely the dignity and strength of every Individual but at the same time it needs to be equivalent with the current civilisation that allows us to utilise the moral practices of culture ethnicity in a modernised system.
SPIRITUAL: The most significant challenges in the Indian society today is to modernise the Culture practice to the modern Civilization but critisism arises due to super Orthodox individual as spirituality is perhaps for too long abondoned to an more overjealous defenders who have done it desservice . A spiritual experiences is neither ineffable nor absurb which is deep sustaining intervals of relief from the burdens and blindness amongst us.
TEMPORAL: Civilization is at the top edge of development so the old unethical culture practices should be temporarily boycott as it doesn’t indicate with the modernise culture. And also should be minimised on certain level that it impact greatfully and logically.
ECONOMIC: This certain terms to used to specifically justify the monetary value in general but it is more to do with the study of human and choices that is implement either good or bad scenario. Its totally depends on how economic rich his decision on the based of culture and civilization because all individuals may be different perspective and belief toward culture in modern era.
PHYSIOLOGICAL: It influence culture through individual thoughts and actions if beliefs , norms and practices. One must define culture practices as Inequality towards others at the same time other might be criticise the modern civilization culture .
PHILOSOPHICAL : Civilization creats a definite state of philosophical agendas as it maintains the level of cultural practices diversification in the society with the justifiable law which hold both the civilisation and cultural stabilization
ETHICAL: Culture is a state of being morally advance where civilization influence a better logically way to implement in our daily lives. Civilization on the other side justify the feasibility of what cultivation norms should be practiced with modernise quality of life.
Conclusion: Culture is our birth identity which we are proud to practice but only when it is amended with the soul of modern civilization as the ultimate goal is to provide equality and value towards every individual.
Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have Culture is social practice and norms in human society. Culture has came from generation to generation like making crafts, toys .. Civilization shows a developed society over a period of time. And development in culture leads to civilization. Ex : during ancient time they made a crafts by hands and now days machines are available to made toys
Temporal Time to time technology development leads to development in the world. Olden days coal is used as a fuel and nowadays government turn to utilize the renewable sources in order to overcome the pollution
Philosophical Culture is what we practice and civilization is development over existence. Both will helps to surve a good life
Ethical It tells about the moral and immoral values. It questions the belief and tells about the practice of righteous over wrongness
Economic Civilization means conversion of uncivilized to civilized i.e villages to town, construction of roads, bridges.. Which will improve the position of people
SPIRITUAL :- There is supreme power in universe, somebody have belief on them ,somebody not . our social life is guided by some rituals ,principles ,and beliefs and that is culture . Inculcated behaviour in ourselves is result of culture. civilization is a process which developed through ages. Culture taught us how to live and civilization is how we are living . culture embedded our body and soul with supreme power . TEMPORAL -: The history of humankind is continuously evolving throughout the years. we learn at every stages something better than past and set some new norms and rules. we are still discovering new horizons of life. Culture changes according to our behavioural changes. civilization also changes itself accordingly. ECONOMIC :- Our society was divided as per ‘varna’ system , it classifies and provide individual work for every section , work leads to their survival on daily basis. Festivals of various religion in Indian society maintain the law of supply and demand very effectively , which maintain the economic structure of country. PSYCHOLOGICAL :- Culture leads to happy life ,it always maintain harmony in society .The concept of making family is just to maintain the order , each and every member of family is dependent on each other in some way at some point of time. Culture helps us to understand the behaviour of society , and civilization is what we are reacting. PHILOSPHICAL :- How we know we live a good life, culture provide us the answer ,because it have already some answers of it. culture is a social constitution , which may is not written but, provide us some rules and definition of living good life. civilization is implication of that rules , which a set of people is already following. ETHICAL:- Ethics is branch of philosophy that ask the practical question. what is good or bad. what is right or wrong . As I already said culture is a set of value s, principles ,beliefs and norms . culture give us the sense of purpose
Culture is what we are, Civilisation is what we have
Introduction: E.B Tylor in his book “Primitive Culture” has defined culture as a complex whole that include knowledge, beliefs, customs, and other capabilities that are acquired by man as a member of society. Civilisation is much more complex or advanced form of culture. It includes the economic aspects of respective culture. Both Culture and Civilisation are interdependent and interactive. Anthropologists like Tylor, Morgan, Frazer say that Civilisation is a natural evolution of a primitive culture. Culture is unique to human beings. It is what differentiated us from other animals.
Spiritual: Spirituality entails looking at the bigger picture beyond egoist perspective. Indian culture has always given a huge importance to spirituality. In recent times of Covid Pandemic, help has poured out from all corners of the nation. While some donated to CM Relief’s fund others have helped in marshalling meagre resources such as Oxygen, Remdesivir and Amphotericin B. In a climate of uncertainity if the citizens had resorted to hoarding oxygen cylinders or concentrators, we would have lost so many more lives. Indian cultural values of collectivism, compassion and putting others over oneself has helped us tide over the brutal second wave of Covid-19 pandemic.
Temporal: Culture and civilisation are dynamic. They change with time. While civilisation is always advancing, culture may or may not. For example we cannot exert that all of today’s thoughts are better than that of the past. Social stratification in form of varna system played a crucial role in ancient Indian society. It had developed a system of cooperation between different sections of society. Varna system changed to caste system around the rule of Guptas. The social inequality has increased from time of Vedic period(1500 BCE) until the advent of British. With social reformers such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar change has started. Today the constitution of India has advocated for elimination of social inequality but also political and economic inequality. Thus the Indian civilisation has seen drastic changes with time.
Economic: Economic progress is at the root of civilisation. Economic policies have significant impact on culture. With the advent of Globalisation, Indian culture is seeing significant impact of westernisation. Our food today includes pizzas, burgers, noodles etc. Western clothing such as Jeans, T- shirts are used in addition to the traditional wear such Dhoti, Pyjama, Kurtas. It is an undeniable fact that opening of Indian economy after 1991 crisis has resulted in development of a composite culture.
Psychological: According to Kroeber and Kluckhohn culture is a totality of learnt human behaviour that is transmitted by social inheritance. Psychology is the study of human behaviour. Language is significant part of culture. Linguistics is a branch of science that deals with study of languages. Linguists study phonemes. Phoneme is the smallest unit of speech which distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For Example, the element ‘p’ in ‘tap’, separates that word from ‘tag’, ‘tan’, ‘tab’. Phonemes are considered to be built by unconscious thought. Linguists such as Levi-Strauss have studied phonemes of various languages in order to gain an insight into human mind. The psychological aspect of language continues to be a major area of research.
Philosophical: Philosophy is integral to culture. Indian culture explains the aims of human life in form of purusharthas. Four purusharthas are Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha. Dharma refers to the rights and duties of a human being. Artha refers to attainment of wealth by righteous means. Kama represents the instinctive and emotional life of humans. It provides for the satisfaction of sexual desires and aesthetic urges. Moksha represents the realisation of inner spirituality of humans. Purusharthas provide for the desired harmony within an individual as well as a society. The Indian civilisation was built on this philosophy.
Ethical: Culture is a complex system that includes various rituals. Almost every culture was dominated by men all over the world. This led to the oppression of women. While “Sati” was prevalent in India, Western socities killed women by branding them as witches and sorcerers. Social inequalities are embedded in various civilisations. Untouchability in India, Slavery in the US are some examples. Today we have no qualms in saying that Sati, Untouchability, slavery are unethical but the social inequalities are still prevalent in for of bigotry and racism. A civilisation can only progress when such ethical issues are sorted.
Conclusion: Nature of culture is such that it is a manifestaion of what we are as human beings. Civilisation is a way in which various elements of culture are practised in real life. This is why McIver said “Culture is what we are, Civilisation is what we have.” Different cultures are always in contact. The process of adopting traits of neighbouring cultures results a vibrant culture. The diversity of varius cultures need to be respected in order to avoid cultural conflict lead a peaceful life.
Spiritual: Spiritual Culture teaches that what we are, means, we are the part of that supreme almighty power which exist all over the world or beyond the universe, which sustains the life in earth, on the earth and out of the earth, that’s all the universe, which comes under its supreme parts. And civilization, says what we have meant if we talk about, human, then it means, by the guidance or mentorship of great soul or spiritual master, the knowledge we acquire of that supreme power, is just “what we have”.
Temporal: Culture is an end and it has no measurement standard, it passes from one generation to another. It is more about stability whereas civilization is always in the growing stage and aggressively working for its betterment like means of communication, transportation, etc. . Change in culture is observed with time, as in old thoughts and traditions lost with the passage of time and new ones are added to it which are then transmitted. Culture can evolve and flourish, even if civilization does not exist. In contrast, civilization cannot grow and exist without any culture.
Economic: The economy is the mother of culture and civilization. The study preferences and behavior of people in economics and these are the factors which makeup culture and then the behavior and tastes advancing to become a civilization. While the economy has a great role in urbanization which is the most important part of a civilization, the economy at a particular point in time has also affected the formation of the culture of a place. A change in the economy, for example, the Pastoral to the Money economy, led to the drastic change in what people consume, build, wear, etc. which is their culture and as seen before, civilization is a stimulus of socio-historic culture, which is indirectly nurtured by the economy, therefore implying that culture and civilizations are products of changes and advancements in the economy
Psychological: At the root of culture lies the beliefs, that define the behavior of the cultured populace. Societies scarred by genocide, wars, sabotage often inculcate a culture of perseverance and deterrence for survival. Israel as a country embodies this example. Maoist China and Marxist Russia are and were marked by the rule of the working class and a deep antipathy towards bourgeoisie and aristocracy. A liberal culture of western Europe denies state control and individual primacy is its culture and so is civilization. As a result, Marxist civilization has a preponderance of community, liberal of individual, religious or spiritual, tribal of animistic behavior.
Philosophical: The theory or attitude that acts as a guiding principle for behavior. It shows the overall vision or attitude towards life and its purpose. It shows the belief values etc in every art form which resulted in their culture. The overall vision towards the culture and some people believe it and follow and some don’t because it also differs from individuals and their ideology in a particular civilization. If one civilization shows many contrast statements towards their culture, life, and purpose it. Whereas it shows as many civilizations exist in the world many contrasting statements have evolved. Every individual in every civilization follows their self and ideologies which reflects their attitude and behavior towards society.
Ethical : Culture is good, but when it comes about is it right? The answer for it is ‘not always to be good is nice but to be right is to serve justice. When a question comes about what is good? It is nothing but following the rules and supportive nature of a person to the voice of the group, But to be right is to be just, it is often that masses turn out wrong. Whereas culture represents masses it is not always right For example “sati sahagamana”. Now it is unjust to do such acts, where ethics starts interpreting culture with what is right than what is good, for serving justice to the individual. which encourage human from cultural being too civilized being which is the stage of human social and cultural development and organization that is considered most advanced. Ethical interpretation of culture not only serves justice but also acts as a catalyst for good and civilized culture, whereas it helps to deal with the con’s of culture by modifying pros.
A civilization is a complex human society formed through preservation of culture , beliefs and thoughts which were integral to the development of society. Culture is the beliefs , customs , ethics and identity of the human civilization’s which grew from experiments of human emotions which transformed the feeling into a process of conduct , and civilization being the ultimate result of the complexities of process performed throughout the history’s that ended up with the creation of customs and values being followed as a result of continuous improvement.
Spiritual – Throughout the human history Culture has defined a path towards the ultimate realisation of the self which is spirituality. The belief into the devine self which is the residence of peace and a bridge that guides the a human towards the calmness of the wants, and desires and takes to the union of the soul with God .
Temporal – Into the life span of a human there are always moments encountering the questions of existentialism where it ignore’s the customs and beliefs of other but discover’s oneself as the one and only responsible for the decisions and it’s impact. Time is the only constant in the world where everything is dynamic and this is the truth of the life .
Economic – The human nature is fond of analysis of the aspects of life. It aims at the maximum utilisation of the scare resources and that’s how civilization works . From the individuals to the society , the culture has taught civilizations to be efficient in the dynamics of life .
Psychological – Every human into the civilization is unique in every aspect of the identity of the self which is integral to the difference between people and their psychology ( thoughts and behaviour ) and that’s the reason why even identical twins possess different qualities that makes them unique .
Philosophical – If humans are unique in their own sense , they are bound to be different with respect to their ideas & beliefs about the meaning of life which is philosophy . This presents dynamic aspects of things which might feel similar but are seen through different perspective.
Ethical – Between the dilemmas of life , The choice between write or wrong , and right or more right is the ethics , value and belief which drives the decisions of individuals and society and creates the ideal behaviour into the situations.
Culture in it’s various forms is integral to the civilization’s which are driven through ethical values, beliefs and motives of continuity of life while doing the best for oneself and contributing the society at the same .
Introduction: Culture is the word for the way of life of groups of people, meaning the way they do things. It is an integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief and behaviour. The outlook, attitudes,values, morals, goals,customs shared by a society. These beliefs are often considered to bring the values of unity and enjoy the state of togetherness. Our India is well known for its diverse culture. Otherside, Civilization is generally an advanced stage of organization. It has laws,culture, a regular way of getting food and protecting the people. It provides a combination of culture and presents a true reality of what culture really is.
Spiritual: Our culture represents the practice of any rituals that are quite important for spiritualism whereas civilization is responsible to carry forward to that culture. It is the phase of life where we look at life beyond our egoistic perspective. Spirituality is given more importance in culture whereas civilization is a core concept of modernization and does not depend on spiritual path but share its function with society.
Temporal: Everything in our universe keeps on changing and evolving with time ,so as culture. Hence it is not permanent. In other hand civilization keeps on changing from time with various innovations and discovers. This gives us meaning of wisdom , knowledge ,a way of better life.
Economy: Economy is the large set of inter-related production and consumption of activities that helps us determining how resources are allocated in a civilization. In India the economy is mostly dependent on agriculture. Culture is the way of living that determines the taste,preferences and choices of people and helps to lead such as economic structure which constitutes a better way of civilization.
Philosophical: It is the study or creation of theories about basic things around us. The beauty and meaning of culture are hold by its philosophical part .Cultural practice of any particular thing continuously over the years leads to create philosophical impact on whole civilization. It helps us to understand the truth of society, the world in which we live and the relationship that we have in world and each other.
Psychological:Culture plays a vital role in the way in which one can think,react, behave.It is the key factor of human’s mental and cognitive development. Some societies consider themselves cultured and more advanced due to their refined taste,technology and traditions .Some other societies are considered as uncultured due to their barbarity and some regressive beliefs. We should create a civilised society by refining our tastes and evolving our cultures not only physically but psychologically also.
Ethics: Moral values of any civilization are based on its culture. Therefore, our cultures should consist some ethical and humanitarian values in order to create a great civilization.
Conclusion:Thus culture are closely related to the choices associated with an individual. Civilization has been shaped due to the availability of diverse culture and has indeed formed what it is today.
culture is what we are and civilization is what we have.
Culture ,what we practice in our daily life. The way of living in the society as well as in our country. Culture is a sign of celebrating our happiness.
Civilization ,we believe that first Civilization set up in Indus valley so this is called Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan civilization. And we can say culture and civilization are interlinked each other.
India is a cultural country and India also well known by their culture. So we have cultural friends country like Bhutan ,Nepal ,Myanmar and Bangladesh etc . India is not consist only one religion, India contains mixture of religion as well as culture. Religion like Hinduism ,Muslims, Buddhism ,Jainism, Sikhs, Christian etc. So India consists “SECULAR ” in the Preamble of our constitution . We celebrate festival like Holi ,Diwali ,Eid, Buddha Jayanti ,Mahavir Jayanti ,Guru Nanak Jayanti and so On.
Time matters in Civilization as well as culture. There are many Civilization takes place and destroyed. There are also many cultural takes place time to time. We celebrate one festival to another with a time manner. We also praise some saints and monasteries when they enlighten. In ancient times we worship God like Indra, Agni ,Vayu etc . Then we worship Brahma Vishnu and Maheshwar etc and later we expand the number of God’s from time to time . Now we worship millions of God and there culture also.
Culture immunes our economy. India also a hub of foreigners who comes to visit our cultural place and tourism place ,which brings our economy healthy. Kumbh Mela is one of the largest festival in our country. Culture plays a pivotal role in our economy. Our cultural heritage sites are sources of our economy. So our government makes an initiative “Atithi devo bhaba”. This initiative and our administrate on these attracts tourism to our country. There are many tribal culture are attracts foreigners. Sun temple in konark and Jagannath temple in puri, Odisha . And like these there are many cultural place attracts to foreigners and strength our economy.
Culture and Civilization should be integrated, so our future generation can learn about culture and Civilization . culture changes the way of thinking in individuals and groups of people. culture is the present but civilization is past so we can change the culture but can change the civilization. So we have to serious about our culture.
Culture depends upon Civilization so there are some culture are dominant in our life like BhumiPuja etc .We respect or pray ocean, hills and So on.
We must see both in equality both are important for the generation as well as future . We can’t skip anyone . “If there are no Civilization then there are no culture”.
‘ Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have”
Spiritual : Culture is the belief system and set of traditions and rituals of certain group of people in a way that it can helps every individual in the group to be accordance to the place they are living in and the time they are living in. Different tribes and folks have different cultures with respective to relation of group with the nature, So why we can see different cultures in different parts of world. It is about group where you drop yourself interests and looking forward about consequential effects from others perspective or from group perspective for a action which is taken,which means culture is nothing but encouraging empathy over fellow beings. When salt added to glass of water it dissolves,Now salt is all over the water in glass. As we can see culture encouraging groupism and tribalisms which seems like contrary to individualism, but nonetheless, it is similar to salt in water. Culture in a wider angle seems like more for group than for individual but on the contrary when it comes to microscopic level it is more about individual and his/her existence accordance with atmosphere one is living in.
Temporal : Everything around is changing and evolving, which means at particular situation and at particular time age what is familiar action to a situation is Something leads to utter disaster in present times, For example the “state of nature” according to “Hobbes” is pessimistic about human and his nature, where as state of nature is optimistic according to “Locke” which changed the role of “The state” from Monarchist thoughts to liberalism. Civilization accept the change and modify culture by encountering prejudices
Economic : It is the economy of the tribe which plays key role from what to eat to what to wear it is seems as culture to wear certain dress code and practicing certain food habitations But the economy of the people depends on the degree of civilization which seems to be proportional, As civilization demands change and adaptation in culture, economy also demands for changes in culture, although resources availability varies from age to age and as technology role is increasing in day to day activities it is necessary to adopt for good economy of state.
Psychological : Culture of a society helps individual to be mentally healthy, in research studies about group gathering and Sharing food and needs to one another reveals that the social interaction with the fellow beings keeps a person happy and built up standard relationship with society, Which helps to increase companionship in one another, although culture of a society helps to understand the psychology of the people in society, it is nothing but how man thinks about himself and others accordance with nature and its conditions are which represent as culture of man. Group gatherings in a particular place and for a particular reason and time helps individual not to feel lonely and to feel secure among people, healthier the mind; healthier the body and happier the life.
Ethical : Culture is good , but when its come about is it right? Answer for it is ‘not always’ to be good is nice but to be right is to serve justice. When question comes about what is good? It is nothing but following the rules and supportive nature of person to voice of group, But to be right is to be just, it is often that masses turn out wrong. Whereas culture represent masses it is not always right For example “sati sahagamana”. Now it is unjust to do such acts, where ethics starts interpreting culture with what is right than what is good, for serving justice to individual. which encourage human from cultural being to civilized being which is the stage of human social and cultural development and organization that is considered most advanced. Ethical interpretation of culture not only serve justice but also acts as catalyst for a good and civilized culture, whereas it helps to deal with con’s of culture by modifying pro’s of it. “Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.” – Aristotle.
Philosophical : “An unexamined life is not worth living.” – Socrates Culture is which represent the lifestyle of group of people but without questioning and reinterpreting the moral codes and values which are following from ages, leads individual life and existence of group to agony. World around is changing ,so man too. Following culture with a blind faith tends life to more suffering, which is right and just in past might turn wrong and unjust in present for example “child marriage”. In the name of culture being tangled to prejudices will lead life into malevolence and Suffering because present always demands fresh and new, past methodologies and rules not just leads to agony but also make hard to lead peaceful and harmony life. So we need civilization to modify the culture values and acts to live in present, we must use ancient wisdom as wood and make boat out of it to cross lake of life. ‘Civilization is what we have’ Man has ability to transform things as he needed with what he already have.
CULTURE IS WHAT WE ARE, CIVILIZATION IS WHAT WE HAVE. Spiritual: Culture teach that what we are, means, we are the part of that supreme almighty power which exist all over the world or beyond the universe, which sustain the life in earth, on the earth and out of the earth, that’s all the universe, which comes under it’s supreme parts. And civilization, says what we have means, if we talk about, human, than it means, by the guidance or mentorship of great soul or spiritual master, the knowledge we acquire of that supreme power, is just “what we have”. Temporal: If we see it in sense of physical or say temporal, scientific manner, so culture clearly define that we are, homo sapiens and civilization – from what way we become homo sapiens and the way is here ” what we have”(if we talk about humans excluding other living beings. Economy: Culture depicts that in ancient how, human resources used to trade in beginning as in the form of barter system but from a passage of time, human develop many sources or system of economy, which shows how human civilization progress in this field and now it shows “what human have”. Philosophy: Culture, teach what we are means, with the passage of time, how living beings progressed. If we have a look on ancient period, it shows how humans looks like a chimpanzee and we call them also our ancestors, but with the time, the transformation in the body of chimpanzee turned to a homo sapiens, which makes a bit difference between humans and chimpanzee and that depicts by the term civilization. Psychology: As when the times passes the thinking ability of humans also increases with the time which give the sign of attraction, distraction, feelings, emotions as compare to the ancient from modern time, it is because in ancient, the person only knows how to feed, sustain and development of genes but with the passage of time when human come close to nature they close to each other, another living beings and each and every part of nature, which bring the feeling , emotions, understanding and maturity as well. And that’s what we are and now what we have. Ethics: Being a human, the culture taught us what we are and being a characteristics of humanity or humane, the civilization taught what we have. In simple words, culture shows that we are human and civilization taught us being human we should have humanity.
Spiritual:- It is feeling that someone is more important than oneself. It is a phase of life where we look at life beyond our egoistic perspective.
Temporal:- It is something that keeps on changing with time and it is not permeant. Everything in the universe keep on changing and evolving with time so, as culture. Civilization on the other hand kept on changing from time with various innovation and discovers .It give the meaning to wisdom ,knowledge ,a way to lead a better and improved from of life.
Economy:- Some practices shapes the economy of a particular region for instance In India the economy is mostly dependent on agriculture as it is practiced from Indus valley civilization.
Physchological:- Culture plays a crucial role in the way in which one’s think, react, behave. Culture is also the one of the key factor in human’s mental and cognitive development. Earlier human were calm, composed and self satisfied and hence a healthy one. It is rightly said in healthy body stays the healthy mind. In today’s society with the rise in number of physical problem, mental problem are also increasing. Earlier people follow the nature principle of ‘early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy and wise’, but in todays’ fast moving world one has completed forgotten this principle of nature. As a result there is rise in the cases of depression, anxiety, suicidal attempts, loneliness etc.
Philosophical:- The essence and meaning of culture is hold by its philosophical part. It enunciates its basic character and core . Moral beliefs which are disseminated during buddha time are still alive and are more relevant in today’s world . These are also the prerequisites for the upliftment of civilisation .
Ethics:- In the end “What is right” is the only thing that matters. Because what is ethically right will always bring lawful results irrespective of the race and culture. And only then the civilization will have proper meaning.
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Spirituality: Our culture represents the practice of any rituals that are necessary for spiritualism whereas civilization is responsible to carry forward to that culture. Temporal (Time): As the time goes on the practice becomes the part of culture which ultimately leads to cause a great influence over civilization. For instance animal rearing has become a part of our culture since indus valley civilization or harappan civilization. Economic: Some practices shapes the economy of a particular region for instance In India the economy is mostly dependent on agriculture as it is practiced from Indus valley civilization. Psychological: Cultural practice of any particular thing continuously over the years leads to create psychological impact on whole civilization. For instance the concept of Yoga mentioned in the earlier text represents that it is having influence over people lifestyle thus became important for all to stay fit. Philosophical: A nations culture resides in heart and soul of its people- MK Gandhi. Civilization began when angry person used words instead of stones-Sigmund Freud. Ethical: Ethics, morals, values of any civilization are based on its culture therefore culture should consist humanitarian values.
culture is the way of life that we are expected to follow by society. culture contains everything that has direct impact on our daily lliving , our beliefs , dressing , food, societal relations . everything is determined by the culture we are born in. civilisation on the other other hand is materialisation of culture, the food we eat,the dress we wear, the houses we live in ,the work we do.
culture further has its impact on the way spiritualism is practiced. the culture may emphasise on ideolatory , animism, nature . further the rigidness of spiritualism depends on culture of society . in a more radicalised society the spiritual belief may outweigh new ideas and rationalism on the other hand a culture open to new ideas will witness evolution and evolving belief system .
culture generally tend to evolve with time and new ideas comes in with time like the indian culture of wearing dhotis is now almost extinct and is mostly seen in religious or family functions .in european dark age where society was dominated by church has now turned into secular and egalitarian society . evry change a culture adoptes is weighted on its good and bad results whether it is abolition of sati or turning of turkey to secular state.
the people of particular culture has also a certain kind of similarity in their choices and demands which determines economic activities. like in INDIAN culture the clothes demanded is not same as that in middle east . further in western world where there is more demand of beef and non vegetarian food, in India we the case is not same where people generally eat vegetarian and have some different spiritual beliefs.
the culture has also a great impact on the psychological beliefs of people like in the free society of europe women are as free as man on the other hand even the man may not be allowed to think rationally in middle western countries or countries like afghanistan or pakistan.
further in INDIA where we see male dominance , caste system, ritualism . this is not the same case in modern culture of europe where they have gave upon on these ideas long ago. which now has adopted the ideas of equality and liberty . but we can also not guarantee the same for long time as in 21 century we are enetering in the fields of biotechnology and artificial intelligence . in the near future we may again see siscrimination between gene edited duper humans and natural humans based on their capabilities . we may witness artificial intelligence outweighing humans . even in the philosophical part of the society truly depends on culture . a society free of patriarchial mind set , casteism, racism tends to be more welfaric society. this is because it gives a individual an oppotunity to truly explore, to question and to innovate.
the ethical aspect of the culture would be how it influences or provides with a value system. a culture may be truly materialistic like that of britain which lead to colonialism and consumerism . it can also be spiritual like that of India which focuses on welfare of masses. which lays more emphasis on good and bad,on humanity , respect for all other living beings and care for nature.
materialisation of all these which influences the food , cloth , architecture , beliefs, spiritualism is civilisation. which tells about the general life style of people who are part of that civilisation. like in indus valley system there is no evidence of monarchy . firther the civilisations gives itself the evidence of peoples way of life to us ,like the division of lower town, mother goddess sculpture , fermentation pottery , their drawings grenaries etc. all this tells what the people of these civilisation were . infact not only tells what we are but also what we were.
Spirituality: The quality of being concerned with the human spirit or soul as opposed to materialistic or physical things. Spirituality has been there from ancient,medieval and Morden periods of life.Along with that culture also evolved at particular period which results in different ideas,customs,social behaviour of particular people or society.As it mostly deals with the human soul associated with and not the materialistic or physical things where as civilisation is the one deals with the physical development in form of man made environment.Ex: where there is an established political,social,religious norms etc , where civilisation doesn’t deal with the human soul(as it is related to individual but not to the society).
Temporal: Time Spatial and temporal dimensions of human interference in complex ecosystems. As culture is evolved from civilisation. With different civilisations,different cultures has been evolved across the world and they change according to the time. Some cultures with civilisation has actively participate even now.But some cultures has existed and along with that their languages,customs,traditions etc also existed.This has occurred due to human negligence and greediness of human. Ex: Sentinelese tribes in Andaman and Nicobar islands.As, these tribes didn’t change till now as so much of civilisation has occurred.
Economy: coming from the past periods every civilisation has economy.Each civilisation has dealt it in different way. Ex: Barter system,gold coins, silver coins and present- notes. As we have seen the sequence of evolution of currency and along with that competition between the countries for the economy has also developed.By using culture- which includes different arts like the music,theatres,dance forms,musicals instruments also helped the artists to grow individually and contribute to the society(civilisation)as GDP.At present the competition is more in between the countries for economy and further neglecting the environmental issues.
Psychological: Arising in mind , relating to the men and emotional state of a person. With the human intelligence their created many art forms which resulted in culture.And these art forms are performed, practiced and developed by different civilisations according to their mind set.As, different civilisations have different cultures- it can depict their mental and emotional state of mind.As,time period changing psychological people’s state of mind is changing in various issues towards the society.Ex: Early Vedic period- every one is treated equally well and good but when comes later Vedic period , society has become patriarchal type of society and it is carried till now.As,time changes everything starts changing like now the Morden values,approach towards the society has also changed.Due,to physical and mental stress- Man is undergoing many psychological issues at present.Ex: Depression, schizophrenia etc.
Philosophical: The theory or attitude that acts as a guiding principle for behaviour. It shows the overall vision or attitude towards life and purpose of it.It shows the belief values etc in every art form which resulted in their culture.The overall vision towards the culture and some people believe it and follow and some doesn’t because it also differs from individuals and their ideology in a particular civilisation.If one civilisation shows many contrast statements towards their culture,life and purpose of it.Where as it shows as many civilisations exists in the world many contrasting statements has evolved.And every individual in every civilisation follow their own self and ideologies which reflects their attitude and behaviour towards the society.
Ethical: Relating to moral principles or the branch of knowledge dealing with these. Culture is evolved out of some principles like moral values,belief,faith,norms etc which are ethical and practised by the individual and this results in being humane towards others is also a part of our culture and these ethical values also results in every civilisation. when we apply these cultural and ethical principles to civilisation results in justice,knowledge,family,equality etc and based on these behavioural ethics results in the formation of proper social structure,system of government,development of technology,friendly relations with other countries.
Culture: Culture is the way of living of a particular group or society -their behavior ,belief values and symbols that they accept with out thinking about them and passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next generation. Culture is symbolic communication.
Spiritual: It involves the recognition of a feeling or sense or belief that there is something greater than myself, something more than sensor experience and whole of which is a part of cosmic or divine in nature. It is the phase of life where we look at thing beyond your egoistic perspective . Spiritual is something within and hence given more importance in culture .It also places a role in civilization but not much important. Civilization is a core concept of modernization and does not depend on spiritual path but share it function with society. Temporal: It is something that keeps on changing with time and it is not permeant. Everything in the universe keep on changing and evolving with time so, as culture. Civilization on the other hand kept on changing from time with various innovation and discovers .It give the meaning to wisdom ,knowledge ,a way to lead a better and improved from of life.
Economy: It is the large set of inter-related production and consumption activities that aid in determining how scarce resources are allocated in a civilization. Culture determine the way of living of life .It is used to determine the tastes, preference and choice of the people .This leads to the material aspects of the society such as economic structure, invention and son on which constitute a civilization. Economical means using things in the best possible way without wasting anything.
Philosophy: It is the study or creation of theories about basic things such as the nature of existence, knowledge, and thought, or about how people should live. Philosophical thought are based on reason and their is no possible method to verify it .It helps us to understand the truths about yourself’s, the world in which we live and the relationship that we have with the world and each other
Good thoughts. Most of your writing is highly evolved.
I would substitute the word ‘myself’ with ‘oneself’ to depersonalize your narrative.
Your definitions are on point.
good evening sir spiritual: culture with dissolution of ego helps in the larger acceptance of various communities based on various region, religion , race, caste ,etc making harmony and providing space for others (other creatures) adhering to unity in diversity
temporal: civilizations evolve and sustain based on the nature of culture existing . The liberal , creative and rational thinking surpassing orthodox nature of religion (belifs) would lead to evolution on positive lines. indus valley civilization promoted trade and commerce on large scale abbassid caliphate accepted the scientific temper from other regions for development, however the history also carries the black spots of destruction of civilizations of hiroshima and nagasaki by the unsustainance use of nuclear weapons threatening human values
economy: culture of judicial and sustainable exploitation of resources should be carried out in terms of mining , proper disposal of waste , organic agriculture with afforestation so that the living earth is made sustainable for coming generations and protecting biodiversity
psychological : the ultimate goal of civilization should be to acheive good life with better health and happiness . this could be developed with the healthy social broad networks of relationships and cooperations . the international forums such as UNO, UNICEF, WTO etc should be used to discuss various problems threating humanity . this should also be used for protecting the soverinity and integrity of the nations avoiding various wars by peace talks , negotiations , strengthening multilateralism , economic cooperation illustration : paris climate change , peace talks with taliban , various groupings such as G7 , G20 , NAM , etc
philosophical: civilization , that has basis in culture should incorporate equality,liberty, fraternity, justice based on jhon rawls,
ethics: decesion making culture should be based on categorical imperative and consequential theory hearing conscience leading to better sophisticated civilization avoiding chaos , corruption , criminal activities
thank you very much sir
You seem to have gotten the right idea about these Dimensions.
The spiritual connection is spot-on. You seem to have picked up a lot of good inputs from the dimensions.
I don’t know if you can claim that Hiroshima and Nagasaki were exemplars of a destroyed civilization but the point is well taken.
Psychological dimension could benefit from some insertions about large-scale behavior change or references from some popular researches in social psychology. You may drop words like group-think, social cohesion, the collective consciousness of humanity etc.
Your claim about the categorical imperative for Ethical decision making may or may not be agreeable to the reader. How about using something safer or toning down the language to suggest that it might be the better ethical lens for today’s world?
You are doing great.
Spiritual and Temporal When a child is born, they are much like a soft clay which is formed carefully with time. The shaping factors responsible in formative years being parents, environment, social behaviour and culture of the place the child is born in. These cohesive factors can either ensure that the society we live in is strengthened for future generations or it crumbles into decay.
How we live, our beliefs, ideas, customs, traditions, literature, practices illuminates varied cultures throughout the world. As we integrate and look back on actions taken by the society to stabilise, advance and flourish, we may find remnants of civilizations. This common history may bring us pride, knowledge and unity reveling in what we have.
Economic As we glance back to a much more recent time, we can see how culture has shaped our lives . For example- The pop culture popularised ideas from western civilization and demand for jeans, foreign music, coca cola, rayban sunglasses. The price to pay and what we gave up in return was rather out traditional attire, local arts and crafts.
Psychological While some societies consider themselves cultured and more advanced due to it’s refined taste, technology and traditions, they may also be label others as barbaric or uncultured due to racial oppression, honour killings, female infanticide and other regressive beliefs.
Philosophical A child may not choose to be born in a particular place, time, religion etc but on growing up may choose to follow traditions or rationally question who and what we are.
Ethical While populist exchange of cultures can’t be stopped to permeate civilizations as culture exchange has been ongoing since hundreds of years. Whether in the form of matrimonial alliances, exploration, trading people though initially resistant have given way to newer things to move with fast pace of time. It is through our choices and actions that we pave a identity of who we are and what we believe in. Our culture shapes us into what we are.
Your potential as a writer is obvious but I think your writing for the UPSC will benefit from some neutrality.
These are good points to use in and of themselves but when you insert them in the Essay, make sure to highlight the good, the bad and the otherwise with equal potency.
Your final opinion about whether or not Culture is good or bad for India is well put.
I hope to see wider horizons in your writing with a pinch of detached objectivity, if you know what I mean.
But keep the good work going.
Culture is a term which encompasses the social behavior and norms in the human society. We also get to see arts, crafts, laws and custom capabilities and habits of individuals as a part of culture. Civilization is a complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government and symbolic systems of communication. Civilization is an important stimulus of socio historic culture. The development or advancement in culture is what leads to the birth of a civilization. Spiritual: Culture looks at mostly non materialistic aspects of life which is also true in the case of spirituality. Spirituality is the phase of life where we look at things beyond our egoistic perspective with love. The laws, beliefs and customs are believed to be given by a spiritual messenger or a spiritual person in most cultures. Spirituality somewhat works as a base in most cultures. Spirituality is something that comes from the within and hence is given more importance in culture, whereas spirituality also plays a role in the civilizations but of a lesser importance. Civilization being a concept of modernization, does not depend much on spiritual path but definitely has its share in the functioning of a civilized society. Temporal: A timeline of forever of what man has been and has done is what forms the culture of a particular place and that culture evolving and advancing is what leads to a civilization. An important point to observe is that culture is everlasting. Civilizations have risen and fallen but all of them collectively forms the base of the cultural history. Economic: Economy is the mother of culture and civilization. The study preferences and behavior of people is economics and these are the factors which make up culture and then the behavior and tastes advancing to become a civilization. While the economy has a great role in urbanization which is the most important part of a civilization, the economy at a particular point of time has also effected the formation of the culture of a place. A change in the economy, for example, Pastoral to Money economy, led to the drastic change in what people consume, build, wear etc. which is basically their culture and as seen before, civilization is a stimulus of socio historic culture, which is indirectly nurtured by the economy, therefore implying that culture and civilizations are products of changes and advancements in the economy Philosophical: The laws and norms of a society is a result of the philosophical thoughts of the society. These are exactly what constitute the culture of that society. The philosophical level of understanding of humans have evolved today to a point where philosophy is the last hope of a sorrow man to restart his happy life. While intelligence and maturity is what is required for people to become philosophical, these are the main charascteri9stics of an advanced society i.e. a civilization. While many civilizations have taken birth and perished, what they have left behind is the wisdom and thought. These factors are better understood by men who are philosophical. Philosophy is deep rooted in both culture and civilization. The study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and existence which philosophy itself is, has kept men and women together in coordination and harmony for centuries together be it as cultural or as a civilization. Psychological: The way man has influenced his surroundings is marvelous. From the invention of the wheel to the modern day electric cars, man has always been an influencer. The result of the effect man has had on his surroundings is culture. Culture is shaped by man’s psychological thinking. As the level of man’s psychological critical abilities changed, he brought about enormous amount of changed which influenced millions around him leading to the changes in his culture. These small but important changes have paved together the way for the birth of civilizations. Advancements in the psychological level has always led to a change in a man’s environment which has had an effect on both his culture and civilizations. Ethical: Hadn’t man been a moral animal, he would’ve destroyed himself as well as everything around him. Keeping in check his moral principles, in other words his ethics has made him achieve great heights. Most cultures have ethics bound to them as ethics are sometimes the direct product of spiritual thinking. When we look at life beyond our ego we are being spiritual and that is exactly when man can realize if he is being ethical or not. Ethics form a very important part of both culture and civilization. While a culture couldn’t last longer without being ethical, ethics is a basic requirement for a civilization to be functional. This just mean that both civilization culture is built on basic principles or morale, which is nothing but Ethics.
Conclusion: The quote ‘Culture is what we are. Civilization is what we have.’ is a wonderfully expressed line as we could see that civilizations are advanced forms of the society. We also saw that our behaviors, our thoughts, practices and much more is basically what our culture is. We reflect our culture. In fact, we are our culture. A series of changes and advancements in the humans is basically the change culture which leads to the formation of a civilization which we have today. So hence, Culture is what we are and what we have, as a result of our changes is our civilization.
Your thrust is towards simplification of the relationship between the two keywords which is great.
Keep it up!
Thank you so much sir!
‘Culture is what we are, Civilization is what we have’
Spiritual: Culture is the identity. It’s explain how we are live in the society. Maintain the same thing at the long term. Nowadays we loss the things os culture. Example is marriage functions. Some rules following from our elders. Now younger generation people irrespective of the culture and go to the mordern culture. Most of the people lost their family god name. But, village people maintains their culture properly. In our culture everything gives the meaning. Civilization is the variable. We are deloping old Civilization to mordern civilization. Example find out the roots of countries. Meets different humen. construction of temples is good example. This is used to know our elder’s Civilization.
Time: In which year which type of culture maintained. AC 1010, king Raja Raja chola constructed the Thanjavur big temple. In this temple we know about the culture of the people. Most of the poets explained about the people of the country and king in their poems. In which time which type of festivals celebrated is related to the yielding. In which year which type of people live and who which language is used. AC 1010 related copper plate grant is the evidence of the elder people. We couldn’t find out the construction yet.
Economic: At the festival season most of the business running. In the marriage festival, dewali , pongal and etc., Dress material shop, jewelery shop this type of business gives high earnings. At dewali festival all the Hindu community people bought dresses for celebration. We are changing to the mordern civilization. But, jewelery rate is increasing day by day.
Psychological: In the psychological view, we are celebrating each other. If we meet our friend, then wish him. In the Ramayana, poet valmiki explained habit of Rama is ‘poorva bhashi’. It’s means if he meet people, then he wishes and welcomes firstly. He doesn’t wait for people wishes. In Tamilnadu, we celebrate 3rd day of pongal festival is called ‘kaanum pongal’. It’s means we are meet with friends and family. By the development of civilization, in the town side we meet different types of people and different types of cultures. It’s like all over India at one place without language, religion, caste.
Philosophical: Culture in philosophical view is the set of beliefs and morals explained by the religious philosopher. They are teach the moral to that people. It improves the quality of the people. So, people get accepted and reached very quickly to people. Civilization in philosophical view is the set of morals explained by the religious philosopher. People also follow them. But, it’s not necessary to mordern India. Because, India is the ‘union of strength’. No religious and caste comes.
Ethical: In ethical view culture is difference from different person. It tells only the judgement. This is right or wrong, ethical or non ethical. For example foot wears allowed to some religious and it doesn’t allowed in other religious. Culture and civilization is a result of contemporary conditions and judging good or bad.
You have understood these different perspectives.
There is scope for improvement in your expression and grammar. I notice that you do a good job of using smaller sentences to remedy this.
Culture is the ideas, customs and social behaviour of particular people or society, it is the art of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively. Civilization is the stage of human social and cultural development that is considered to be the most advanced. The two words are used interchangeably, however, civilization refers to the complex way of life that comes up with the collective responsibility among the people, however, culture is a complex whole including, knowledge, religion and belief. Spiritually culture is related to the connection with the supreme in the eternal world, be it any religion. With the sense of Spirituality, the culture propagated through time for the spread of knowledge. With the progress of culture the development of either social or cultural leads to the development of a civilized society.
Culture and Civilization progress and their development is impossible without people coordination. Thus the psychological factor of coming out to a single story that is beleived by everyone is important. Physcologically culture is the outcome of coming to a single story that had led to development of religious places of worship , reforms of these places are also the outcome of one story. Similarly Civilization which is development at extreme can also be achieved by cordination and that too by presence of one story .
Ethics is an essentiality of culture. It ables us to question about the belief. Ethical Values orient what choice we should make among the available one.Ethics lets us know about the correctness of culture with the present world. It is due to this ethical values, Culturehas survived ,an outcome of values to question, decide. Similarly civilization is also based upon the power to question and making decision in the favour of both the mankind and civilization.
Your point about coordination and cooperation is excellent.
Keep up the good work!
Culture is a way of life that comprises beliefs, traditions that are passed on from one generation to the other. India is very well known for its diverse cultures. The beliefs are often considered to bring in values of unity and enjoy the state of togetherness. Civilization is known for an advanced development for culture. The feeling of generosity, nobility and selflessness are promoted by various cultures and are associated traditionally to the divine. It is often viewed as a way of freeing the anxious minds. Civilization presents a complex combination of cultures and presents a true reality of what culture really is. The origin of culture can be traced back to the time when Homo Sapiens were actually formed. The existence of cultures is what adds beauty to the beliefs as a whole. The traditions get modified with every passing generation. It forms the basis for human cooperation. Taking the example of the Indus Valley civilization, it shows that culture is something that the people collectively followed and helped in the existence of a civilization as well. The effective use of resources for the maintenance of culture and hence the civilization is what adds more value to it. History has shown through the civilizations on the use of monetary resources by the people for the re creation of traditions that helped people to be subjected to equality in terms of following these cultures. The basic idea was to get maximum benefit irrespective of the cost that is employed. This can be related to examples from the ancient and medieval times when huge offerings were made to the kings in the hope of better service from the king. So following traditions have been successful in eliminating the economic inequalities to an extent and what has kept the civilization alive. The common aspect between culture and civilization is the ultimate aim to lead an eudaimonic life. It motivates the human beings to achieve an ecstatic state of mind . It can be believed to be a reason why cultures are being followed till now. Sapiens have attached themselves to the availability of a reward on following these cultures and have kept the civilization what it is today. It helped people to take better decisions for themselves. It helped in creating an environment where the development of humans as an individual was highly possible. From the celebration of festivals and following the traditions to the legacy of maintaining the values of our civilization, the basic motive was to connect with our own emotions. It adds more insight to who we really are . It helped in curing the insecurities that we associate ourselves with us and have helped all the beings to develop a rational view of ourselves. People associated themselves with the attainment of peace and prosperity in their life. Thus cultures are closely related to the choices associated with an individual. Civilization has been shaped due to the availability of diverse cultures and had indeed formed what it is today.
Good work overall!
Very nice use of Eudaimonia.
I like your conclusion about people ultimately all wanting to attain peace and prosperity.
CULTURE IS WHAT WE ARE,CIVILIZATION IS WHAT WE ARE
1.PHILOSOPHICAL: Culture refers to belief,values,attitudes,hierarchies,religion,notion of time, concepts of the universe, and something which is deemed as important and characterized hierarchy.
2.SPIRITUAL: There are so many philosophical and practical suggestions in the world on how to solve a problem. In Russia, there is a great number of people following the idea of building peace through education in the trend of spiritual culture,for culture is one of the main issues which do not divide people, but are able to unite them.
3.Phsycological :Physiological process influences culture. It depends on individual thoughts and actions, and these cultural norms and practices influence the thoughts and actions of individuals.
4.Economic:It studies the relation of culture to economic outcomes. It consists of programmatic issues whether how much the culture matters as to economic outcomes.
5.Ethics:Civilization begins, therefore not with invention of agriculture about 10,000 years ago,but with the articulation almost 50,000 years ago of a valid ethical code and its involvement with other homo sepiens. No civilization is possible without an ethical code.
Culture is a set of values, norms, believes and ethos, etc. that human beings develop and pass on to the next generations. It is through culture that a person develops understanding to make sense of this world. A good culture enables people to become good humans by looking beyond the centered perception of self in this world. Civilisation is the manifestation of one’s culture. It’s a human society with certain characteristics based on culture and success of any civilization depends upon the culture of people inhabiting it.
Choices likes, dislikes, preferences, of any society depends upon the culture and shared values. Advancement of any civilization depends upon these choices and preferences. Indian civilization based on the value of a diverse culture reflects the shared culture of the entire subcontinent.
It is the culture and type of civilization that determines the outcomes of a persons attitude. Our perception of looking at things change with the change in value system. Emotions and personality of a person does reflect in the various art, music, etc. generated which is heavily influenced by the culture of a person, for ex: there is a difference between Western and Indian music which can be seen as a manifestation of wide difference between these two countries’ culture.
Human society has evolved over millions of years. From Indus Valley civilisation to Aryan culture, Indian subcontinent has been various cultures and civilizations. It is through evolution and intermixing of these cultures and civilizations that present civilisation has emerged.
Each culture brings its own set of moral standards i.e. standards of rights and wrongs. And with evolving times and civilizations standards of ethics and morality also changes. Homosexuality which was considered a taboo in ancient and previous civilizations has come to be excepted because of advancement of society which is also reflected in the changed cultural values.
” Culture is what we are, civilization is what we have” Spiritual: Culture is something we all tend to live in, from the very beginning of our lives we get the tags of religion as per our ancestors. We live in a diversified cultural country , where we have different communities and they follows different culture and cultural traits. Every religion has different form of culture and according to that every human beings grows up by following those cultures since day 1 of his/her birth. Initially it is introduced by our parents and then gradually it gets inculcated in ourselves as religious and spiritual beliefs and often accompanied by the word auspicious. Civilisation on the contrary did not affect the orthodox mentality of the people who follows their respective religion religiously. Civilised society is the place where we belong and we need to incorporate that thoughts into our actions.
Temporal: Culture is the one constant part coming from the age old times till today. Time changes so does people culture changes too but not so much in comparison with the Time or people, however it keeps on updating the previous form to a new modified version or structure. Civilisation on the other hand kept on changing from time and again with various innovation and discoveries and gave man the wisdom, knowledge, a way to lead a better and improved form of life.
Economical: Economically speaking culture has a lot of impacts on economical aspects. We are culturally so much diversified that we have some form of occasion or rituals every now and then and they calls for different form of practices to offer prayers to gods and goddesses and that involves a lot of finances. So economically culture does play an important role.
Psychological: Culture brings people closer to each other and gives them a reason to celebrate or meet together. It also enables people to mix different cultures at once where we maintain the universal brotherhood and help each other in dire need or in some form crisis. This really helps people mentally and psychologically to be for each other irrespective religion,caste, creed and sex.
Philosophical: Culture plays an very important role in every individual’s life, culture in which an individual grows up is very sacred to them as it has their grass root beliefs attached to their religion. That becomes the philosophical way for them to lead their life
Ethical: Different religions have different cultures and those different cultures have different perspective and limitations. Nowadays different people based on their thought process and mindset change the culture or modify them as per their own convenience. The “good” or “bad” is defined only by the people and how they want to adapt to their own choices without hurting themselves or the people important to them. They have different principles and ideologies and different standards to measure the good or bad their activities are in terms of culture and also without hurting any other religion, culture or any sentiments related to them
Spiritual – Culture of a society is an aggregate collection of the features which embody the way in which people think, act and behave in a society. It defines the qualities in terms of the tangible elements in the society which are more starkly visible and experienced, such as our food habits, dressing, art, music, literature, etc. However, Civilization imbibes the intangible aspects which contribute to the well-being and existence of that society. They are not visible upfront but can be experienced by studying and living within them. It is seen in our morals, philosophies, thoughts, and way of life. The tangible aspect is more in a materialist sense, while the intangible component is of spiritual nature, which can only be felt by living and experiencing it. Thus, civilization is what we possess as the manifestation of our culture in the form of thoughts and institutions, and a well-defined framework for our development.
Temporal – Human species has existed and evolved over a very long period of time. Since prehistoric times, humans have learnt and adapted various attributes which have brought them together to exist as a society. Even in prehistoric times, humans had a distinct lifestyle in terms of their food habits, clothing and shelter. They even had specific temporal art forms such as cave paintings etc. If this is what we define as culture, then prehistoric humans definitely had a culture. But, if we go by the academic definition of a civilization, then some historians suggest that there are 3 important features that are common to have been a part of all the civilizations that we know. They are metallurgy, writing systems, and a common unifying religious force. These 3 features suggest that for a civilization, it is necessary to keep advancing and evolving. A culture, however, may remain static. However, there is no fixed time scale so as to say that civilization must evolve from a culture. The Chalcolithic Age was contemporary to Indus Valley Civilization, however, it is a culture, while Indus Valley is a civilization, because Indus Valley had a writing system and presence of modern technologies like metallurgy, urban planning, etc. which suggest that there was advancement.
Economic – Money and economics has been the foundation of an advanced civilization. It involves not only the presence and availability of resources but also the methods of effective allocation, planning and distribution of those resources, which can fuel the balance for a harmonious setup if sustenance of the society. Culture of a society is a dominant factor in defining the parameters of the economic system of the society, based on the pattern of consumption. However, it is still essential for the economic system to create and sustain demand and distribution of resources in the society, in order to create a flourishing and advancing civilization.
Psychological – Economic development can surely create a culture, but for a culture to advance and transform into a civilization, psychological evolution is also necessary. It is important to understand the difference between growth and development. Growth is usually uni-dimensional, which is often seen in the case of economic advancement. But, development is multi-dimensional and has various facets across different societies. Great civilizations that we know of, have always laid focus on the overall development of their individuals rather than just economic growth. The impetus has been on imbibing and cherishing valuable ideas of human existence, which are a part of the intangible components of our culture. They are reflected in the ideals, morals and beliefs of their people, such as liberty, equality, fraternity, mutual respect, justice, etc. These ideas make a culture into a civilization. Well built economy and infrastructure can make their culture, but not develop into civilizations. Even in India, we see that states which are doing great economically, such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, do not fare equally impressive on the Human Development Index, while Kerela has a not too big but sustained economic growth and does great on the Human Development Index.
Philosophical – A culture has its set of beliefs and morals, but they may not necessarily have a philosophical ground for their presence. They may be just existing due to practices or conventions, which might be held revered by the people. Often, they have a religious quality also attributed to it, so that it gets the acceptance of the people. However, this is not the case in a civilization. A civilization defines its set of values and ideals, not just on the basis of a convention, but on the solid ground of reason. It has a philosophical backing to it. It imbibes ideas and beliefs among its people, not by fear but by its reasonability and validity for acceptance. For example, India has existed as a culture throughout, however, in the modern sense, the Constitution of India has laid down the philosophy on which the Indian civilization aspires to exist.
Ethical – Different cultures have different ethical standards and parameters of judgement. However, to be precise, in a culture, it is not ethics, rather morals that form the basis of judging a behavior or an act as right or wrong. The classification of behavior in a culture is very black and white, and binary in nature, just right or wrong. This judgement is usually not standard and can be different for different cultures. For example, drinking alcohol may be strictly prohibited in some cultures, while it may be perfectly fine and acceptable in some others. They have a spatial feature, i.e. this judgement may change with a change in location. However, in a civilization, the primary ground for judgement of behavior is ethics. From the ethical perspective, things can be grey and non-binary. This suggests, that in a civilization, ethics become the prime parameter for the judgement, not as good or bad, but ethical or non-ethical. They have a standard and consistent view, which is not affected by temporal or spatial factors.. It can be easily said that committing a murder anywhere in the world, at any time, would be unethical and deserves to be punished. This uniformity is what puts a civilization in place.
TEMPORAL: Life in its crude form never really had any motive beyond survival.Although the dictum still holds true but the evolution of different life forms into subsequent taxa has broadened the dimension of “motive”.Particularly human beings as a matter of fact evolved from wanderers , hunter gatherers to settled species.Throughout there evolution they learnt certain things,introspected,improvised,failed and finally succeded in the process.Their this will to survive shaped their beliefs,values,ideas,bodies,cuisine,art and what not , finally culminating into something we call culture.This is therefore that defines them . These acts through millenia sometimes were given a material and tangible existence in the form of monuments ,cities,scriptures,philosophy and etc.All these have become the heritages of the culture and form the basis of civilisations. SPIRITUAL: Different cultures dot the existence and within cultures are meta cultures.A culture based within the subset of religion is dominated by the belief in almighty.One might be monotheist,polytheist or dualis.Therefore as such these civilisations are marked by holy scriptures ,holy buildings,holy places,esoteric sciences,prophecies and spritual trances as heritage. Tribal culture might be animist,atheist or pantheist in their orientation and often are connected with mother nature as a resource , as a holy heritage and an object of worship. Cultures often modified through modern revolutions of marxism,communism,capitalism form a different civilisations . PSYCHOLOGICAL: At the root of a culture lies the beliefs ,that define the behaviour of the cultured populace.Societies scarred by genocide,wars,sabotage often inculcate a culture of perseverance and deterrance for survival.Israel as country embodies this example.Maoist china and marxist russia are and were marked by the rule of the working class and a deep antipathy towards burgeoisie and aristocracy. A liberal culture of western europe denies state control and individual primacy is its culture and so is the civilisation. As a result marxist civilisation have pre ponderance of community,liberal of individual,religious of spiritual,tribal of animistic behaviour. ECONOMIC: Gujarati culture is an epitome of business acumen. Having an advantage of of the vaishya community coupled with strategic location opening to the suez canal along with early contact of western capitalist class ,this culture has given indian multiple billionaires. Resource allocation from time immemorial has defined cultures . As a result of this what came out was heritage ,expertise,patronisation,zamindari ,begar and feudalism. A civilisation within the cusp of infancy with no marked trajectory towards either capitalism or communism often becomes an epitome of inequality. Therefore economic nature of a culture helps give a civilisation a distinct identity. PHILOSOPHICAL AND ETHICAL: Thus remains a critical question what ought be a culture and what ought to be civilisation? A culture of compassion ,empathy,equality,fraternity,justice thus becomes an imperative for meaningful human life . A civilisation thus born out of these values becomes a template for contemporary and future cultures.Human being as a life form finds a meaning and her life is no more defined by the survivability factor. Questions still remain is there a bad or a good culture or a hateful civilisation? These questions really donot have a logic ground. Because it must be understood that a culture and civilisation is a result of contemporary conditions and judging them from present values does not make for a valid evaluation.
Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have”
Since paleolithic age our ancestors were following a certain culture taking from food habits according to days to wearing clothes occasionally .The sense of spirituality in our culture shows our believes in God and hope on their blessings.
With changing times culture has changed. Now people wear what they like, eat what they want. Time is uncontrollable and culture has become changeable. This is the civilization we belong to
Various cultural events usually held at several places and marginalized people are economically benefited through their skills and activities. Culture is a sweet and smooth element, that helps people economically too.
Culture for some people is a nonsensical bunkum, there are many perspectives of people all over the world regard to culture and civilization. They believe open minded , skilled , employed should believe in hardwork to succeed rather than worshiping God , following our culture. People are recognized through their civilization. A good man is a civilized man and devil man is uncivilized man.
Philosophical views of culture can be according to the believes of persons. The Bhagwat Gita, Hanuman chalisa are the ethical books, which are sacred and worshiped as God. This philosophy has segregated society into asthik and nasthik. Asthik people are those , who believe in God, and later who does not. Our culture defines our civilization.
Culture derivatives, superstition ghost good bad tabbu are the major icons that has damaged our civilization into various black holes. Culture is seen in our habits but civilization is seen in our nature.
Culture is what we are, civilisation is what we have 1. Philosophical: Philosophy literally meant “love of knowledge and wisdom” in ancient Greece. The analysis of how we think about problems is more precisely the study of philosophy in modern times. This demonstrates how culture aided the civilization in dealing with the crisis. To live a life, it is rightly said, one must remain linked to one’s roots. This is what culture’s intellectual side tells society. 2. Spiritual: Culture aids in determining one’s spirituality in the context of seeking happiness, understanding, and the meaning of one’s life, among other things. Spirituality has progressed in lockstep with society. The materialistic concept has become more prevalent in today’s civilization. People have begun to live in moral denial and are more inclined to engage in shenanigans. 3. Psychological: Culture has a significant impact on how people think, feel, and behave. Culture is also an important element in the mental and cognitive growth of humans. Humans used to be cool, composed, and self-satisfied, which made them well. A healthy body indeed leads to a healthy mind. In today’s world, as the number of physical problems rises, so does the number of emotional problems. People used to follow the natural principle of ‘early to bed, early to rise, makes a man safe and wise,’ but in today’s fast-paced world, this natural principle has been completely forgotten. As a result, there is an increase in cases of depression, anxiety, suicide attempts, isolation, and other mental illnesses. 4. Economic: Culture aids society in making decisions, interests, likes, and dislikes, among other things. People from various cultures cope with the scarcity of resources in various ways, which contributes to civilization development. For example, in the past, people preferred to live in a joint family because they care about each other and there are many benefits associated with it, but nowadays, people are more self-centered and prefer to live in a nuclear family. 5. Temporal: Everything changes with time, even history. Humans have progressed over time as a result of numerous cultural influences. Each civilization had its own civilization, such as the Harappans and Mesopotamians. As a result, culture and civilization coexist and evolve. 6. Ethics: Culture determines a person’s race and morality. Ethnicity aids in determining the difference between right and wrong, good and immoral conduct. While it is not required that people from the same culture approach things in the same way, it is possible. For example, earlier ethical codes only prohibited child marriage, female foeticide, and widow remarriage. However, as time and circumstances changed, today’s civilization recognized the negative effects on society and thus outlawed it.
Culture describes the characteristics of a human which shows in way of think, act, behave, attitude, belief, way of react to a situation also it can show in music, dance, food, literature, art, dressing interest of an individuals. Some component of culture can be feel only in internal which mainly make the relationship between individuals and environment surrounding it. While civilization describe complex human societal relation consists of different components of culture, law, institution, technological development throughout the time. So, we can say culture and civilization both not static but dynamic in period of time it can be change according to situation prevails. We can see the dynamic nature of both culture and civilization form different evolution procedure in whole world. The basic cause of this evolution is healthy social relationship between different people and towards the objective of healthy, good and comfortable life. Starting from hunter, gatherers to cultivators and then towards the skill of architecture. Some changing culture of human being from ancient to modern are like abolition of sati, purdah system, widow remarriage, women representation, good coordination between different religious toward a common goal. Now at time globalization we can’t differentiate people on the basis of certain culture because it is the era of fast changing cultural perspective due to technological advancement, share of knowledge which leads to change the civilization according to it by the law, institution, propagation of healthy knowledge between people such as try to moving towards decrease of carbon emission, action toward climate change, inclusive growth, sustainable development not only for human but also animals and different plants with whole environment. Culture and civilization of different people also impacted by economical and political perspective of one group towards others we can see the foot print form ancient to modern time. Mind changes towards surplus from self‐sufficient which born the elitism from egalitarianism. Develop of king, landlords, zamindaris change the culture of people and helps in make a different civilization. This need to greed generates the trading process, colonialism, imperialism, nuclear superpower to achieve more financial and political power with respect to others which changes education, dressing, food, ways of thinking, societal relation, belief, attitude and also born capitalism which also impact in civilization due to technological development, advanced cities, specialized workforce, record keeping, complex institution, uniform rule of law for better administration which shows the emergence of secularity, rule of law, constructive discrimination, liberty, fraternity and making of world based organisation and moving toward common goal which not only represent different kind of civilization of different societal relation also unity in diversity. Different philosophy from different thinkers and knowledgeable persons of different time period changed the model of culture and civilization. Raja ram Mohan Roy about sati practice, women education and participation in society, work of Dr. B R Ambedkar about casteless society, Gandhiji’s talisman. Some cultural practice and civilization changes by law of institution like Hindu code bill, triple tilaq bill etc. Different sets of experiences, prejudice about others shows the ethical and moral belief of a culture and civilization. Experiencing different ethical point of view also evolve by laws like fundamental rights, fundamental duties, Directive principle of state policy(DPSP), code of conduct and code of ethics and so on.
” Culture is what we are, civilisation is what we have”
SPIRITUAL: Culture helps one to determine its spirituality in the form of searching peace, wisdom, purpose of existence etc. As the culture has evolved manifold so as the spirituality. Today’s civilisation has become more of the materialistic concept. People have started to live in the spiritual denial and are more incline towards shenanigans activities.
Temporal: It is right said that with time everything change so as the case of culture. Human have evolved through various culture. Each form of culture offered its form of civilisation like harappan civilisation, mesopotamians civilisation. So, culture and civilisation goes hand in hand and changes with time.
Economic: Culture helps society to make choices, preferences, like, dislikes etc. People of different culture deals with the scarcity of resources in different forms which leads in the advancement of civilisation. For instance, earlier people love to stay in the joint family as there are concern about each other and there are many advantages attached to it but in today’s time people are more self centered and therefore prefer nuclear family.
Philosophical: In ancient Greece, philosophy literally meant a love of knowledge and wisdom. In modern times, the field of philosophy is more specifically the study of how we think through problems.By this one can understand that how culture helped the civilisation to deal with the problem. It is rightly said that to live a life life one must stay connected to the roots. This is what philosophical aspect of culture teaches society.
Psychological: Culture plays a crucial role in the way in which one’s think, react, behave. Culture is also the one of the key factor in human’s mental and cognitive development. Earlier human were calm, composed and self satisfied and hence a healthy one. It is rightly said in healthy body stays the healthy mind. In today’s society with the rise in number of physical problem, mental problem are also increasing. Earlier people follow the nature principle of ‘early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy and wise’, but in todays’ fast moving world one has completed forgotten this principle of nature. As a result there is rise in the casesof depression, anxiety, suicidal attempts, loneliness etc
Ethics: Culture defines ethnicity, how moral a person is. Culture ethnicity helps one to determine the difference between right and wrong, moral or immoral. Although it is not mandatory that people with same culture has same pattern to approach things, it can differ. For instance, earlier child marriage, female foeticide, ban on widow remarriage was in ethical code only. But with evolvement in time and situations, todays’ civilisation understood the impacts of these on society and hence banned it.
Well done, Tanya.
But I will argue with many of your opinions. The fact that I could easily argue and provide counter-examples means that your arguments are vulnerable.
We will cover this in the future but it is for now, the only thing you need to fixate upon in order to elevate your writing to exceptional levels of finesse.
Culture is the ideas ,customs,& social behaviour of a particular people or society. Civilization is the process by which a society or place reach as advanced stage of social & cultural development and organisations. 1: spritual- since time a superior power has been prayed to in some form or another . religion binds it’s believe & within it imparts to them certain values. Thus body volumes what we express at a deeper level in the subconscious is influenced by our surroundings upbringing,things that are a part of our day to day . Ex: The artforms of aasam for instance have great influence of Vaishnavism 2)economical: presently we are living in modern civilization. We are now living in a modern world & every country , religion ,area, institutions etc has its own culture & tradition . If we take ex. Of India then till 1990 the economic culture prescribed in india reported .Indian companies in the form of no outside competition the result was no innovation in any of the industries but after LPG reforms of 1992 the economic culture of India changed drastically & now we are IT and pharma power House of the world. 3) psychological: culture is a non – existing object ,is not a variable, culture has no agency but people have ,we cannot use culture to explain and generalize human behaviour . Thus one can have many cultur & there is always cross civilization occurs in many times. Ex: Greek culture encounter the arabic culture to produce an incredible mix. Of art, philosophy, music, literature & politics. 4) philosophical: culture and civilization are expressions of creative activity of human being. Physical and biological aspects of human existence are embodied in civilization , whereas spiritual and transcendence express in culture. 5) temporal: civilization was a complex of inventions . Language and large scale organization were important invention. There is many cultural differences in how people think and measure and use their time . Culture evolves time to time . 6) Ethical: culture is the value ,ideals & morals develop over a period which form the ethical basis of the society we live in . The current socio – economic & political structure which we have in our civilization are basedas the same ethical infrastructure . Conclusion : when civilization fail or fall culture become extinct too.the better it becomes , the more it delivers .
Your knowledge of is clearly reflected and will serve you well. There is some scope in improving your expression.
Some of your opinions are debatable and I will suggest being more diplomatic in your assertions.
Your arguments do not necessarily follow from your examples and vica versa EVEN if they are co-related. Correlation is not causation.
Other than, If you add better expression to your knowledge, your writing will become formidable.
Spiritual – The oldest religion in the world has always believed that there is one constant that kept us strikingly similar to the earliest known generation, ‘culture’. Evidently we worship same gods in a very similar manner that our ancestors used to do. Even the evolution of the civilization has not affected us. If culture is a constant then civilization is a variable, which is constantly getting better in various perspectives. It doesn’t matter what technology brings, spirituality will always be there from the roots of culture to the top of civilization.
Time – It dates back few thousand years, known as most ancient civilization; Indus Valley, was the host to the cultured people, who knew Math, Architecture and Science. Discoveries of those things amazes present generation. Civilization from that date to this very date has been drastically changed. But culture is pretty much the same. It’s in the every bit of today’s generation.
Economic – Money has been the integral part of the set-up of civilization. Economics developed from ancient times till now is not very different. Cultural phenomena like Kumbhmela and Hajj have vital contribution to the economy of respective cultures.
Philosophical – Culture is the backbone of every civilization. How can anyone imagine the civilization developing without the cultured components in it? Would we ever be this advanced, had our previous generation been uncultured, unsophisticated? There is no civilization if there are no civilized people in it. And civilized people the products of superior culture.
Ethical – In the end “What is right” is the only thing that matters. Because what is ethically right will always bring lawful results irrespective of the race and culture. And only then the civilization will have proper meaning.
I notice that you speak from the POV of an Indian person when you mention ‘our ancestors’ etc.
I would recommend against it and narrating the Essay as a global citizen with a much wider perspective. The Essay topic, after all, does not mention that it is Indian culture or civilization being debated solely.
As you go further in your write-up, you change to a more universal tone which is great.
Good quality work!
Sir, while doing this assignment I faced difficulty to reconcile the BGInS with STEPPE deconstruction technique. To avoid complexity, I just used STEPPE as it is asked in the assignment.
Also didn’t use many word that I generated in structured brainstorming. I have a feel that, I would have used most of them if I was writing the body based on BGInS deconstruction technique.
Also, I am not sure if I had sufficiently used Indian examples. And if the good and bad are balanced. I don’t know where to give the way forward.
Please let me know how to handle this sir.
BGiNS and STEPPE are different methods. I will cover BGInS soon enough but it is narrative building device while STEPPE is an expounding tool of analysis.
One tells you how to construct your story while the other tells you what all to consider while doing so.
It’s ok if you use little or no Indian examples at all. As long as your point is being made, you re good to do.
We will argumentation and counter-attacks in detail soon 🙂
Ok sir. Thank you.
Spiritually seeing, culture is an informal tool to tame humankind, and instill values and principles in him/her, so as to bring about a community of people harmoniously living together. This is achieved through literature, faith, belief and various forms of art like painting, singing, dance, stories, epics etc. Through these techniques human’s deepest emotions of fear, pain, happiness are addressed by giving it expression and explanations. Whereas, civilization is a formal tool of organized institutions like government system, education system, religious institutions etc to bring about co ordinated political, economic and religious activities. To achieve optimal coordination. Both aim to achieve a prosperous and peaceful living by dissolving ego, the self centred behaviour through the above said means.
Temporally seeing, based on the specific set of challenges faced by humans of a particular geography, cultural forms were developed. Some of those were without reason and based on blind faith, which led to hurting other beings like the practise of sacrifice in ancient times, rigid caste systems and communalism in Indian society. Most of the times, civilization was a response to these negative aspects of culture by bringing in organized solutions through education, revolution, and trying to rationalise culture. While also using the tools of culture to their best in the process. Like in Indian freedom struggle Tilak using Shivaji festivals and Ganesh festivals to make people patriotic. Now, nationalism, patriotism has become an important aspect of our culture.Thus culture and civilization influence each other.
Most of the economic activities are based on the culture of people, that is their needs based on faith and interests. However with the evolution of civilization to globalization, all the cultural aspects are going through enrichment from each other. Which is referred to as melting pot of culture or salad bowl. Also, with the technologies like Artificial intelligence and Big data the choice of individuals are manipulated making consumerism and hedonism a big aspect of our modern civilization. And this again influences the culture.
Philosophically seeing, both culture and civilization influence the idea of what is a good life. It’s because of our customs, faith, religion, a significant part of our everyday is spent in reading religious texts, prayers, yoga, meditation, listening to songs. Inspite of these not bringing any tangible benefits. However because of the Civilization these cultural aspects are taking a back seat. So as to accommodate the activities to achieve the tangible benefits by becoming successful, accumulating wealth. This leading to social isolation because of migration for study and work, arguments on the customary values and principles. So there is tension between the culture and civilization in influencing what makes a good life.
Psychologically, culture is to address the emotions of human through arts, architecture, literature etc. However in the advanced civilization, with technology much more efficient ways of supporting these emotions are happening. Both culture and civilization have emphasized on the importance of pleasant trusting social relationships for well being of mankind. However there is tension between the two, when the advancement of civilization is opposed by people holding on to traditional culture. This fundamentalism is seen to be a cause of terrorism as seen in Afghanistan, Syria.
Culture and civilization bring ethical dilemma. Culturally significant things appear to be underdevelopment from civilization perspective. It is believed that only heterosexual is the natural phenomenon and hence right. However advanced civilizations now advocate that different sexual orientations are normal. This based in the scientific reasoning and hedonism.
I note and appreciate how you use connecting words before your sentences instead of using points.
There are better ways of doing this which we will discuss later and figure out better ways of starting your paragraphs.
Your inputs are very well thought out and nicely arranged.
Very good work!
Thank you sir????
Culture is the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings. We can divide culture into two parts ; one is proper culture which deals with beliefs, principle, faiths, mind, concept, religion, philosophy, music, etc. Other is materialistic culture which deals with the clothes, books, man, instruments, crafts, etc. Civilisation is the advanced society which is the end product of culture. Spiritual aspect of culture is innately a beautiful touchstone and its experiences are so valuable and pure . It is necessary to practice it in today’s life to make our civilisation more peaceful and stress free. More advanced civilisation ie western world has realised the importance of spiritualism and it is moving towards this divine force which is free from our customary vigilance and beyond ego .whereas the less developed civilisations are forgetting its importance and considering it as a thing of unemployed and weak minded but it is still preserved in the eastern world because of its vitality for the sustainability of the civilisation.
Culture is an end and it has no measurement standard , it passes from one generation to another. It is more about stability whereas civilisation is always in growing stage and aggressively working for its betterment like means of communication , transportation, etc. . Change in culture is observed with time, as in old thoughts and traditions lost with the passage of time and new ones are added to it which are then transmitted . Culture can evolve and flourish, even if the civilisation does not exist . In contrast, civilisation cannot grow and exist without any culture.
Culture is the set of knowledge, experiences, and behaviour which is commonly shared by a group of people. It is something that a person gains through learning. This learning decides how the development of civilisation will take place. Different cultures have different food habits, different clothing, different preferences . These choices determine the development of infrastructure, industrialisation, economical aspects of a civilisation . It controls the demand and supply of the goods and services and other economic parameters also effected in the same way.
Culture reflects and shapes the psychological processes of the people. It influences human behaviour and its development. They are inseparable, people are shaped by their culture and culture is also shaped by them. One’s identity is affirmed by one’s culture. If one’s culture is more supportive and advanced it will nurture the people in better way which in-turn lead to the development of better civilisation.
Philosophical The essence and meaning of culture is holded by its philosophical part. It enunciates its basic character and core . Moral beliefs which are disseminated during buddha time are still alive and are more relevant in today’s world . These are also the prerequisites for the upliftment of civilisation .
Ethics is a code of behaviour that a society considers moral and appropriate for guiding relationship with one another. Each culture has different standards of right and wrongs. As sati was the part of the indian culture and it was considered right at that time, but with the time people realised its ill effect and banned it . One thing could be ethical for one culture and unethical for another. Eg. Tobacco consumption. But in whole, standards improve with the time and pave the path for the better civilisation.
There is something quite rare in your writing- you use the right kind of emotionally-charged words like ‘pure’, ‘beautiful’ , ‘ driving force’
I intend to cover this in detail in the final Masterclass but I’m delighted to see that you understand this intuitively.
Your structuring, argumentation, narrative and examples are really good.
It will be interesting to see how you connect the above points into an organic whole.
Keep up the good work !
TEMPORAL Around seventy thousand years ago our ancestors were unimportant. Over the period of time, they dominated the planet, They were as same as any other creature. For example, a Chimpanzee was as same as a man, physically. But man has the ability to cooperate, which a Chimpanzee lacks. In this way, we humans have been able to create many great civilizations, such as – Egyptian Civilization and Harrapan Civilization. These all constitute external developments of arts, artifacts, and so on. Gradually, we have been able to introspect. As a result, we humans created many rituals, customs, and beliefs. These all are the result of inner engineering which humans practiced. This constitutes our culture.
ECONOMICAL A human requires resources to survive. Judicious use and supply of limited resources make civilization better. For example, in the recent COVID 19 pandemic, rightful use, and supply of medicines were the need of the hour. In this case, India played a significant role in the mobilization of medical resources, outside the country and inside as well. Indian civilization, which is rich in medicines, has enabled India to follow the Indian culture of universal brotherhood, by simply sharing medical resources. This is how civilization becomes the means to reach the end, culture.
PHILOSOPHICAL As discussed earlier, civilization has always been changing over time. The thing which has led to this transformation is -“the search for a good life”, also known as “EUIDAIMONIA”. If the civilization is at its best, in this case also man finds something better than the earlier. Dayanand Saraswati was always in search of a better life. He urged his followers to follow VEDAS, to live a good life. That search for a good life is continuing. This has become our culture.
PSYCHOLOGICAL A good culture is built with the good social relationships of its people. Good relationships keep people happier and healthier, which directly affects the duration of a civilization, positively. On the other hand, bad relationships make people aggressive and sick, which affects the duration of a civilization negatively. Having considered both sides, it can be said that people’s mental state matters significantly for the sustainability and durability of any civilization. In this way, a civilization of people with a good mental state constitutes a good culture.
P.S. -Not able to find enough to write about ETHICAL and SPIRITUAL. Poras Sain
You have been listening intently to the resources I shared.
Everything is on point. You are clearly very methodical.
This will serve you well.
About your question, you can connect the write-up egolessness and all-encompassing compassion to tie it with spirituality.
To connect it to Ethics, you could talk about ‘guiding principles of morality’ which hint at each one of us from the depths of our hearts towards the right action and say that when this internally driven moral-guide is manifested externally and becomes part of culture, the resultant is an enlightened and morally-driven civilization etc.
You are doing exceptionally well.
I am learning a lot???? I’ll work on it Thanks sir
Culture is complex form which includes knowledge , beliefs , art , customs which are acquired by human being . It is somewhat an unconventional system or medium which a person can use to achieve his ends . The essential factors in this is the acquisition and the ability to learn from the group . Man learns his behaviour and what behaviour he learns denotes his culture .it basically define us tand shapes who we are today and what we will become in future . Civilization on the other hand refers to the time of writing and advent of metals . As history begins with writing so is civilization like Mesopotamian civilization . The process not only brings individual self control but also transformation of attitude and values . The stage of human social and cultural development is considered most advanced to achieve a particular end which we are today . Initially the society’s are being differentiated on the basis of cultural superiority and inferiority .the usage of barbaric culture was quite common then . Civilization is being used as morally good and culturally advanced
Nice exposition of the temporal dimension. You highlight the evolution of c & c through time.
Now for the other dimensions.
Keep it up !
Today there is unprecedent levels of globalization and focus on a global culture transcending boundaries. So much so that it is easy to forgot the difference between civilization and culture. In the broadest sense civilization is the institutional structure allowing us to create our own narrative and reality i.e., culture. In the words of Nichifor Cranic, “Civilization evens, culture differentiate”. One of the most eloquent examples of this is colonization during the 19th century. In India we did end up replicating and following the ways of western civilization. However, our cultural identity evolved independently, for it is the soul of what we are. This is because culture more than civilization makes us human and remove the state of alienation brought by evolution of civilization and technique. In the economic sphere, we have monetary institution, complicated fiscal policies making a regulated boundary for the habits governed by culture. This is evident in the fact that even after successful start of Jan Dhan program, the beneficiaries were still inclined to keep their savings at home. Even today an average Indian assumes gold to be a viable investment. While the technicality of these claims are up for discussion, the underlying principals and impact of civilization and culture is true. With advancement in the discipline of psychology, researchers established framework of human development, the pyramid of human needs but once again the cultural aspects altered the expected results, showing stark contrast between the east and the west world view.
You open brilliantly with how these concepts are narrative building tools for humanity. You differentiate c & c.
I see that you reflect upon how c & c interact and co-evolve or otherwise in the points which follow.
It’s all very good and intellectually mature.
But when you civilization, what do you mean precisely? You seem to use to the word interchangeably to refer to national and global civilizations.
The same goes for culture.
The only thing I would change is to add basic definitions for the two keywords to make your arguments air-tight. If they are clearly defined in the beginning, then your basic premise can not be inferred and therefore will become immune to being challenged.
Thank you so much sir for providing this valuable feedback. I will keep in mind to provide a clear context for the basic premise. Getting guidance from you, really means a lot !!
Spiritual – Culture is the aggregate sum of the ways in which we think, act and behave. It comprises both tangible and intangible components. the tangible components are the ones that can be reflected in our food, music, dress, literature, etc. but the intangible aspect can only be recognized when we look into our beliefs and morals. The intangible part of a culture can be experienced only from within, by being a part of it. It is easy to imitate or experience the material part of a culture but to truly understand it or become a part of it, can only come from long exposure to such a way of life. Civilization is the manifestation of the culture in the form of laws and institutions for the purpose of human development.
Temporal – If culture is how humans act or behave, then we can say that even prehistoric humans had some culture. They had a distinct lifestyle which included hunting for food, living in caves, cave paintings, etc. But the era of prehistoric humans can’t be termed as a civilization because they lacked well structured socio-political and economic framework. They co-operated with each other but only for hunting and that co-operation was very limited as we see today in the groups of Chimpanzees. Civilization only came into being after the culture advanced as humans learned about domestication, agriculture, and the extraction of metals. It started with the settlements of towns and villages and the establishment of a power structure coupled with large-scale cooperation.
Economics – A sound economic policy is the foundation of an advanced civilization. Advancement is not just about the availability of resources but also how those resources are distributed, so as to sustain a harmonious existence of the civilization. The economy of civilization is very much dependent on its culture. People belonging to a certain culture usually have preferences for cuisine, clothing, and even music. These preferences manifest themselves into, what we call in economic terms, demands and drives the economy of a place. A flourishing economy not only sustains a civilization but also advances it.
Psychological – The advancement of civilization can’t be judged just by taking its economic development into consideration. Psychological development is another equally important parameter to conclude as such. It has been observed that in a society where ideas of human rights, freedom of expression, religious freedom, etc are given due importance, are the most advanced and harmonious society. These factors depend upon the intangible part of our culture i.e. morals and beliefs. Western democratic societies hold the ideas of liberty, equality, and justice very dear to them because it has been a part of their culture since many centuries ago. Whereas in some middle eastern countries the idea of democracy, religious freedom, or gender equality seems like a distant dream. They have one of the most infrastructural cities but the true advancement of their civilization will come only with the psychological development of society.
Philosophical – Every culture holds its beliefs and morals sacred and they justify it with the help of philosophy. And it is not only just that philosophy provides but it also prescribes the ways in which a culture can advance and upon which can a strong civilization be built. Philosophy is not just a part of a culture but it is also the product of a culture and most often a civilization is a product of that philosophy.
Ethical – Different cultures have different ethical standards. The conception of good and bad, right and wrong, permissible and taboo, etc differs for most of them. A common set of ethics in culture helps in bringing cooperation and establishing a system of governance. Although this doesn’t mean that every individual belonging to the same culture has the same ethical standards. Even within a culture, individuals have different moral principles upon which they function, and often these principles come into conflict with each other. The reconciliation of these conflicting principles and beliefs is one of the attributes of a developed civilization.
Your connections from the dimensions to the Essay topic are on point.
There is a meta-positive resolution-optimism type of feel to your points which is exactly the sense to be conveyed.
Topic : Culture is what we are and Civilization is what we have SPIRITUAL & TEMPORAL As we see the development of human evaluate from time to time , as in spiritual scientific point of view when person come in straight position or used to walk in position in that sense the nerve system is in perfect position & functions properly , through which the meditation works , person endeavor for meditation to awaken our sub consciousness power which outcome in many transformation , knowledge as wisdom achieved as we see that is the actual human are spiritualistic in comparison of modern and westernized human beings & that spiritual knowledge we acquire in form of civilization which we had to disseminate all over the world. ECONOMY From few decades , it seems to be the population of India is same as in 2nd position (1st is China) , which have a worse impact on employment , economic , mal nutrition too etc. , & if these are in recovered position then death rate cause effectively due to covid-19 , which has a worst effect on economy of India as all over the world also slow downs GDP nearly to the minus point and recovery from these economic crisis of India , the government simply took the small steps i.e. , permit to open the liquor shops only , by which economic growth seems cannot be imagine also , many world economic index forum disclose that in coming year 2022-23 the GDP of India rise by 2% which shows positive sign of Indian economy and provide opportunity to outside investors , as well as standard of living improve. PSYCHOLOGY As in field of psychology , the culture depicts our personality , thoughts , believes , tradition , mindset where as civilization reveals our ideas , innovation , renovation , evolution and knowledge. PHILOSOPHICAL Many philosopher recommend that “if culture is a theory then civilization is a practical ” which means the facts , commands , beliefs etc. , given in different cultures some of them are follow in reality or say practically in which there are of some common sense , scientific fact , where as some treated as myth or misery or mystery which cannot be clarified any more. ETHICAL In ethics , the culture here describe what actually we are and on that basis what our duty , right & prosperity , commands should be reflect in our action also. Civilization where explore the things , we received , acquisition on knowledge through whichwe gain or achieve our goal , desired standard of living etc. that’s depicts what we have.
You have understood how to use Dimensional Analysis.
What is required is maybe some more pertinent and to the point statements about what you are trying to say. I mention this because you first tend to dive into the details of your examples without specifying the over-arching point which you intend to make.
This can be easily remedied. You also need slightly better expression and grammar.
I can see that your writing has improved considerable in a very short span of time,
If you keep working hard, it will evolve into something marvelous 🙂
Culture is a kind of heritage which one inherits from the society. For instance, the one who represents the pahari culture are termed as pahari. Simply we can say that “culture is what we are”. When culture possesses written language science, philosophy as specialised division of labour and a complex technology and political system, it becomes civilization. Culture is a pre existed term for the new born which they are going to learn simultaneously. Oe we can say that culture is a system of learned behavior shared by and transmitted among the society. It is passed from one generation to another through tradition and custom. Broad or advanced aspect of culture results into the civilization. The process of civilization brings a place and people to a phase where they can be developed socially and culturally to realize a more advanced stage of human existence. Large population region, traditional architecture, distinctive art style, communication patterns, system for governing territories and the civilization of people into social and economic classes are some specific features of every civilization. Civilization from Mesopotamia and Egypt to civilization appeared in the Industry valley, China and Central America allows diverse cultures to grow, spread and prosper. When civilization fail or fall, culture become extinct too. However, strong culture have potential to save civilization from failing or falling. Culture is what we are. The better it becomes, the more it delivers. What it delivers to through us is what we create and this creation is what we have ,the civilization.
I would not agree or disagree with the topic at the outset like you did in the second line.
The following sentence about how culture evolves in to civilization is really good!
I can see some elements of the temporal/historical dimension but not the others.
I want you to expand on the issue along various dimensions.
We are aiming for width and richness of perspectives.
Culture is a set of human activities and symbolic structures that gives significance to such activities within a group, society or community. It reflects the customs, ideas, beliefs, faith, language, festivals, rituals, ceremonies, holidays, pastimes, food, art & architecture, laws, dress, religious beliefs, and even social standards or classes devided on the basis of different traditions,, traditions are pass down from one generation to another.. hence represents a critical piece of our culture and form structure and foundation of society or a group . It reminds a part of history that defines our past and shapes who we are today, who we are likely to become. In a simple manner– Civilization is a complex human society usually made up of different cities or societies, with certain characteristics of cultural and technological developments. First civilization have some kind of urban settlements and are not nomadic. Hence, culture can be considered as a small unit for civilization. Culture is learned, shared, based on symbols, integrated and dynamic. It gives an overview on how people’s behavior vary from one place to another. It can be consist of two types — 1) Material culture : Physical things provided by a society like symbolic values National flag, Christmas tree. 2) Non-material culture : intangible things like our faith, belief, mercy, desire. Cultural intrinsic values provides important social and economic benefits that improved learning and health which increases human tolerance and opportunities and provides proper opportunities for satisfication of human needs and desires by following developments — 1) Social -economic and environmental development : Since language is a main object of people communication or interaction and having a common language or culture ensures people to bind up in their particular norms collectively hence ensures a good social relation, and on having any conflict like situation people would ensure unity during crisis, influence identity debates and dialogues on nation building and for peace and reconciliation. 2) Moral, ethical and standard that speak to how people should behave or interact with others. Culture act as prescription for correct and moral behavior, coherence to life, provide a means to achieve a sense of integrity, safety and belongings. 3) Human development : Culture teaches us how to live in a society and allow us to advance because each new generation can benefit from the solutions found and passed down from previous generation. Culture is an important shaper of our personality but some corresponds to cultural syndrome like as complexity, tightness, individualism and collectivism. 4) Gender : Since gender equality or empowerment of women are among the top development goals. But culture and social norms plays an important role that how people perceive women’s role in society and achieve these goals. 5) Child development : Parents in different cultures have different roles in moulding children’s behavior and thinking pattern. Culture differences in interaction between adults and children also influence the social behavior of a child. 6) Technology : technology forms different cultures and differentiate one from another. It allows us to intermix, allow for every opportunities to be affordable and creates more opportunities than in the past. Classical societies explained nature, various events and their origins by appealing to pantheons of God, while,, Modern culture refers to the shift in collective thought that took place with the rise in scientific advancements during the renaissance and a cultural shift in society beliefs began to occur. Civilization refers to a society or group of people or the process of achieving a higher state of social development like Mesopotamian civilization — arts, sciences and machines. A civilized person is polite, courteous, socially & technologically advanced. Respect human beings and therefore always tolerant, gentle. Have compassion, respect other people’s property and therefore pay debts. They fear lies. A civilized society have advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, social classes, job specialization, public works, complex religion. In ancient civilization, the role of religion was to form the society structures, developed individual’s spirituality quality and leading govt. corruption,, Religion is a set of beliefs concerning the big idea in the world involving cultural behavior and practices. Hence, culture refers to the way of life of a individual or community includes the custom, faith they have,, the art, literature, music they enjoy,, the festivals they celebrate. And Civilization is an enhanced (developed) state where there is an established political, social, and religious norms.
Your hard work is appreciated and noted.
Your claim about culture being a smaller unit of civilization is debatable. I know what you are trying to say here. But you see, this stuff about civilization, culture etc is the subject matter of Anthropology, Sociology, Evolutionary Psychology just to name a few disciplines wherein the relationship between culture and civilization is studied, defined and attempted to be understood. This implies that they are the experts on this and we ought to leave academic assertions to them.
In other words, a more diplomatic approach to the issue is on order. You may say that their relationship is complex and perhaps symbiotic or something generic and safe.
Also why the bulleted points?
Your knowledge is exceptional and your thoughts are well informed .
I want you to try and connect your points together into one organic write-up.
This, of course applies to your write-up inasmuch as it is meant to be part of an Essay.
if you were attempting to write an answer for GS, the above feedback would not apply.
But the objective of this assignment was otherwise.
So, use the feedback accordingly :).
Thank you sir, for the feedback I’ll try to imply/improve my answers accordingly.
Spiritual: Culture ennobles an individual to experience generosity, selflessness, unconditional love and care-which are traditionally associated with the divine. Non-materialistic aspect of the culture focuses on attaining relief from the burdens and blindness of being too self-centred. Whereas civilization thrusts upon the consumerism- fulfilment of unending wants and whims i.e., more materialistic aspect. A rational mind can achieve the balance between both aspects which is essential to human existence. For example, the Ashtanga Marg propounded by Buddha as a path to liberation is more relevant to modern day societies. Thus, it is desirable to access the spiritual learnings of our culture more often to ensure survival of humanity.
Temporal: Culture is an end in itself whereas civilisation is the means to achieve the desired end. Various norms, values, principles which comprise culture were not defined at a point in time. Instead, they were evolved over a period of time. For example, the culture prevailing today has accumulated elements from- Arabs, Mughals and Europeans. This also reflects in our civilization in the form of Indo-Islamic and Indo-European architecture. This cultural inheritance has been at the centre of our contemporary worldview on phenomenon such as- Capitalism, Globalisation, Human Rights and Space exploration.
Economical: Culture determines the tastes, preferences and choices of the people. This leads to the material aspects of the society such as economic structures, inventions , planning models and so on, which constitute a civilization. Adam Smith’s invisible hand theory is based on the choices of self-interested individuals. The decisions these individuals take on a daily basis translates into demand and supply in the market. This further decides if the markets flourish (boom) or perish (Great Economic Depression)- all based on an individual’s choice!
Psychological: Culture is often defined as a way of life. However, what constitutes a good life is widely debated. The insights into our culture provide the wisdom on how to build a long and fulfilling life. Civilization gives the direction to attain a good life, in the form of good relationships we build with fellow human beings. For example, the idea of Vasudaiva Kutumbakam propagates that the ‘world is one family’ which highlights the importance of maintaining good relationship with the entire world. Our belief in this idea is also one of the main causes for India’s rise in global arena.
Philosophical: Culture determines what we are worth. Every culture in the world is inherently proud of itself because of the values which are enriched over the years. The culture we inherited pushed us to challenge the status-quo, question everything and instilled a sense of curiosity for greater good. Civilization in turn helps to build an identity around the culture. For example, the values, morals and customs embedded in several Indian schools of Philosophy such as -Yoga, Sankhya, Mimamsa are upheld till date. In fact, India has developed the identity of The Land of Yoga in contemporary times. Furthermore, Yoga leads to thoughtfulness, strives for self-improvement and improves self-awareness- which is Eudaimonia!
Ethical: Culture is the values, ideals and morals developed over a period which form the ethical basis of the society we live in. The current socio-economic and political structures which we have in our civilization are based on the same ethical infrastructure. For example, we valued the decision of each individual to elect their representative therefore universal adult franchise came into existence. Similarly, a widely believed custom of Sati was abolished because a human life is irreplaceable. The quality of decisions we take and our ability to accept the output of our decisions highlight the importance of ethical domain in both our culture and civilization.
Delightful to read.
All your inputs are substantiated.
Opinions are balanced.
I especially like how you begin your paragraphs with a clearly defined assertion and then proceed to analyze and conclude.
Don’t change a thing. This is great.
Dear sir, here’s by take from these dimensional implementations: 1) Spiritual : Culture is a set of practices, norms and beliefs which helps us to know and realise true meaning of life. It is permanent and ever-evolving concept of human-existance.
Civilization on the other hand gives us glimpse of its non-permanence. Humankind has seen endless number of civilizations ,but neither of these were of permanent existance. They all searched for truth in the realm of culture which is eternal and defines – what we actually are .
2) TEMPORAL: Culture evolves according to belief of people. There have been dramatic shifts in cultural-aspects as the knowledge-levels of society improved . From Nihilism of ancient-times to Practice-based during Medieval to contemporary rational-outlooks in form of yoga, maths, science. It all defines our belief-system and hence, “what we are”.
Civilization makes use of cultural-underpinnings to accomplish their needs and aspirations Eg: present human civilization aspires to make robots, explore space , cure diseases , travel faster and much more by using the current resources and cultural knowledge.
3) ECONOMIC: There have been homogenisation of landscapes on basis of cultural-activity. Eg: agricultural-realm forms important part of Haryana, Punjab, and Western-UP . It also defines the similarity in form of opportunities and problems of these areas.
Civilization through economic-cultural-realms tries to extract maximum monetary sources in order to foster its sustenance in form lf taxes, duties , encouragement towards economic activity and much more. Eg: Traditional Uttarpatha and Dakshinpatha of Post-Vedic age had lebensraum to aquire cultural-landscape of gangetic-plains to gain control of economic-resources.
Culture is amalgamation of traits of all the individual in a society as a wholesome one. It is good, it is bad ,it is neutral in terms of practices and belief – the major-acceptance of society is what matters most. Eg: It is culture to kill animals in lands of Nagaland , however – it may be a criminal offence in many society-beliefs. Culture defines philosophy-level of an individual and society.
Civilization makes use of these philosophical-insights to have decision making and justify their outcomes.
Contemporary world is complex and amalgamation of several cultures which were hitherto isolated by space and time. Globalisation, liberalisation have led to lebensraum between cultural-traits and the one with best justification finds living-space. It defines current delema of human in terms of values system of west vs value system of east.
Civilization often tends to assert the”status-quo” and invincibility of their civilization’s belief system, which is always a falasy in absolute sense.
5) PSYCHOLOGICAL: Culture represents mental-maps of human, their perception and personal liking and dislikings. These mental-maps gets sophisticated and complex as culture evolves. Civilization tends to assert their culture through tends of practices ,one of the most common among them is “nudge behaviour” which objects to motivate people towards certain ends . Eg: following one’s regional-language-fanatics could be a nudge of proudness for someone.
6) Ethical: Culture is value and belief based, its correctness is may be biased from view of people following it. Eg: several instances of wrong discription of incidents in the past (conflicting viewpoints wrt ASHOKA king in Buddhist Texts Vs those of other writers) . Similarly, civilization which are part and parcel of culture are also not absolute in terms of correctness. It is ethics which finally resolves to take a comprehensive view point of each of human actions and their implications by factoring in all the important points to come to justified conclusions. It gives correct picture of nature of culture(what we are) and civilization (what we actually have).
Your examples and points are just the right magnitude. I especially like how you use big-ticket examples like Ashoka, Buddhism etc which are universally relatable.
You have used your knowledge of GS to good effect. Bonus points for that.
Your expression is good. There are minor grammatical infractions here and there which if you correct, will lead to the 0.1 percentile top-notch writing quality.
Keep at it!
Thank you sir. It was motivating for me. I will be definately trying to improve in my grammatical-domain.
In conclusion, a man’s culture decides “what he is? “. The refinement of his beliefs is what civilization is. The culture is derived from his environment. This helps him to develop himself into a civilized human being.
You have not only touched upon a lot of dimensions but have gone beyond and woven the entire thing together nicely.
This is more than I expected.
CULTURE IS A COMPLEX WHOLE THAT INCLUDES ONES BELIEFS, VALUES, MORALS,ART, INSTITUTIONS, CUSTOMS AND OTHER TRAITS ACQUIRED BY A MAN AS A MEMBER OF SOCIETY.ON THE OTHER HAND, CIVILIZATION IS THE MOST ADVANCED STAGE OF A CULTURE AND IT IS THE MATERIAL THINGS SUCH AS HOUSES, HOUSE COMMODITIES, WEAPONS THAT ARE DEVELOPED THROUGH GENERATIONS.
CULTURE AND CIVILIZATION ARE INTERDEPENT. CULTURE NEEDS CIVILIZATION FOR ITS FURTHER DEVELOPMENT. CIVILIZATION NEEDS CULTURE FOR ITS SUSTAINABILITY. CIVILIZATION ACTS AS A VEHICLE FOR CULTURE TO ADVANCE THE CAPABILITIES OF SOCIETIES. CIVILIZATION EVOLVES THROUGH TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS THAT ARE DEVELOPED THROUGH GENERATIONS. FOR INSTANCE THE CULTURES WHICH WE ARE WITNESSING TODAY ARE BECAUSE OF THE BEHAVIOURAL FEATURES OF THE INDIVIDUALS WHICH ARE INFLUENCED BY THE PEOPLE AROUND US AND THE MATERIAL THINGS WE ARE USING IN THIS MODERN LIFE. PARTICULARLY THE INDUSTRAIL REVOLUTIONS WHICH HAPPENED IN THE PAST AND ARE HAPPENING RIGHT NOW PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN SHAPING OUR CIVILIZATIONS. THIS INFACT ALONG WITH CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AFFECTS OUR CULTURES AS WELL. DESPITE THIS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CULTURE AND CIVILIZATION, THEY ALSO HAVE SOME DIFFERENCES. CIVILIZATION CAN BE COMPARED BETWEEN THE PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT TIME PERIODS. FOR INSTANCE THE WEAPONS, TECHNOLOGY, AND OTHER MATERIAL THINGS ARE BETTER IN MODERN SOCIETIES THAN THOSE WHICH WERE PREVALENT IN ANCIENT TIMES. THUS CIVILIZATION IMPROVES WITH TIME IN TERMS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS. ON THE OTHER HAND, CULTURE IS NOT MEASURABLE AS THEY ARE INTERNAL TRAITS OF AN INDIVIDUALS IN A SOCIETY. FOR INSTANCE ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF ANCIENT TIMES SUCH AS TEMPLES, MUGHAL CONSTRUCTIONS CANNOT BE COMPARED WITH THE MODERN BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS. WHILE PICASSO PAINTINGS ARE PRAISED AND ARE OF IMMENSE VALUE FOR SOME PEOPLE WHILE THEY ARE OF NO VALUE TO OTHERS. BASICALLY CULTURE WILL BE SEEN FROM DIFFERENT PROSPECTS BY DIFFERENT PEOPLE MAKES IT INCOMPARABLE.
CULTURE IS THE INTERNAL FEATURES OF AN INDIVIDUAL AND AS A WHOLE THE BEHAVIOUR OF A SOCIETY. AND CIVILIZATION PROVIDES THE RESOURCES ON WHICH THESE CULTURES EVOLVE AND SUSTAIN. THUS CULTURE IS WHAT WE ARE, AND CIVILIZATION IS WHAT WE HAVE.
Good write-up. If you were aiming to write an introduction to the topic, this would get top marks.
Your writeup is a nice insightful description of the relationship between civilization and culture.
The assignment however is designed to force you to expound on the Essay topic via analysis of various dimensions.
Culture is simplest form refers to ideas, belief, customs and social behaviour of particular people. It denotes arts, events, actions. We also relate culture behaviour to persons, attitudes and behaviour characteristics of a special group. All these attributes of culture imply that what we are is what our culture is. Civilization refers to action or incident that taken place. Process of civilization not only bring better individual self control and transformation of attitudes. We talk about western civilization, we converse about the society, culture and way of life of the west, which is based on Greco Roman influence. Culture exists because it could be embodied in Civilization. The process of civilization brings a people to phase where they can be developed. Socially, culturally to realise a more advanced stage of human existence. Traditional architecture, distinctive arts style, communication patterns are some specific features of every civilization. Civilization from mesopotamia and Egypt to civilization appear in Indus valley, China silk root diverse culture to grow.
Nicely written and perhaps uniquely suited as an introduction to the Essay.
It would be ideal if you touched upon various dimensions and analyzed the issue accordingly.
But nonetheless, you are defining your terms well and seem to be on the right track.
Keep it up.
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[Topper’s Interview] Sameer Shaikh (Rank-135/CSE-2015) Philosophy Optional, BITS Pilani, Hails from Thane
Candidate profile, introduction, electronic vs paper material, tempo and style, struggle of a senior player, prelims (csat) general studies, prelims (csat) aptitude, mains: compulsory language paper, mains: essay.
- MAINS GENERAL STUDIES PAPER 1 TO 4
GENERAL STUDIES (MAINS) PAPER 1
General studies (mains) paper 2, general studies (mains) paper 3, general studies 4: ethics, integrity, aptitude, mains answer-writing, mains optional subject, before the interview, during the interview, cse-2015 marksheet, career backup, views on upsc reforms, insecurity about profile, credit: friends/family, bogus marketing propaganda.
Q. Tell us something about yourself, your family, when and why did you enter in this field of competitive exams?
Q. In recent times, there is spur in electronic material- blogs, sites, pdfs, RSS-feeds. Many aspirants feel bogged down by this information overload. So, how much do you rely on electronic material and how much on the paper material (Books, newspapers)? If possible, narrate a typical day in your studylife. What is your style of preparation (e.g. I continue making notes no matter what I’m reading, I just read multiple times but don’t maintain notes, I make mindmaps on computer …or xyz style) For the first question, I relied on both hard and soft medium. One should not ignore either of the two. Newspapers,government reports,quick fact checks can be easily done on the computer. Certain things like optional preparation require extensive note making on paper. One should use the best of the both worlds. I would say as the importance of general studies increases the importance of the electronic medium will increase. With regards to the second question, I used to read The Hindu everyday and supplement it with important op-eds from Indian express, etc but very selectively(Make notes from these). The rest of the time was used up in writing answers, making and revising notes of optionals and giving tests if any. Since I was not working I used my entire day to prepare for CSE. I maintained notes for everything so that I could do last minute revision.
Q. People know what books and syllabus points are to be prepared. But most of them lack consistency in their preparation. So, how do you keep study momentum going on? How do you fight against the mood swings and distractions? I used to do jogging as regularly as I could. Whenever I used to feel down after a bad test or an unproductive day I used to speak to my friend. On the other hand it helped me avoid getting complacent if I did well in a certain test. According to me ideally all of us should find such honest support systems like a friend, a sibling, a teacher, or online communities like forumias. Mood swings and distractions are bound to happen in a long marathon like this, therefore, being organized and making schedules can help. This way one always stays on track.
Q1. How did you survive through this mental prison and what’re your words of wisdom to other senior players? If any specific inspirational incident(s), please share. Sincerity is very important when one is at their lowest.I honestly evaluated myself, spoke to my teachers, ny friends, my parents. Self analysis is very important. I worked on my weaknesses and problem areas. And with the help of feedback from others and my own critical self assessment I improved my preparation. The stories of past toppers convinced me that I could do it, that there is no reason why I shouldn’t be able to succeed at CSE. Q2. What went wrong in your previous attempt? What changes did you make in this current attempt? I gave an attempt immediately after graduating in 2014 with public administration because that was the most popular optional in CSE. As expected I fared badly in pub-ad due to lack of coaching, revisions or interest. This kicked me out of CSE 2014. Immediately after mains I started looking for an optionl that I would like to study. I started preparation with philosophy and this changed everything for me. This increased my productivity since I was reading a subject I really liked. Hence I would urge all aspirants to choose their optionals solely on the basis of their interests. This can be the single most important decision they make for CSE.
Q. Any observation / comments / tips about GS prelim 2014 paper? Focus on the dynamic portion as its importance is increasing over all. Revision and mock tests are the key here. Q. Now that Aptitude paper has become qualifying, obvious more attention needs to be paid on the GS paper so apart from the books that you already have gone through, what else would you have tried for CSE-2016 (if you were going to appear)? I think I would have have done more revision and given more mock tests.
Q. Any observation / comments / tips about GS Aptitude 2015 paper. I was comfortable with this part, hence didn’t do anything specific for it. Though my advice to aspirants who are not comfortable with this part would be to sincerely give mock tests and self evaluate.
PRELIM ACCURACY Q1. Did you attend any ‘mock tests’? do you think they’re necessary for success? I think they are absolutely necessary since the art of writing the prelims stage can be honed through mock tests. But one needn’t pay large fees to attend these tests, anyone can buy copies of test papers from the shops in Delhi. Friends can even share a test, take printouts and give the tests individually.
Q. other observations / tips / comments on the length / difficulty level of compulsory language papers in CSE-2015 Both papers are not to be ignored if one faces difficulties in either of the papers. Reading newspapers daily should help in the English paper. For the regional paper, I am aware of a friend who attended a small crash course. One can always opt for it if there is such a need.
Q1. How did you prepare for the essay paper? The reading that I did for my preparation along with my notes from newspapers helped in collecting enough material for a good essay. I also gave mock essays and got them evaluated by seniors and friends.
Q2. Which two essays did you write and What key points did you include in it? I wrote
- Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make a man more clever devil &
- Dreams which should not let India sleep.
I don’t remember the key points but I followed certain guidelines. Essay should be very general in nature. My optional being philosophy I consciously decided not to attempt anything on those lines as it would invariably become uni-dimensional and non-general in nature. I gave lots of examples from current affairs. The approach was very optimistic and solution oriented. I also tried to link all the paragraphs into one coherent whole. The focus was on writing a neat and tidy essay which would be legible.
<tdeight:32px;”> world history<tdeight:32px;”> Mrunal.org (world history material)
Q. Many candidates found Mains-2015 Ethics paper very peculiar and “out of the book”. What are your observations and tips for future aspirants regarding preparation of this paper? I was extremely confident about the ethics papers because I used to get good marks in mock tests. But eventually I fared much below my expectations in GS4. According to me this was because the mock test papers are checked by people who have knowledge about the subject whereas the actual CSE papers are checked from a generalists point of view. I would suggest that aspirants should write very generalist answers and refrain from using jargons. Focus on giving lots of daily life examples.
I attempted almost all the questions.I focussed on sticking to the demands of the question, especially the keywords like comment, discuss etc. My advice would be that one should practise completing the paper on time during mocks. From my experience I have realised that one should keep answers very general. Too much data, expert analysis is not needed as the paper is corrected from a generalists point of view. Give lots of examples, and don’t beat around the bush. Q. How was your experience with the ‘fixed space’ answer sheet? This time the space was way more than required. I knew the space that I would need for each answer and I stuck to it even if I had more points. This way I could complete the paper on time. Q. Did you write answers in bullet points or in paragraphs? Some players (who cleared mains and got interview call letter) were claiming that they wrote entire paper in bullet points, so it doesn’t matter….whether examiner is asking ‘examine, comment, discuss or xyz’….simply write in bullets and points. I wrote answers according to the keywords. Discuss means a debate, when asked to comment then there is no need to explain the background etc. My answers were a combination of bullet and paragrapgh format. There is no need to follow a set formula. One should read their own answer from the examiners point of view and then try to make it as easy to comprehend as possible. Q. Did you follow the “introduction-body-conclusion” format? because some mains-qualified candidates claim they simply wrote the points they could recall within the time, instead of bothering with proper introduction and conclusion. I wrote introduction-body for almost all answers. Conclusion would depend on the demand of the question. From my experience and others’ experience following the format does help. Q5. Did you use highlighters / sketchpens in your answers? No I didn’t Q6. Did you draw any diagram in any paper? (e.g. in GS1 Geography) Yes a few diagrams and flowcharts wherever relavant. But one should not overdo it, it can backfire Q7. If yes, Did you draw diagrams with pencil or pen? Used pen. Hardly anytime for using pencil. Q8. Did you use ruler to draw the lines in diagram? Or did you just make it by hand? Directly by hand Q9. You wrote the answer in blue pen or black pen? Blue pen
Q. What’s your optional subject and why did you chose it and not something else? I really liked the subject matter which gave me an opportunity to read about great thinkers from India and the West. The subject requires only critical thinking and even a beginner can pick it up very quickly. Q. If a new player wants to pick this subject, would you advice for it or against it? (e.g. every senior player in Public Administration seems to be advising against pub.ad) Definitely. Provided one has an interest in the subject. That should be the only criteria. Q. First the essential book/resource list. (Also mention which one is the “Base book” for covering the theory? + Whatever comments you’ve for a particular book e.g. “my seniors said read xyz book but I found that ABC book was better”. “xyz topic not given properly in this book, so prepare from xyz website or book…” OR and so on.)
- Patanjali class+printed notes
- Masih-Western philosophy (read the philosophers given in the syllabus, but avoid getting caught in the parts that are not mentioned)
- Dutta-Indian philosophy (whole book is relevant)
- Gauba-Socio-political philosophy (gives a good conceptual base)
- Masih-Religious philosophy (Is a tough book to read, but worth the effort)
Q. How much of internet-research / current affairs is necessary for this optional? OR can one simply rely on the books and be done with this subject? For contemporary philosophy one needs to google a few terms. For this, one can alternatively watch videos on the topic to gain understanding Q. How many months did it take to finish the core optional syllabus? Takes 5-6 months to do it from coaching notes. But constant revision and reading reference books is required to get good marks. This year scaling has affected the subject adversely. Q. How many days/ weeks before the exam, you started answer writing practice? I was constantly writing answers after prelims till mains. Philosophy requires lot of writing practise as the questions ask only one aspect but the answer should be well rounded and should include one’s own analysis. Q. Do you maintain self-notes for revision of optional? In which format- electronic or paper? I maninted all my notes in paper format. But I used highlighters to re-read reference books. Q. Your observation about the difficultly level of 2015 mains vs previous papers. And what precautions / rectifications are necessary in the future strategy for given optional subject? Philosophy paper in 2015 was very straight forward. But this doesn’t mean everyone got good marks as there was definitely heavy scaling this time. Aspirants will have to stand a cut above the rest to get good marks and at the same time also balance GS in order to provide some cushion if the optional doesn’t fire.
Q1. How did you prepare for the interview? – for college grad, hobbies, place of origin, current affairs at national and international level? This is the stage that can make or break your dreams. If one does this stage right then, he/she can definitely get their dream service. But if taken lightly, it can either force them to re-appear in the exam or completely shatter their dreams. In my opinion there is definitely a way to secure good marks in the interview. I read lots of transcripts and prepared answers for both factual and opinion based questions. I did extensive research on my DAF and prepared good notes on it. I revised my graduation subject from the NPTEL website and the internet.This forms the base to the preparation for interviews. At the second stage I had discussions on possible topics from current affairs and my DAF with my teachers and friends. This helped me understand my weaknesses and I worked on them to eliminate them. I feel one should focus on both these stages of the interview preparation. Q2. Did you attend any mock interviews by coaching classes? How were they similar / different than official interview? Do you believe it is necessary to attend such mock interviews? I attended mocks at various places as I was new to this exam. Mocks help in making one aware of their mistakes and also boost confidence. The questions may not be the same but the thinking process remains the same. For newbies like me, I would suggest mock interviews as a good practise. Q3. Where did you stay for the interview? (Hotel / friend’s home …) and what books/material did you bring for the ‘revision before interview’? I stayed in Delhi for my preparation. I had all the material which I kept revising till I reached the UPSC gate. Q4. Any words of wisdom about Medical checkup? Carry eye prescription if one wears spectacles. Q5. Describe the formal-dress worn by you in interview. Formal trousers, shirt and plain tie. These days the number of people wearing suits has increased exponentially but I feel this should not bother anyone. A good dress doesn’t make a good interview. One can wear the most humble shirt and trousers and still ace the interview. Having said this one should make sure that the clothes are well ironed, clean, shoes are polished and the hair is cut neatly. Don’t get intimidated by other aspirants who might be too well dressed.
Q1. Who was the chairman of you interview board? Vinay Mittal Sir Q2. How long was the interview? 30 minutes Q3. Why do you want to join civil service? Why don’t you continue in your graduation field? Social service can be done from private sector too. [Since I don’t know whether they ask you this question or not. But if they had asked- what will be your reply?] Though this question was not asked during my interview. Civil services gives us, the youth of this nation, the opportunity to directly perform public service at the grass root level. We can take up leadership positions in the country and help our countymen and women. The second reason is that it is a profession that commands immense respect in the society and it has been my parent’s dream to see me as a civil servant. Q4. Please narrate your entire interview- what questions did they ask and what did you reply and other pleasant or uncomfortable experiences during the interview. (Earlier some toppers only tell me their question but not their answer. I would appreciate if you give both Question + your original answers) I wished the lady member first and then all the gentlemen individually. I would suggest that all aspirants ask the attendant the time before entering in order to be aware of the correct greeting. Chairman sir asked me to get a new photo after the interview from Khan Market since I wasn’t wearing specs in the photo. Ch: You didn’t work at all after graduation, why? Me: interacted with civil servants during internship+inspired by the example of other civil servants etc Ch:What does your Think-Tank do? Me:public policy, research etc Ch:Give me an example of some contribution it has made? Me:gave one incidence forgot a few questions here… Ch:What is good governance? Me: gave points like transparency, accountability, delivery of public service etc Ch:Tell me steps that government has taken to give good governance? Me:examples like e-governance, RTI, Lokpal etc Ch:How do we ensure good governance? Me:behavioral changes in people and officials in addition to laws, schemes… Ch:An amendment that helps create this behavioural change? Me:73rd and 74th amednment- explained how local governance helps in ensuring behavioral changes needed for good governance. Ch:Some recent measure for service delivery ? Me: Aadhar bill, cross questioning… I explained the provisions and how it ll help Ch:Examples for e-governance? Me: gave various examples of biometric attendance etc and how it helps M1: Asked about the artice I had written for a weekly magazine? Me:explained the article cross questioning on the article and the suggestions given in that article. M1:What are super critical thermal plants? Me:explained definition M1:The mechanism involved in the super critical plants? Me:Answered that I only knew the basic method, not details M2:Had mentioned about reading memiors of civil servants. Asked me the names of the books? Me:mentioned books like not just an accountant, and what remains in the end etc. M2:Why despite such good civil servants, India still lags behind other nations? Me:Said that India is doing pretty well, now one of the best economies in the world, +started from low indicators after independence. Ended with hope that in future we ll be the best M2:What is the new strategy by China in Pakistan? Me:Explained CPEC, gwadar port, PoK issue etc M2:What has India done, what more needs to be done? Me:Chahbahar port, neighbourhood policy, SAARC, india ocean policy, etc M3:What is India’s solar power mix? Me:answered M3:Why has solar power been lagging ? Me:gave points on R&D, low skills, capital, easy oil availability international market etc M3:Why has it become cheap now? Me:National Solar Mission, R&D, climate change, UNFCC etc M3: Thermal power mix, hydro electric mix, geothermal mix, renewable mix? Me:answered all M4:What is the importance of Thane creek? Me:gave points like ecology, sand bed etc. M4:Also water sewage? Me:expanded on that point M4:Tell me 3 top issues of your district and as a collector how would you solve them? Me:gave water shortage, affordable housing, floods in monsoon and then gave 2-3 solutions for each M4:What would you prefer as an administrator, rapid or incremental change? Me:said depends on the situation and elaborated on the situations for each. Ch:Thank you Q5. Was your interview on the expected lines of what you had prepared or did they ask you totally unexpected questions? Was it a stress interview, did they ask any uncomfortable questions? If yes, how did you handle it? The interview was mostly centered on my DAF and interest areas. I had prepared answers to most of the questions. The board was cordial. One of the things that I have learnt is that if one comes across as humble and well prepared, the board tends to take such candidates more seriously. This means that they would genuinely be interested in having a conversation with the candidate. Surely this results in good marks. Q6. Any side details about technicalities like “make sure you bring xyz document or do xyz thing, or you’ll face problem”? Get your original certificates and duplicate copies of each Q7. Any word of wisdom / observations about medical checkup? Stay fit before the medical checkup.
Q2. After looking at the marksheet, suppose you had to prepare again next time, what changes will you make in your studies? I would have written much more general answers in GS4. In philosophy paper 1 I didn’t manage time well and ended up writing very shabby answers for the last 3 sub questions which brought my total down. I would have been more careful in managing time.
Q1. If you were not selected, what was your career backup plan? Would have given another attempt with a job. Q2. When were you going to “execute” that backup plan? (e.g. after __ failed attempts/ after I cross __ age/after dad retires/ after girlfriend dumps me etc.) Soon after results.
Q. Optional subjects should be removed altogether. The present stalemate is helping no-one, except coaching-owners, book publishers. Optionals do help smart aspirants play to their strengths. But the downside is that scaling can create issues. In my opinion,the present system of one optional with greater focus on general studies and essay is a midway solution to the problem. Q. Your views on the decision to make CSAT paper 33% qualifying? Has helped students from rural and vernacular background. Should continue. Q. Despite what UPSC has done in recent years, it has failed to curb the nuisance of Delhi’s coaching factories. In fact it’s increased under the new Mains-syllabus in 2015. Let’s face it, most candidates who gave Mains-2015 have relied on (authentic OR Xeroxed) coaching notes because there was hardly any time left to prepare so many topics in such short time. This system work against an individual preparing from far-away area, without any financial resources, high-speed internet or contacts in Delhi. With sites like insightsonindia, mrunal, forumias, unacademy etc. much of the iron curtain has been dissolved. Notes can now also be purchased through websites like flavido. The situation is not the cause of the malise but a symptom of the deeper issue of quality learning in our institutions. The aim should be to focus on online learning so that students from the far off areas can benefit and compete at the highest levels. Also personally I feel that it is the duty of the toppers who have cleared this exam to help any student who approaches them for guidance. Q. Half-merger of IFoS with CSE is a bad move because it has raised the cutoffs for players who’re solely dedicated to IFoS only (and not to IAS/IPS). Adding salt to the wounds, many who had applied for both jobs, cleared the prelims- they did not even bother to appear in all the papers of Mains-IFoS. (atleast that was the scene in 2013). This is true. Perhaps the present system can be altered. Q. UPSC should disclose official prelim answerkey and cutoffs, immediately after prelim is over, instead of postponing it till interview phase is over. The exam cycle is designed such that no mid-way appeals are made against the exam or the answer-keys. But personally I feel that more transparency will only help the system. Q. UPSC should be conducted online like IBPS and CAT exam to shorten the duration of exam. It could try. For this the modalities need to be looked into by the relevant committees. Q. If you are made the UPSC chairman, what other reforms would you initiate for the civil service exam? -I would establish a regular commitee of eminent people incuding academics to make recommendations, say every 5 years -Keep increasing transparency
Q. Many candidates prepare sincerely but constantly live under fear about ‘profile insecurity’. I’m not from a big college, I’m not from English medium, and I don’t have work-experience. What if they ask some stressful questions in the interview about this? Did you suffer from such insecurities? What is your message to these candidates? The exam itself is the test of your calibre. You need not feel an iota of insecurity if you prepare sincerely and have the right intentions to serve the country. Find out your weaknesses and work on them. If its spoken english then work on it, watch RSTV. If no work experience is your fear then prepare an answer for why you chose to pursue civils and not some other job. For every weakness there is a solution, work on it.
Q. Through this struggle and success, what have your learned? What is the wisdom of life and competition? What is your message to the new aspirants? Hard work pays off in the end. Make mistakes really fast, I learnt a lot by immediately giving an attempt after I just out of college. Avoid people who bring you down, who are negative and not ambitious. The company you keep or avoid will decide what you become. And lastly be grateful for the opportunity that your parents and the country has given you, there are many in this world who lack even basic neccessities. Q. Many hardworking candidates have failed in Mains/Interview of CSE-2015. They’re feeling cynical, hopeless and depressed- what is your message to them? Make a plan B and decide when you will execute it. UPSC is a great platform but life is much bigger than it. If deep down you think that you will give it your all in the next attempt and get your dream service, then the risk is worth it.
Q. Behind every topper are many people who stood by during those uncertain times when he/she was merely an ‘aspirant’. Would you like to tell the world, who were those people in your case? Any specific incidence that you would like to share with the readers? My family and my teachers are inpirational people. I am extremely fortunate to have had them in my life. I also had a friend in Delhi who was a constant pillar of support and kept me going whenever I was at my lowest. Selfless work of people like Mrunal, insightsonindia,forumias, etc has helped countless aspirants like me, they deserve to be congratulated too.
Q. You are well aware of the sacred rule of conducting toppers interview- the last question must be about self-marketing. So, Did you use Mrunal.org for your preparation and if yes, how did it help you? And you can even reply “No”. I’ll still publish your answer without tempering. Of course I did. In fact when I was in college far away from Delhi, Mrunal’s website was the only guiding light I had. The good blessings of every single aspirant like me will surely keep Mrunal and Mrunal.org stay in good health.
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[Topper’s Interview] Akarshi Jain (Rank-140/UPSC-2019): Law Optional, 4th Attempt, LLB from NLU-Jodhpur
[Topper’s Interview] Deepak Kumar (Rank-684/UPSC-2019) Public Administration, 3rd Attempt, Bihar
[Topper’s Interview] IPS Dr. Jitendra Agrawal (Rank-128/UPSC-2019) Last Attempt, Medical Science Optional, No Coaching, Allotted IPS
[topper’s interview] priyank kishore (rank-274/upsc-2018) commerce optional, 1st attempt, no coaching, 13 comments.
Requst to mrunal sir Do take interviews of students from humanities background also as this year also the final result is flooded with people from IITs , medical colleges.
There are many such toppers profile available here . Please do take inteviews of people who came from very humble background ..
I second your request.
sir, please give the interview of someone from geography optional
Dear sir I am looking for standard books and basic clearing books(for beginners) for philosophy and defense studystudy (uppsc) in Hindi medium plzz reply on [email protected] mob.8826331726
Sir please share interview of hindi medium toppers also.
from Where can I get patanjali class and printed notes of philosophy in Delhi? I am from jaipur and never been in delhi so please anyone please tell me the address.
you can get it from old rajendra nagar . i am also opting for philosophy as my optional.
For any philosophy related help you can as me directly.
CONGRATS FOR SUCCESS, GREETINGS FROM INDORE, HOPE THAT YOU WILL CONTACT AT [email protected] REGARDING INFO ON CIVIL SERVICES
I want to know the philosophy subject information to select as an optional….. so please guide me…..
Sir philosphy optional ke study kaise karu. Please sir book k bare me.bate ye.
Sir I selecte for optional paper of philosophy , so which books i refer and so guide me sir.
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HOW TO WRITE PHILOSOPHICAL ESSAY FOR UPSC?
In this article, we have covered strategy of Philosophical Essay for UPSC.
Essay writing itself is a daunting task for many aspirants. Though the one section is somewhat easy to handle, which has topics from social, political, environmental and economic aspects; but when it comes to philosophical topics, it is a herculean task to write an essay on this.
A philosophical essay for UPSC is not about flowery language, story-telling techniques, or surprising the examiner. The art of a philosophical essay is found in your orderly fashioned ideas; the language that you use is only a potent weapon for conveying these ideas to the examiner. The subtle art is in proving one’s views in a crystal clear manner.
There are various challenges which are attached to it, and how to handle the philosophical topic in ‘effective’ and ‘safely’ . We are going to discuss in our coming talks. I purposefully called ‘safely’ because the ground is so slippery, slight deviation or flow of emotion, may put you in great trouble.
Selection of topic
Any good essay will definitely have a plethora of elements and dimensions to it. For essay writing, there are obviously several basic rules that one should follow while searching for these elements and dimensions. First and foremost thing is selection of the topic , especially in philosophical one.
If you are not very well versed with a selected topic, ideas will be exhausted in 2-3 pages, and you will end in repetition of ideas. So choose that topic where you can express yourself in 10-12 pages.
Decoding the topic
Another important aspect is deciphering the topic i.e. decoding the topic . Ethics GS paper comes out as savior here helps you to outline basic points i.e. periphery of the essay and before writing the essay, it is best to outline it.
To outline an essay means to figure out what to say in the introduction/conclusion, which idea comes where, or even what quote to use for the essay etc. It is said that once we can figure out the conclusion to our essay, it becomes much easier to not only begin but finish it with confidence .
For example, in this 2019 essay topic, “ Courage to accept and dedication to improve are two keys to success ”. One must have a clear understanding of courage, dedication and success. Courage and dedication etc. are exhaustively explained in the Ethics papers, one need to use definition and attached features to it.
Defining the key terms and interlinking them with each other will open dimensions for essay. In addition to that, quotes , examples, reports and anecdotes immensely help to make philosophical essays interesting. Otherwise merely writing philosophical ideas makes essays boring.
PESTLEE dimensions Approach
Moreover various examples from the public sphere support your argument in the most effective manner. One should proceed with PESTLEE dimensions Approach (Political – Economic – Sociological – Technological – Legal – Environmental –Ethics Analysis).And one should be very-very cautions regarding his ideological leaning while discussing these dimensions. Your ideology should not be reflected in the essay, content should be written in a more rational manner.
Here, the first of such rules would be to follow and uphold Constitutional values throughout your essay . This is quite crucial for a philosophical essay that the values enshrined in our Constitution reflect in whatever idea, problem or solution we discuss in the essay. At no point should one try and support an idea that is unconstitutional, it can be extra constitutional but not unconstitutional.
Ideological leaning may do wonder if it matches with examiner ideology or thinking process, it can damage to a larger extent if it differs .So ideological balancing is indispensable. One must also be democratic while addressing issues . The concepts of ‘freedom and equality’ should be the guiding principles while suggesting solutions and while criticizing events or issues.
Generally, one should avoid taking absolutist/non-compromising positions . In fact, the best way to handle complex problems is to find the middle ground. One must also try not to make sweeping generalizations on any given issue. Instead, there should be hints of patience, justice and understanding in addressing or discussing any given topic.
Lastly, there are two more things that one needs to keep in mind while attempting the CSE essay. (A) Do not question the topic itself, which is to say, in other words, do not contradict yourself. Pick a position (ideally, the middle path) and stay true to this throughout the essay. (B) Never use positively, things that are universally considered or used in a negative sense, and vice-versa. For example , one must not say that ‘terrorism’ under certain conditions is equivalent to a freedom struggle, even though quotes like ‘one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter’ are quite common.
In a nutshell, it is suggested that ethics paper should be prepared comprehensively, which would help philosophical essays in terms of brainstorming. . And one must follow a ‘ cyclic return’ approach for strong introduction and conclusion .i.e. conclude ideas with introductory ideas . It is important to note that a strong finish is as important as a strong opening. Both are important for scoring better marks along with adequate amount of brainstorming .
How to Write Essay For UPSC Exam?
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How to Score in Philosophical and Abstract Essays for UPSC Main 2023-24? | Target 150+ score | Unbreakable Mains Essay Masterclass by Zeeshan sir
12th August@ 7:30 pm | UPSC Philosophical and Abstract Essays made super easy by Zeeshan sir | Click below and register for the Essay Masterclass
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Essay writing is a crucial component of the UPSC Mains examination. This is a paper where the candidates’ expressive and analytical skills are put to the test. The topics provided in the essay paper can range from socio-economic issues to philosophical and abstract themes. Tackling such broad and diverse themes can be challenging, especially when it comes to philosophical and abstract topics.
A great UPSC essay starts with brainstormed random ideas, disjointed facts…chaos, formulated into a ‘blueprint’. That’s the first step before you actually start writing it.
We are delighted to announce that Zeeshan Sir, our esteemed Essay Program Head, will be conducting a comprehensive session on mastering the nuances of philosophical essays in UPSC Mains and aiming for a stellar score of 150+
Known for his profound expertise and effective teaching methods, Zeeshan Sir has been a guiding beacon for countless UPSC aspirants. His mentorship has proven instrumental in the success of over 56 UPSC 2022 rankers, who vouch for his insightful understanding of the subject matter and his ability to convey complex ideas with clarity and precision.
Why abstract and philosophical essays are a pain point for UPSC aspirants ?
- Abstract and philosophical essays are often seen as challenging due to their broad and interpretative nature.
- Unlike socio-economic topics, philosophical topics do not have a fixed set of facts or data that can be directly included in the essay.
- These essays require the candidates to demonstrate their critical thinking skills, ability to make abstract connections and articulate their thoughts coherently.
Who should attend the webinar by Zeeshan sir ?
- Aspirants preparing for the UPSC 2023-24 Mains.
- Individuals struggling with abstract and philosophical essays in the Mains.
- Candidates looking to improve their overall score in the Mains.
- Aspirants seeking guidance from an experienced and successful mentor.
- Candidates looking for effective strategies and tips to approach philosophical and abstract essays.
- Anyone who is aiming to break free from the feeling of unfulfillment and aimlessness in their preparation.
- Aspirants who are not able to decipher the pattern and ‘new ways of UPSC’.
- Someone who has failed in earlier attempts – aiming to understand and fill critical gaps in your preparation.
- Candidates looking for practical strategies rather than generic guidance.
- Aspirants who want effectiveness, efficiency, and consistency in their preparation
This Clarity with Ranker’s session holds the keys to your success.
What should you expect?
- In-depth understanding of how to tackle abstract and philosophical essays in the Mains.
- Strategies to target and achieve a 150+ score in the UPSC Mains essay paper.
- UPSC Essay trends vis-a-vis Philosophical and Abstract topics.
- Insightful tips and tactics to decode and address complex essay topics.
- Interactive Q&A session to address individual queries and concerns.
- Guidance on improving writing skills and presenting ideas effectively.
- Exposure to previous years’ essay topics and a critical analysis of the same.
Other than this Zeeshan sir will also share best practices to be followed:
- Regular writing practice: Choose diverse topics, including philosophical ones, for regular practice.
- Read widely: Broaden your understanding and perspective by reading widely, including philosophy, sociology, psychology, current affairs, etc.
- Brainstorming: For every topic, spend some time brainstorming different ideas, views, and arguments before starting to write.
- Outline your essay: Always create an outline to ensure your essay is structured and coherent.
- Choose your essay topic wisely: Your understanding of the topic and comfort level should determine your choice.
- Time management: Allocate sufficient time for understanding the topic, brainstorming ideas, creating an outline, writing the essay, and reviewing it.
- Maintain a balanced view: If the topic is debatable, present both sides of the argument before taking a stand.
- Use effective language: Avoid grammatical and spelling errors.
- Ensure flow and coherence: The essay should be logically structured, and each paragraph should flow
This session will be held in online mode.
Date: 12th Aug 2023 (Saturday)
Time: 7:30 pm Onwards
Zoom Meeting Link will be sent via your registered email address.
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Post-Webinar CivilsDaily’s UPSC Essay and Mentorship session
Post webinar we will share an Essay Framework PDF.
You will also get a 1-1 Mentorship session with Zeeshan sir and his team.
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Santa Clara University Supplemental Essays 2022-23
Santa Clara University is a research university located in California. If you want to stand out in the SCU admissions process, the Santa Clara University supplemental essays can make a huge difference. In this guide, we’ll break down each of the Santa Clara supplemental essays in detail.
But before we dive into the Santa Clara essay prompts, let’s learn a bit more about the school.
Santa Clara Supplemental Essays: Quick Facts
- Santa Clara University Acceptance Rate: 54%– According to U.S. News , the Santa Clara University Rankings is categorized as a more selective school.
- 200 word essay (a “why Santa Clara” essay)
- 150 – 300 word essay (an additional essay about how you would address an ethical dilemma)
- Santa Clara University Application: Students must submit their Santa Clara University application through the Common Application . Make sure to have all of your Santa Clara supplemental essays and other required application materials prepared by the deadline
- Early Decision: November 1st
- Early Action: November 1st
- Regular Decision: January 7th
- Santa Clara University Supplemental Essays Tip: The Santa Clara University supplemental essays are your chance to stand out—so make the most of them. Think carefully about each of the Santa Clara supplemental essays, as they are a key component of your application.
Does Santa Clara University have supplemental essays?
Yes. There are two Santa Clara University supplemental essays that students must complete. We’ll share the full prompts for the Santa Clara University supplemental essays later in this guide.
The first of the two Santa Clara University supplemental essays is the “Why Santa Clara University” essay. It has a 200-word limit. This is a classic why this college essay. You might have encountered similar prompts for other colleges—and, if you have, you’re already one step ahead.
The second of the Santa Clara University supplemental essays asks about how your education at SCU would prepare you to solve an ethical dilemma. This essay has a 150-300 word limit.
Preparing for the Santa Clara supplemental essays
Given that there are two Santa Clara essay prompts, you should be prepared to spend ample time brainstorming. You should also plan to complete several drafts before you submit your Santa Clara supplemental essays. In this guide, we’ll help you approach this brainstorming process so that your responses to the Santa Clara essay prompts stand out in the admissions process.
With each of the Santa Clara University supplemental essays, you should demonstrate your understanding of the university’s values and mission. Your Santa Clara essays should also highlight your own commitment to moral and ethical decision-making.
As you approach the Santa Clara supplemental essays, try to reflect on your personal experiences and perspectives. Additionally, use your Santa Clara essays to think creatively about how you can contribute to a diverse and inclusive community at SCU.
These Santa Clara University Supplemental essays are an important part of the application process and allow the admissions committee to get to know each applicant beyond their academic achievements and test scores.
What are the Santa Clara University essay prompts?
As mentioned, there are two Santa Clara supplemental essays. Here are the Santa Clara University essay prompts:
“Briefly describe what prompted you to apply to Santa Clara University. Based on what you know about SCU and our Jesuit mission to educate citizens and leaders of competence, conscience, and compassion, how do you envision your life at SCU and beyond?” (200 words)”
“at scu, we push our students to be creative, be challenged, and be the solution. think about an ethical dilemma that you care about that our society is currently facing. this can be something happening in your local community or more globally. how can an scu education help you prepare for and address this challenge” (150-300 words).
The Santa Clara University supplemental essays might look similar to those you’ve seen for other colleges. For instance, you’ve likely encountered a why this college essay at other schools. However, you’ll notice that SCU’s mission and philosophy are at the core of both Santa Clara University essay prompts.
Next, let’s take a look at each of the Santa Clara University supplemental essays in more detail to help you craft good college essays.
Santa Clara Supplemental Essays #1: Why This College?
Let’s look at the first of the Santa Clara University supplemental essays. The first of the Santa Clara essay prompts essentially asks “Why Santa Clara?”.
“Briefly describe what prompted you to apply to Santa Clara University. Based on what you know about SCU and our Jesuit mission to educate citizens and leaders of competence, conscience, and compassion, how do you envision your life at SCU and beyond?” (200 words)
Before you start writing the Santa Clara essays, you should do some research about the university. So, let’s learn a bit more about Santa Clara University.
Santa Clara University is a private Jesuit university located in Santa Clara, California. Founded in 1851, it is the oldest operating institution of higher education in California. The university offers a range of undergraduate, graduate, and professional degree programs, and is known for its strong commitment to social justice and community engagement.
What does SCU value?
As you approach the Santa Clara essay prompts, you should understand that one of the defining characteristics of Santa Clara University is its Jesuit heritage. Jesuit education is rooted in the Catholic intellectual tradition. It emphasizes the development of the whole person—mind, body, and spirit.
At SCU, this means a commitment to academic excellence, ethical leadership, and service to others. The university’s mission is to educate “men and women for others”—that is, to produce graduates who are not only well-educated but also committed to using their talents and skills to make a positive difference in the world. If these ideas resonate with you, you should use the Santa Clara University supplemental essays to show them.
Highlighting academic “fit”
When answering the Santa Clara University essay prompts, you should also think about how your academic interests align with SCU’s offerings. This starts by understanding the Santa Clara University majors.
There are more than 50 undergraduate Santa Clara University majors, as well as a range of graduate and professional degree programs. SCU is also home to several research centers and institutes, including the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, the Ignatian Center for Jesuit Education, and the Miller Center for Social Entrepreneurship.
These centers provide students with opportunities to engage in research and scholarship that addresses real-world problems and contributes to the common good. If any of these programs pique your interest, you might mention it in your Santa Clara University supplemental essays.
Location and opportunities
Lastly, the university’s location in the heart of Silicon Valley provides unique opportunities to engage with local organizations and address pressing issues. While location shouldn’t be the sole focus of your Santa Clara University supplemental essays, you can highlight how the school provides opportunities to get involved in the local community.
SCU students are encouraged to get involved in service and social justice work through programs like the Thriving Neighbors Initiative, which seeks to promote economic and social equity in the surrounding community. The university also has a strong commitment to sustainability and environmental stewardship. In fact, SCU has implemented a range of programs and initiatives to reduce its carbon footprint and promote sustainable practices.
Choose unique connections
Overall, your Santa Clara University supplemental essays should highlight what makes you the perfect fit for SCU—and how you would make SCU’s campus a better place. So, while you should highlight your interest in SCU, you should also ensure that you are at the center of each of your Santa Clara essays. This will help you make the most of the Santa Clara University essay prompts.
Stay away from rankings and statistics; instead, make sure each of your Santa Clara University supplemental essays is personal and specific.
Santa Clara Essay Prompt #2: Ethical Dilemma
Next, let’s look at the second of the Santa Clara University essay prompts.
Your Santa Clara essays provide the admissions team with additional information about you beyond your academic achievements and test scores. The second of the Santa Clara University supplemental essays asks you to choose an ethical dilemma and describe how your education would prepare you to make real-world change.
Highlight your unique perspective
As you approach the second of the Santa Clara supplemental essays, think about an ethical dilemma that matters to you. Pay attention to the prompt’s wording—what is a dilemma that would ask you to “be creative, be challenged, and be the solution”?
Ideally, this should be a dilemma with which you have some amount of real-world experience or at least a unique perspective. Remember, your Santa Clara essays are a chance to show the admissions team who you are. So, choose something that highlights a key aspect of your identity.
Center yourself, not your dilemma
Once you’ve chosen a dilemma, it’s time to start writing. As you write, don’t spend the bulk of your words explaining your chosen dilemma. Instead, try to limit your explanation to just a sentence or two. Then, use the rest of your essay to show your plan for approaching the dilemma you’ve chosen.
How to write the Santa Clara University Supplemental Essays: More Advice
Looking for more targeted guidance on the Santa Clara essay prompts? Check out our tips below to approach each of the Santa Clara University supplemental essays with confidence.
“Why Santa Clara University” Essay: Tips & Guidelines
1. research the university.
To answer the Santa Clara supplemental essays effectively, you’ll need a solid understanding of Santa Clara University and its Jesuit mission. Take some time to research the university’s history, programs, and values. Then, think about how they align with your own interests and goals.
2. Be specific
When describing what prompted you to apply to Santa Clara, be as specific as possible. Explain what aspects of the university, such as its academic programs, location, or culture, appeal to you and why. Knowing which of the Santa Clara University majors you want to pursue before you apply can also help strengthen your application narrative.
3. Connect your goals with SCU’s mission
To answer the second part of the question, think about how your personal and professional goals align with Santa Clara University’s Jesuit mission. SCU aims to educate citizens and leaders on competence, conscience, and compassion. So, explain how you see yourself contributing to this mission and how an SCU education can help you achieve your goals.
4. Show enthusiasm and commitment
Throughout your response, demonstrate your enthusiasm and commitment to Santa Clara University and its mission. Explain why you believe SCU is the right place for you to pursue your academic and personal goals, and show how you are excited about the opportunities that an SCU education can provide.
5. Be concise
With limited space in the Santa Clara supplemental essays, every word counts. Remember to stay within the word limit of 200 words. Use clear and direct language to make your points, and proofread your response carefully for grammar and spelling errors.
Do your research
Overall, to write strong Santa Clara supplemental essays, you should research the university, be specific about what appeals to you about SCU, connect your goals with the university’s mission, show enthusiasm and commitment, and be concise in your writing.
By following these tips, you can demonstrate to the admissions committee that you are a strong fit for Santa Clara University and its values. The best college essays will highlight what makes you a great fit for SCU, both academically and personally.
Ethical Dilemma Essay: Tips & Guidelines
1. choose a relevant ethical dilemma.
To write an effective response to this prompt, it’s important to choose an ethical dilemma that is both meaningful to you and relevant to the SCU community. Consider issues that are currently facing society, such as social justice, environmental sustainability, or healthcare access.
2. Clearly articulate the dilemma
Once you’ve chosen an ethical dilemma to write about, clearly articulate what it is and why it matters to you. Use concrete examples and statistics to help illustrate the issue and explain why it is a challenge that needs to be addressed. Make sure your reader understands why your issue matters—while keeping it concise, of course.
3. Explain how SCU can help
Next, explain how an SCU education can help you address the challenge. Consider the specific courses, programs, or opportunities that are available at SCU that would be relevant to the issue you’ve chosen. For example, you might discuss how SCU’s focus on social justice or sustainability could help you develop the skills and knowledge necessary to address your chosen challenge
4. Demonstrate your passion and commitment
Finally, demonstrate your passion and commitment to the ethical dilemma you’ve chosen. Explain why it matters to you personally and what steps you’ve taken or plan to take to address the issue. This will help highlight your knowledge, passion, and commitment.
Choose a strong topic
Overall, to write a strong response to this prompt, it’s important to choose a relevant ethical dilemma, clearly articulate the issue and why it matters, explain how an SCU education can help you address the challenge, and demonstrate your passion and commitment to making a difference. Remember to also stay within the word limit of 150-300 words and to proofread your response carefully before submitting.
Does Santa Clara University care about essays?
Yes—SCU cares about the Santa Clara University supplemental essays.
As we’ve discussed, in addition to the Common Application personal statement , there are two Santa Clara supplemental essays. When taken as a whole, your application should show SCU who you are, what matters to you, and why you’d succeed on their campus. So, think carefully about what to include in each of your Santa Clara essays.
The Santa Clara supplemental essays are designed to let you show your “fit” with the SCU community and mission, as well as your writing skills and personal qualities. The admissions committee at Santa Clara University reviews each application holistically, considering academic achievements, test scores, extracurricular activities, letters of recommendation , community service, personal qualities, and fit with the SCU community and mission.
How your Santa Clara essays fit into the holistic review process
Good college essays provide valuable insights into a student’s character, interests, and goals. This helps SCU understand how each applicant can enrich the campus community. While the Santa Clara University acceptance rate may seem low, strong Santa Clara essays can increase your admissions odds.
Of course, the Santa Clara essays are just one part of the application process. However, the best college essays can help you stand out and show how you “fit” with the school’s values. In the Santa Clara supplemental essays, think about how you can become a “citizen and leader of competence, conscience, and compassion”—that is, how you fit with SCU’s mission. By crafting the best college essays, applicants can increase their chances of acceptance.
Santa Clara University Admissions
Within the Santa Clara University application process, the Santa Clara University supplemental essays play an important role. The admissions process at Santa Clara University is competitive, with thousands of applicants vying for a limited number of spots each year. Given the high Santa Clara University ranking, you can expect the SCU admissions team to be discerning.
For the class of 2025, there were nearly 28,000 applicants, making the Santa Clara University acceptance rate around 50%. So, if you want to increase your admissions odds, you should do all you can to craft a strong application. In your essays and extracurriculars, make sure to highlight your academic achievements, personal qualities, and commitment to Santa Clara University’s Jesuit mission.
You might also wonder how your academics compare to the average admitted student at SCU. For the class of 2025, the average GPA of admitted students fell in the range of 3.6-4.0. Like many schools , Santa Clara University currently has a test-optional policy . This means you can choose whether to submit SAT/ACT scores. Even with this policy, however, high scores can still help you impress the Santa Clara University admissions committee.
Of course, your grades and scores matter. However, SCU looks at more than just academics when they review your Santa Clara University application.
The Santa Clara University admissions committee takes a holistic approach to application review. They consider a range of factors including extracurricular activities, community service, personal qualities, and fit with the SCU community and mission. The Santa Clara University supplemental essays are a critical part of the application process. They provide applicants with an opportunity to demonstrate their writing skills, personal qualities, and fit with the university’s Jesuit values.
Building a narrative
With so many qualified applicants, you’ll want to make sure that you craft an impressive Santa Clara University application narrative. The Santa Clara University supplemental essays play an important role in that narrative. Additionally, the Santa Clara essays matter even more if you have lower grades and scores. So, view each Santa Clara University essay as your opportunity to show what makes you stand out. Each of your Santa Clara University supplemental essays should teach the admissions team something new about you.
Overall, while high grades and test scores are important factors in the Santa Clara University admissions process, a strong application takes a lot more. With strong Santa Clara University supplemental essays, you can highlight your unique strengths and experiences. That way, you can increase your chances of being accepted to Santa Clara University.
Santa Clara Supplemental Essays — Key Takeaways
Santa Clara University is a dynamic and vibrant institution that is committed to academic excellence, ethical leadership, and service to others. Its Jesuit heritage and strong commitment to social justice and community engagement make it a unique and rewarding place to learn and grow. Try to take these concepts into account when answering the Santa Clara University essay prompts.
The Santa Clara University supplemental essays are a critical component of the application process. The university’s holistic approach to admissions means that high grades and test scores alone are not enough to guarantee acceptance. Through their Santa Clara essays, applicants must showcase their personal qualities, achievements, and fit with the university’s Jesuit mission. The two Santa Clara supplemental essays offer applicants an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding of the university’s values, mission, and culture, as well as their own commitment to ethical decision-making and community engagement.
Remember, strong essays take time
To write strong responses to the Santa Clara supplemental essays, applicants should take the time to research the university, be specific about what appeals to them about SCU, connect their goals with the university’s mission, show enthusiasm and commitment, and be concise in their writing. This takes time and effort—so don’t leave your Santa Clara essays to the last minute. Learning more about how to write a why this college Essay can also help you write good college essays for Santa Clara University.
It is worth noting that the admissions process at Santa Clara University is competitive. However, with the right approach to the application process, including crafting strong responses to the Santa Clara University essay prompts, you can increase your odds. In your essays, highlight your personal achievements, unique experiences, and commitment to the university’s values and mission.
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In summary, the Santa Clara University supplemental essays matter, and you should take them seriously. Remember, the supplemental essays and personal statement questions are the best ways for you to make a lasting impression on the admissions team. So, make sure that each of your Santa Clara University supplemental essays counts.
We hope this guide prepared you to write strong Santa Clara essays that highlight your strengths. Good luck!
This guide was written by Deepak Kejariwal . Looking for more admissions support? Click here to schedule a free meeting with one of our Admissions Specialists. During your meeting, our team will discuss your profile and help you find targeted ways to increase your admissions odds at top schools. We’ll also answer any questions and discuss how CollegeAdvisor.com can support you in the college application process.
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- Core Curriculum
As of December 2022, students no longer have to write a Pathway essay to complete their Undergraduate Core requirements at SCU. This update goes into effect immediately, including for those who petitioned to graduate in Fall 2022.
This change will not affect the courses you have taken or are planning to take, as the Pathway course requirement has not changed and is still in effect. For more information, read the full update .
Pathway Essay Assignment: Prompt, Criteria, and Submission Details
Purpose of the Pathway Essay
Integrative learning is a hallmark of twenty-first century education, a critical component of a Santa Clara University education, and a crucial skill for addressing real-world problems. The Pathway requirement encourages such integrative learning and engaged thinking since it provides students with the opportunity to consider how issues or problems related to a Pathway's theme are so complex that they need to be approached and understood from different disciplinary perspectives.
In this essay, which is the culminating learning experience of your Pathway Core Curriculum requirement, you will demonstrate your ability to engage in multidisciplinary analysis by combining knowledge, theories, and/or methods from different disciplines in order to show how you have gained a deeper understanding about a specific issue or problem related to your Pathway’s theme.
Identify an issue or problem connected to your Pathway’s theme and use multidisciplinary analysis to demonstrate a deeper understanding of it.
In order to compose a successful essay, you will need to:
- Identify a specific, meaningful issue or problem connected to your Pathway’s theme.
- Analyze this issue applying theories, ideas, or methodologies from different disciplines within your Pathway courses to demonstrate your deeper understanding of that issue.
- Write a carefully drafted 750- to 1000-word thesis-driven essay that uses coherent organization, effective transitions, and clear sentences.
Identifying the Issue: Identify a specific issue or problem connected to your Pathway and explain how the issue or problem relates to that particular Pathway’s theme. Be sure to identify your Pathway by name. (Note: the issue or problem you select can be one you explicitly studied in your Pathway courses or may be a connection between Pathway courses that became evident only after you completed your classes. This section should show readers that you have a clear understanding of your Pathway's theme and scope.)
Analyzing the Issue : Analyze this issue or problem from a multidisciplinary perspective by integrating theories, ideas, and/or methodologies from at least 2 fields of study. For example, a student in the Sustainability Pathway might identify the availability of clean water as a problem. The writer might integrate theories, ideas, or methodologies from a Pathway course in engineering with those from a Pathway course in sociology to show how the problem of supplying clean water can be better understood or addressed by taking into account both fields of study. Be sure to identify the associated Pathway courses you are using within your analysis by name. A successful analysis will demonstrate how multiple disciplinary perspectives, whether they agree or differ, yield deeper insights about a specific issue or problem.
Writing the Essay : The goal is not to summarize your learning; rather, use specific examples of theories, ideas, or methods you studied in your Pathway courses in order to demonstrate how you have gained a deeper, more complex understanding of an issue or problem by considering that issue or problem through more than one field of study.
Criteria for Success
To pass, an essay must earn a “pass” on all sections of the rubric pertaining to the Pathway learning objectives and the standards for written communication. Use the 2021-22 Pathway Essay Evaluation Rubric to plan your writing and to review your essay before submitting it. An exemplary pass will represent a substantial achievement and will showcase your ability to engage in multidisciplinary analysis.
Important Information as You Prepare to Write
- Review and reflect on your Pathway’s description .
- Identify an issue or problem related to your Pathway’s theme that you will analyze in your essay. This issue or problem should be sufficiently complex so that it can be analyzed through a multidisciplinary perspective.
- Reflect on the assignments and learning you completed within your Pathway courses, and analyze how those connected to your Pathway’s theme and to the issue or problem you will analyze.
- From your Pathway courses, select at least two from different disciplines that will help you to develop your multidisciplinary analysis of the issue or problem you selected. The goal is to avoid summarizing these courses; rather, analyze how the different disciplines help you to better understand a complex issue or problem. Be sure to name the courses (department & title) from which you’re drawing information for your analysis. NOTE: Students may refer to any classes in their Pathway for their reflection essay, even if those courses are not listed under the Pathways section of the degree audit.
- Consider your audience carefully. Imagine your reader is someone who values multidisciplinary thinking but is not an expert on your topic and may not be familiar with the particular Pathway, courses, issue, approaches in your analysis. Pathway readers are, in fact, faculty members from a variety of departments across campus.
- NOTE: No additional research is expected. Your analysis will draw upon the learning you have already done. If, in drawing upon your learning in Pathway courses, you quote or use ideas from other texts, you must provide proper citations (using APA, MLA, or CSE format) in keeping with Santa Clara University’s Academic Integrity Pledge.
Formatting and Submission Details
- Your essay should be a cohesive text with a clear thesis, and multiple paragraphs, but without separate sections/headers.
- Your essay must identify your Pathway by name in laying out the relevant issue or problem and the specific Pathway courses you are using within your analysis.
- You may use the first-person in your Pathway essay, since you are writing about your own analysis of your learning experiences.
- The essay can be either single- or double-spaced.
- Include a descriptive title and the submission date at the top of your essay. Any resubmissions should be identified as a “REVISION” and include the revised date.
- All words (e.g., the content of your essay, its title, any citations) count towards the 750- to 1000-word count (about 3 to 4 double-spaced pages).
- Submit your Pathway Reflection Essay through Camino.
- Deadlines for submitting Pathway Reflection Essays are available on the Pathways Website. You can submit your Pathway Reflection Essays prior to the deadline if you have completed at least 100 units and have no more than one pathway course still to take. For more details see https://www.scu.edu/ provost/core/integrations/ pathways/guidelines-and- timeline/
- Review the Essay Submission Checklist before submitting.
For help planning, writing, and revising, visit the HUB writing center to consult with a writing partner. The HUB is open Sunday-Thursday, 4:00-10:00 p.m. in the lower level of the Learning Commons.
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