Transitional Words and Phrases

One of your primary goals as a writer is to present ideas in a clear and understandable way. To help readers move through your complex ideas, you want to be intentional about how you structure your paper as a whole as well as how you form the individual paragraphs that comprise it. In order to think through the challenges of presenting your ideas articulately, logically, and in ways that seem natural to your readers, check out some of these resources: Developing a Thesis Statement , Paragraphing , and Developing Strategic Transitions: Writing that Establishes Relationships and Connections Between Ideas.

While clear writing is mostly achieved through the deliberate sequencing of your ideas across your entire paper, you can guide readers through the connections you’re making by using transitional words in individual sentences. Transitional words and phrases can create powerful links between your ideas and can help your reader understand your paper’s logic.

In what follows, we’ve included a list of frequently used transitional words and phrases that can help you establish how your various ideas relate to each other. We’ve divided these words and phrases into categories based on the common kinds of relationships writers establish between ideas.

Two recommendations: Use these transitions strategically by making sure that the word or phrase you’re choosing matches the logic of the relationship you’re emphasizing or the connection you’re making. All of these words and phrases have different meanings, nuances, and connotations, so before using a particular transitional word in your paper, be sure you understand its meaning and usage completely, and be sure that it’s the right match for your paper’s logic. Use these transitional words and phrases sparingly because if you use too many of them, your readers might feel like you are overexplaining connections that are already clear.

Categories of Transition Words and Phrases

Causation Chronology Combinations Contrast Example

Importance Location Similarity Clarification Concession

Conclusion Intensification Purpose Summary

Transitions to help establish some of the most common kinds of relationships

Causation– Connecting instigator(s) to consequence(s).

accordingly as a result and so because

consequently for that reason hence on account of

since therefore thus

Chronology– Connecting what issues in regard to when they occur.

after afterwards always at length during earlier following immediately in the meantime

later never next now once simultaneously so far sometimes

soon subsequently then this time until now when whenever while

Combinations Lists– Connecting numerous events. Part/Whole– Connecting numerous elements that make up something bigger.

additionally again also and, or, not as a result besides even more

finally first, firstly further furthermore in addition in the first place in the second place

last, lastly moreover next second, secondly, etc. too

Contrast– Connecting two things by focusing on their differences.

after all although and yet at the same time but

despite however in contrast nevertheless nonetheless notwithstanding

on the contrary on the other hand otherwise though yet

Example– Connecting a general idea to a particular instance of this idea.

as an illustration e.g., (from a Latin abbreviation for “for example”)

for example for instance specifically that is

to demonstrate to illustrate

Importance– Connecting what is critical to what is more inconsequential.

chiefly critically

foundationally most importantly

of less importance primarily

Location– Connecting elements according to where they are placed in relationship to each other.

above adjacent to below beyond

centrally here nearby neighboring on

opposite to peripherally there wherever

Similarity– Connecting to things by suggesting that they are in some way alike.

by the same token in like manner

in similar fashion here in the same way

likewise wherever

Other kinds of transitional words and phrases Clarification

i.e., (from a Latin abbreviation for “that is”) in other words

that is that is to say to clarify to explain

to put it another way to rephrase it

granted it is true

naturally of course

finally lastly

in conclusion in the end

to conclude

Intensification

in fact indeed no

of course surely to repeat

undoubtedly without doubt yes

for this purpose in order that

so that to that end

to this end

in brief in sum

in summary in short

to sum up to summarize

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Transition Sentences | Tips & Examples for Clear Writing

Published on June 9, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

Clear transitions are crucial to clear writing: They show the reader how different parts of your essay, paper, or thesis are connected. Transition sentences can be used to structure your text and link together paragraphs or sections.

… In this case, the researchers concluded that the method was unreliable.

However , evidence from a more recent study points to a different conclusion . …

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Table of contents

Transitioning between paragraphs, transitioning to a new section, transitions within a paragraph, other interesting articles.

When you start a new paragraph , the first sentence should clearly express:

  • What this paragraph will discuss
  • How it relates to the previous paragraph

The examples below show some examples of transition sentences between paragraphs and what they express.

Placement of transition sentences

The beginning of a new paragraph is generally the right place for a transition sentence. Each paragraph should focus on one topic, so avoid spending time at the end of a paragraph explaining the theme of the next one.

The first dissenter to consider is …

However, several scholars dissent from this consensus. The first one to consider is …

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transition words for 3 paragraph essay

While transitions between paragraphs are generally a single sentence, when you start a new section in a longer text, you may need an entire transition paragraph. Transitioning to a new section involves summarizing the content of the previous section and expressing how the new one will build upon or depart from it.

For example, the following sentences might be an effective transition for a new section in a literary analysis essay.

Having established that the subjective experience of time is one of Mann’s key concerns in The Magic Mountain , it is now possible to explore how this theme facilitates the novel’s connection with World War I. The war itself is not narrated in the book, but rather hinted at as something awaiting Castorp beyond the final pages. In this way, Mann links his protagonist’s subjective experience of time to more than just his illness; it is also used to explore the period leading up to the outbreak of war.

As in academic writing generally, aim to be as concise as you can while maintaining clarity: If you can transition to a new section clearly with a single sentence, do so, but use more when necessary.

It’s also important to use effective transitions within each paragraph you write, leading the reader through your arguments efficiently and avoiding ambiguity.

The known-new contract

The order of information within each of your sentences is important to the cohesion of your text. The known-new contract , a useful writing concept, states that a new sentence should generally begin with some reference to information from the previous sentence, and then go on to connect it to new information.

In the following example, the second sentence doesn’t follow very clearly from the first. The connection only becomes clear when we reach the end.

By reordering the information in the second sentence so that it begins with a reference to the first, we can help the reader follow our argument more smoothly.

Note that the known-new contract is just a general guideline. Not every sentence needs to be structured this way, but it’s a useful technique if you’re struggling to make your sentences cohere.

Transition words and phrases

Using appropriate transition words helps show your reader connections within and between sentences. Transition words and phrases come in four main types:

  • Additive transitions, which introduce new information or examples
  • Adversative transitions, which signal a contrast or departure from the previous text
  • Causal transitions, which are used to describe cause and effect
  • Sequential transitions, which indicate a sequence

The table below gives a few examples for each type:

Grouping similar information

While transition words and phrases are essential, and every essay will contain at least some of them, it’s also important to avoid overusing them. One way to do this is by grouping similar information together so that fewer transitions are needed.

For example, the following text uses three transition words and jumps back and forth between ideas. This makes it repetitive and difficult to follow.

Rewriting it to group similar information allows us to use just one transition, making the text more concise and readable.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Transitions

What this handout is about.

In this crazy, mixed-up world of ours, transitions glue our ideas and our essays together. This handout will introduce you to some useful transitional expressions and help you employ them effectively.

The function and importance of transitions

In both academic writing and professional writing, your goal is to convey information clearly and concisely, if not to convert the reader to your way of thinking. Transitions help you to achieve these goals by establishing logical connections between sentences, paragraphs, and sections of your papers. In other words, transitions tell readers what to do with the information you present to them. Whether single words, quick phrases, or full sentences, they function as signs that tell readers how to think about, organize, and react to old and new ideas as they read through what you have written.

Transitions signal relationships between ideas—relationships such as: “Another example coming up—stay alert!” or “Here’s an exception to my previous statement” or “Although this idea appears to be true, here’s the real story.” Basically, transitions provide the reader with directions for how to piece together your ideas into a logically coherent argument. Transitions are not just verbal decorations that embellish your paper by making it sound or read better. They are words with particular meanings that tell the reader to think and react in a particular way to your ideas. In providing the reader with these important cues, transitions help readers understand the logic of how your ideas fit together.

Signs that you might need to work on your transitions

How can you tell whether you need to work on your transitions? Here are some possible clues:

  • Your instructor has written comments like “choppy,” “jumpy,” “abrupt,” “flow,” “need signposts,” or “how is this related?” on your papers.
  • Your readers (instructors, friends, or classmates) tell you that they had trouble following your organization or train of thought.
  • You tend to write the way you think—and your brain often jumps from one idea to another pretty quickly.
  • You wrote your paper in several discrete “chunks” and then pasted them together.
  • You are working on a group paper; the draft you are working on was created by pasting pieces of several people’s writing together.

Organization

Since the clarity and effectiveness of your transitions will depend greatly on how well you have organized your paper, you may want to evaluate your paper’s organization before you work on transitions. In the margins of your draft, summarize in a word or short phrase what each paragraph is about or how it fits into your analysis as a whole. This exercise should help you to see the order of and connection between your ideas more clearly.

If after doing this exercise you find that you still have difficulty linking your ideas together in a coherent fashion, your problem may not be with transitions but with organization. For help in this area (and a more thorough explanation of the “reverse outlining” technique described in the previous paragraph), please see the Writing Center’s handout on organization .

How transitions work

The organization of your written work includes two elements: (1) the order in which you have chosen to present the different parts of your discussion or argument, and (2) the relationships you construct between these parts. Transitions cannot substitute for good organization, but they can make your organization clearer and easier to follow. Take a look at the following example:

El Pais , a Latin American country, has a new democratic government after having been a dictatorship for many years. Assume that you want to argue that El Pais is not as democratic as the conventional view would have us believe.

One way to effectively organize your argument would be to present the conventional view and then to provide the reader with your critical response to this view. So, in Paragraph A you would enumerate all the reasons that someone might consider El Pais highly democratic, while in Paragraph B you would refute these points. The transition that would establish the logical connection between these two key elements of your argument would indicate to the reader that the information in paragraph B contradicts the information in paragraph A. As a result, you might organize your argument, including the transition that links paragraph A with paragraph B, in the following manner:

Paragraph A: points that support the view that El Pais’s new government is very democratic.

Transition: Despite the previous arguments, there are many reasons to think that El Pais’s new government is not as democratic as typically believed.

Paragraph B: points that contradict the view that El Pais’s new government is very democratic.

In this case, the transition words “Despite the previous arguments,” suggest that the reader should not believe paragraph A and instead should consider the writer’s reasons for viewing El Pais’s democracy as suspect.

As the example suggests, transitions can help reinforce the underlying logic of your paper’s organization by providing the reader with essential information regarding the relationship between your ideas. In this way, transitions act as the glue that binds the components of your argument or discussion into a unified, coherent, and persuasive whole.

Types of transitions

Now that you have a general idea of how to go about developing effective transitions in your writing, let us briefly discuss the types of transitions your writing will use.

The types of transitions available to you are as diverse as the circumstances in which you need to use them. A transition can be a single word, a phrase, a sentence, or an entire paragraph. In each case, it functions the same way: First, the transition either directly summarizes the content of a preceding sentence, paragraph, or section or implies such a summary (by reminding the reader of what has come before). Then, it helps the reader anticipate or comprehend the new information that you wish to present.

  • Transitions between sections: Particularly in longer works, it may be necessary to include transitional paragraphs that summarize for the reader the information just covered and specify the relevance of this information to the discussion in the following section.
  • Transitions between paragraphs: If you have done a good job of arranging paragraphs so that the content of one leads logically to the next, the transition will highlight a relationship that already exists by summarizing the previous paragraph and suggesting something of the content of the paragraph that follows. A transition between paragraphs can be a word or two (however, for example, similarly), a phrase, or a sentence. Transitions can be at the end of the first paragraph, at the beginning of the second paragraph, or in both places.
  • Transitions within paragraphs: As with transitions between sections and paragraphs, transitions within paragraphs act as cues by helping readers to anticipate what is coming before they read it. Within paragraphs, transitions tend to be single words or short phrases.

Transitional expressions

Effectively constructing each transition often depends upon your ability to identify words or phrases that will indicate for the reader the kind of logical relationships you want to convey. The table below should make it easier for you to find these words or phrases. Whenever you have trouble finding a word, phrase, or sentence to serve as an effective transition, refer to the information in the table for assistance. Look in the left column of the table for the kind of logical relationship you are trying to express. Then look in the right column of the table for examples of words or phrases that express this logical relationship.

Keep in mind that each of these words or phrases may have a slightly different meaning. Consult a dictionary or writer’s handbook if you are unsure of the exact meaning of a word or phrase.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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33 Transition Words and Phrases

Transitional terms give writers the opportunity to prepare readers for a new idea, connecting the previous sentence to the next one.

Many transitional words are nearly synonymous: words that broadly indicate that “this follows logically from the preceding” include accordingly, therefore, and consequently . Words that mean “in addition to” include moreover, besides, and further . Words that mean “contrary to what was just stated” include however, nevertheless , and nonetheless .

as a result : THEREFORE : CONSEQUENTLY

The executive’s flight was delayed and they accordingly arrived late.

in or by way of addition : FURTHERMORE

The mountain has many marked hiking trails; additionally, there are several unmarked trails that lead to the summit.

at a later or succeeding time : SUBSEQUENTLY, THEREAFTER

Afterward, she got a promotion.

even though : ALTHOUGH

She appeared as a guest star on the show, albeit briefly.

in spite of the fact that : even though —used when making a statement that differs from or contrasts with a statement you have just made

They are good friends, although they don't see each other very often.

in addition to what has been said : MOREOVER, FURTHERMORE

I can't go, and besides, I wouldn't go if I could.

as a result : in view of the foregoing : ACCORDINGLY

The words are often confused and are consequently misused.

in a contrasting or opposite way —used to introduce a statement that contrasts with a previous statement or presents a differing interpretation or possibility

Large objects appear to be closer. Conversely, small objects seem farther away.

used to introduce a statement that is somehow different from what has just been said

These problems are not as bad as they were. Even so, there is much more work to be done.

used as a stronger way to say "though" or "although"

I'm planning to go even though it may rain.

in addition : MOREOVER

I had some money to invest, and, further, I realized that the risk was small.

in addition to what precedes : BESIDES —used to introduce a statement that supports or adds to a previous statement

These findings seem plausible. Furthermore, several studies have confirmed them.

because of a preceding fact or premise : for this reason : THEREFORE

He was a newcomer and hence had no close friends here.

from this point on : starting now

She announced that henceforth she would be running the company.

in spite of that : on the other hand —used when you are saying something that is different from or contrasts with a previous statement

I'd like to go; however, I'd better not.

as something more : BESIDES —used for adding information to a statement

The city has the largest population in the country and in addition is a major shipping port.

all things considered : as a matter of fact —used when making a statement that adds to or strengthens a previous statement

He likes to have things his own way; indeed, he can be very stubborn.

for fear that —often used after an expression denoting fear or apprehension

He was concerned lest anyone think that he was guilty.

in addition : ALSO —often used to introduce a statement that adds to and is related to a previous statement

She is an acclaimed painter who is likewise a sculptor.

at or during the same time : in the meantime

You can set the table. Meanwhile, I'll start making dinner.

BESIDES, FURTHER : in addition to what has been said —used to introduce a statement that supports or adds to a previous statement

It probably wouldn't work. Moreover, it would be very expensive to try it.

in spite of that : HOWEVER

It was a predictable, but nevertheless funny, story.

in spite of what has just been said : NEVERTHELESS

The hike was difficult, but fun nonetheless.

without being prevented by (something) : despite—used to say that something happens or is true even though there is something that might prevent it from happening or being true

Notwithstanding their youth and inexperience, the team won the championship.

if not : or else

Finish your dinner. Otherwise, you won't get any dessert.

more correctly speaking —used to introduce a statement that corrects what you have just said

We can take the car, or rather, the van.

in spite of that —used to say that something happens or is true even though there is something that might prevent it from happening or being true

I tried again and still I failed.

by that : by that means

He signed the contract, thereby forfeiting his right to the property.

for that reason : because of that

This tablet is thin and light and therefore very convenient to carry around.

immediately after that

The committee reviewed the documents and thereupon decided to accept the proposal.

because of this or that : HENCE, CONSEQUENTLY

This detergent is highly concentrated and thus you will need to dilute it.

while on the contrary —used to make a statement that describes how two people, groups, etc., are different

Some of these species have flourished, whereas others have struggled.

NEVERTHELESS, HOWEVER —used to introduce a statement that adds something to a previous statement and usually contrasts with it in some way

It was pouring rain out, yet his clothes didn’t seem very wet.

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Some experts argue that focusing on individual actions to combat climate change takes the focus away from the collective action required to keep carbon levels from rising. Change will not be effected, say some others, unless individual actions raise the necessary awareness.

While a reader can see the connection between the sentences above, it’s not immediately clear that the second sentence is providing a counterargument to the first. In the example below, key “old information” is repeated in the second sentence to help readers quickly see the connection. This makes the sequence of ideas easier to follow.  

Sentence pair #2: Effective Transition

Some experts argue that focusing on individual actions to combat climate change takes the focus away from the collective action required to keep carbon levels from rising. Other experts argue that individual actions are key to raising the awareness necessary to effect change.

You can use this same technique to create clear transitions between paragraphs. Here’s an example:

Some experts argue that focusing on individual actions to combat climate change takes the focus away from the collective action required to keep carbon levels from rising. Other experts argue that individual actions are key to raising the awareness necessary to effect change. According to Annie Lowery, individual actions are important to making social change because when individuals take action, they can change values, which can lead to more people becoming invested in fighting climate change. She writes, “Researchers believe that these kinds of household-led trends can help avert climate catastrophe, even if government and corporate actions are far more important” (Lowery).

So, what’s an individual household supposed to do?

The repetition of the word “household” in the new paragraph helps readers see the connection between what has come before (a discussion of whether household actions matter) and what is about to come (a proposal for what types of actions households can take to combat climate change).

Sometimes, transitional words can help readers see how ideas are connected. But it’s not enough to just include a “therefore,” “moreover,” “also,” or “in addition.” You should choose these words carefully to show your readers what kind of connection you are making between your ideas.

To decide which transitional word to use, start by identifying the relationship between your ideas. For example, you might be

  • making a comparison or showing a contrast Transitional words that compare and contrast include also, in the same way, similarly, in contrast, yet, on the one hand, on the other hand. But before you signal comparison, ask these questions: Do your readers need another example of the same thing? Is there a new nuance in this next point that distinguishes it from the previous example? For those relationships between ideas, you might try this type of transition: While x may appear the same, it actually raises a new question in a slightly different way. 
  • expressing agreement or disagreement When you are making an argument, you need to signal to readers where you stand in relation to other scholars and critics. You may agree with another person’s claim, you may want to concede some part of the argument even if you don’t agree with everything, or you may disagree. Transitional words that signal agreement, concession, and disagreement include however, nevertheless, actually, still, despite, admittedly, still, on the contrary, nonetheless .
  • showing cause and effect Transitional phrases that show cause and effect include therefore, hence, consequently, thus, so. Before you choose one of these words, make sure that what you are about to illustrate is really a causal link. Novice writers tend to add therefore and hence when they aren’t sure how to transition; you should reserve these words for when they accurately signal the progression of your ideas.
  • explaining or elaborating Transitions can signal to readers that you are going to expand on a point that you have just made or explain something further. Transitional words that signal explanation or elaboration include in other words, for example, for instance, in particular, that is, to illustrate, moreover .
  • drawing conclusions You can use transitions to signal to readers that you are moving from the body of your argument to your conclusions. Before you use transitional words to signal conclusions, consider whether you can write a stronger conclusion by creating a transition that shows the relationship between your ideas rather than by flagging the paragraph simply as a conclusion. Transitional words that signal a conclusion include in conclusion , as a result, ultimately, overall— but strong conclusions do not necessarily have to include those phrases.

If you’re not sure which transitional words to use—or whether to use one at all—see if you can explain the connection between your paragraphs or sentence either out loud or in the margins of your draft.

For example, if you write a paragraph in which you summarize physician Atul Gawande’s argument about the value of incremental care, and then you move on to a paragraph that challenges those ideas, you might write down something like this next to the first paragraph: “In this paragraph I summarize Gawande’s main claim.” Then, next to the second paragraph, you might write, “In this paragraph I present a challenge to Gawande’s main claim.” Now that you have identified the relationship between those two paragraphs, you can choose the most effective transition between them. Since the second paragraph in this example challenges the ideas in the first, you might begin with something like “but,” or “however,” to signal that shift for your readers.  

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Writing Studio

Common transition words and phrases.

In an effort to make our handouts more accessible, we have begun converting our PDF handouts to web pages. Download this page as a PDF: Transitions Return to Writing Studio Handouts

Transitions clarify the logic of your argument by orienting your reader as you develop ideas between sentences and paragraphs. These tools should alert readers to shifts in your argument while and also maintain the smoothness and clarity of your prose. Below, you’ll find some of the most commonly used transition categories and examples of each. Depending on the example, these suggestions may be within sentences or at the beginning of sentences.

Transitions by Category

1. addition.

Use when presenting multiple ideas that flow in the same direction, under the same heading/ idea also, another, finally, first, first of all, for one thing, furthermore, in addition, last of all, likewise, moreover, next, and, second, the third reason

2. Sequence/ Order

Use to suggest a temporal relationship between ideas; places evidence in sequence first, second (etc.), next, last, finally, first of all, concurrently, immediately, prior to, then, at that time, at this point, previously, subsequently, and then, at this time, thereafter, previously, soon, before, after, followed by, after that, next, before, after, meanwhile, formerly, finally, during

3. Contrast

Use to demonstrate differences between ideas or change in argument direction but, however, in contrast, on the other hand, on the contrary, yet, differ, difference, balanced against, differing from, variation, still, on the contrary, unlike, conversely, otherwise, on the other hand, however

4. Exception

Use to introduce an opposing idea however, whereas, on the other hand, while, instead, in spite of, yet, despite, still, nevertheless, even though, in contrast, but, but one could also say…

5. Comparison

Use to demonstrate similarities between ideas that may not be under the same subject heading or within the same paragraph like, likewise, just, in a different way / sense, whereas, like, equally, in like manner, by comparison, similar to, in the same way, alike, similarity, similarly, just as, as in a similar fashion, conversely

6. Illustration

Use to develop or clarify an idea, to introduce examples, or to show that the second idea is subordinate to the first for example, to illustrate, on this occasion, this can be seen, in this case, specifically, once, to illustrate, when/where, for instance, such as, to demonstrate, take the case of, in this case

7. Location

Use to show spatial relations next to, above, below, beneath, left, right, behind, in front, on top, within

8. Cause and Effect

Use to show that one idea causes, or results from, the idea that follows or precedes it because, therefore, so that, cause, reason, effect, thus, consequently, since, as a result, if…then, result in

9. Emphasis

Use to suggest that an idea is particularly important to your argument important to note, most of all, a significant factor, a primary concern, a key feature, remember that, pay particular attention to, a central issue, the most substantial issue, the main value, a major event, the chief factor, a distinctive quality, especially valuable, the chief outcome, a vital force, especially relevant, most noteworthy, the principal item, above all, should be noted

10. Summary or Conclusion

Use to signal that what follows is summarizing or concluding the previous ideas; in humanities papers, use these phrases sparingly. to summarize, in short, in brief, in sum, in summary, to sum up, in conclusion, to conclude, finally

Some material adapted from Cal Poly Pomona College Reading Skills Program and “ Power Tools for Technical Communication .” 

Writing Effective Sentence Transitions (Advanced)

Transitions are the rhetorical tools that clarify the logic of your argument by orienting your reader as you develop ideas between sentences and paragraphs. The ability to integrate sentence transitions into your prose, rather than simply throwing in overt transition signals like “in addition,” indicates your mastery of the material. (Note: The visibility of transitions may vary by discipline; consult with your professor to get a better sense of discipline or assignment specific expectations.)

Transition Signals

Transition signals are words or phrases that indicate the logic connecting sets of information or ideas. Signals like therefore, on the other hand, for example, because, then, and afterwards can be good transition tools at the sentence and paragraph level. When using these signals, be conscious of the real meaning of these terms; they should reflect the actual relationship between ideas.

Review Words

Review words are transition tools that link groups of sentences or whole paragraphs. They condense preceding discussion into a brief word or phrase. For example: You’ve just completed a detailed discussion about the greenhouse effect. To transition to the next topic, you could use review words like “this heat-trapping process” to refer back to the green house effect discussion. The relative ability to determine a cogent set of review words might signal your own understanding of your work; think of review words as super-short summaries of key ideas.

Preview words

Preview words condense an upcoming discussion into a brief word or phrase. For example: You’ve just explained how heat is trapped in the earth’s atmosphere. Transitioning to the theory that humans are adding to that effect, you could use preview words like “sources of additional CO2 in the atmosphere include” to point forward to that discussion.

Transition Sentences

The strongest and most sophisticated tools, transition sentences indicate the connection between the preceding and upcoming pieces of your argument. They often contain one or more of the above transition tools. For example: You’ve just discussed how much CO2 humans have added to the atmosphere. You need to transition to a discussion of the effects. A strong set of transition sentences between the two sections might sound like this:

“These large amounts of CO2 added to the atmosphere may lead to a number of disastrous consequences for residents of planet earth. The rise in global temperature that accompanies the extra CO2 can yield effects as varied as glacial melting and species extinction.”

In the first sentence, the review words are “These large amounts of CO2 added to the atmosphere”; the preview words are “number of disastrous consequences”; the transition signals are “may lead to.” The topic sentence of the next paragraph indicates the specific “disastrous consequences” you will discuss.

If you don’t see a way to write a logical, effective transition between sentences, ideas or paragraphs, this might indicate organizational problems in your essay; you might consider revising your work.

Some material adapted from Cal Poly Pomona College Reading Skills Program  and “ Power Tools for Technical Communication .”

Last revised: 07/2008 | Adapted for web delivery: 05/2021

In order to access certain content on this page, you may need to download Adobe Acrobat Reader or an equivalent PDF viewer software.

190 Good Transition Words for Essays

August 23, 2023

good transitions words for essays, college

Essay writing consists of two primary procedures: coming up with the content we want to include and structuring that content. These procedures might take place in either order or they could occur simultaneously. When writing an essay it is important to think about the ways that content and structure complement one another. The best essays join these two elements in thoughtful ways. Transition words for essays (including for college essays) are some of our most primary tools when it comes to structuring a piece of writing.

When beginning an essay it is often recommended to begin with a messy first draft. The purpose of this draft is to get everything out on the page. You should put down as many ideas and trajectories as you can without worrying too much about phrasing or whether they will make it into the final draft. The key here is to be loose—to get ahead of our self-editors and expel everything we can from our minds.

List of Good Transition Words for Essays (Continued)

While this is a good strategy for beginning an essay it will likely leave you unsure how everything fits together. This is where transition words come in. As you will see in this list (which is necessarily incomplete) the range of transition words for essays is vast. Each transition word implies a different relation, often in subtle ways. After accumulating content, the next step is to figure out how the elements fit together towards an overall goal (this could be but is not necessarily an “argument”). Consulting this list of transition words for essays can provide a shortcut for determining how one piece might lead into another. Along with transition words, rhetorical devices and literary devices are other tools to consider during this stage of essay writing.

Transition Words for College Essays

While this list will be a useful tool for all types of essay writing it will be particularly helpful when it comes to finding the right transition words for college essays . The goal of a college essay is to give a strong overall sense of its author in the tight space of 650 words. As you might imagine, it’s not easy to encompass a life or convey a complex personality in such a space. When writing a college essay you are working with a huge amount of potential content. Students often want to squeeze in as much as they can. To this end, transition words for college essays are essential tools to have at our disposal.

Here is our list of transition words for college essays and other essays. It is organized by the different types of transition words/phrases and their functions. While this organization should be convenient, keep in mind that there’s plenty of overlap. Many of these words can function in multiple ways.

1) Additive Transitions

These words function in an additive manner, accumulating content to build upon what has already been stated. They can be used to construct an argument or establish a scene through the accumulation of details.

  • Additionally
  • In addition to
  • Furthermore
  • Not to mention
  • In all honesty
  • To tell the truth
  • Not only…but also
  • As a matter of fact
  • To say nothing of
  • What’s more
  • Alternatively
  • To go a step further

 2) Comparative Transitions (Similarity)

  These transition words draw a parallel or bring out a similarity between images or ideas. They can be used not only in a straightforward sense but also to establish relations of similarity between objects or ideas that might appear to be dissonant.

  • In the same way
  • In a similar vein
  • Along the lines of
  • In the key of

 3) Comparative Transitions (Difference)

  While also functioning comparatively, the following words demonstrate difference between ideas or images. These transition words are useful when it comes to establishing contrasting points of view, an important component of any argument.

  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • In contrast to
  • In contradiction
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • In any event
  • In any case
  • In either event

4) Sequential Transitions

  The following are particularly effective transition words for college essays. They will allow you to order ideas chronologically or in a sequence, providing a sense of continuity over time. This is particularly useful when an essay leans into something more creative or involves telling a story.

  • Subsequently
  • At the same time
  • Concurrently
  • In the beginning
  • At the start
  • At the outset
  • Off the bat

5) Spatial Transitions

Rather than organizing ideas or images in regards to sequence, these transitions indicate spatial relationships. They are particularly useful when it comes to painting a scene and/or describing objects, but they can also be used metaphorically. Consider, for example, how you might use the transition, “standing in […’s] shadow.”

  • Standing in […’s] shadow
  • In front of
  • In the middle
  • In the center
  • To the left
  • To the right
  • On the side
  • Adjacent to
  • Around the bend
  • On the outskirts
  • In the distance
  • On the horizon
  • In the foreground
  • In the background
  • Underground
  • Through the grapevine

 6) Causal Transitions

These transition words for essays indicate cause and effect relationships between ideas. They will be particularly useful when you are structuring a logical argument, i.e. using logos as a mode of persuasion . Causal transitions are an important element of academic, legal and scientific writing.

  • Accordingly
  • Resultingly
  • As a result
  • Consequently
  • In consequence
  • As a consequence
  • For this reason
  • So much that
  • Granting that
  • That being the case
  • Under those circumstances
  • With this in mind
  • For the purpose of
  • For all intents and purposes
  • In the event that
  • In the event of
  • In light of
  • On the condition that
  • To the extent that

7) Examples/Illustration/Supporting Transition

  These transition words for college essays can be used to introduce supporting evidence, emphasis, examples, and clarification. There is some overlap here with additive transitions and causal transitions. These transitions are also useful when it comes to building an argument. At the same time, they can signal a shift into a different linguistic register.

  • For example
  • For instance
  • In other words
  • As an illustration
  • To illustrate
  • To put it differently
  • To put it another way
  • That is to say
  • As the evidence illustrates
  • It’s important to realize
  • It’s important to understand
  • It must be remembered
  • To demonstrate
  • For clarity’s sake
  • To emphasize
  • To put it plainly
  • To enumerate
  • To speak metaphorically

8) Conclusory Transitions

These transition words for essays serve to bring an idea or story to a close. They offer a clear way of signaling the conclusion of a particular train of thought. They might be followed by a summary or a restatement of an essay’s argument. In this way they also provide emphasis, setting the reader up for what is about to come.

  • In conclusion
  • To summarize
  • To put it succinctly
  • To this end
  • At the end of the day
  • In the final analysis
  • By and large
  • On second thought
  • On first glance
  • That’s all to say
  • On the whole
  • All things considered
  • Generally speaking

List of Good Transition Words for Essays (Final Thoughts)

Even when elements appear to be disparate on first glance, transition words are a great tool for giving your essay a smooth flow. They can also create surprising juxtapositions, relationships, and equivalences. The way a reader will understand a transition word depends on the context in which they encounter it.

Individual words and phrases can be used in a wide variety of ways, ranging from the literal to the figurative to the colloquial or idiomatic. “Through the grapevine” is an example of the colloquial or idiomatic. When we encounter this phrase we don’t interpret it literally (as hearing something “through” a grapevine) but rather as hearing news secondhand. There are, of course, a vast number of idioms that are not included in this list but can also function as transitional phrases.

This list of transition words for college essays (and really any form of writing you might be working on) is a resource that you can return to again and again in your life as a writer. Over years of writing we tend to fall into patterns when it comes to the transition words we use. Mixing things up can be exciting both as a writer and for your readers. Even if you don’t choose to stray from your trusted transitions, considering the alternatives (and why they don’t work for you) can offer a deeper understanding of what you are trying to say.

List of Good Transition Words for Essays (An Exercise)

As an exercise in self-understanding, you may want to try highlighting all of the transition words in a piece of your own writing. You can then compare this to the transition words in a piece of writing that you admire. Are they using similar transitions or others? Are they using them more or less often? What do you like or dislike about them? We all use transition words differently, creating different tonal effects. Keeping an eye out for them, not only as a writer but also as a reader, will help you develop your own aesthetic.

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Emmett Lewis

Emmett holds a BA in Philosophy from Vassar College and is currently completing an MFA in Writing at Columbia University. Previously, he served as a writing instructor within the Columbia Artists/Teachers community as well as a Creative Writing Teaching Fellow at Columbia, where he taught poetry workshops. In addition, Emmett is a member of the Poetry Board at the Columbia Journal , and his work has been published in HAD , Otoliths , and Some Kind of Opening , among others.

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English Language

Transition Words

As a "part of speech" transition words are used to link words, phrases or sentences. They help the reader to progress from one idea (expressed by the author) to the next idea. Thus, they help to build up coherent relationships within the text.

Transitional Words

This structured list of commonly used English transition words — approximately 200, can be considered as quasi complete. It can be used (by students and teachers alike) to find the right expression. English transition words are essential, since they not only connect ideas, but also can introduce a certain shift, contrast or opposition, emphasis or agreement, purpose, result or conclusion, etc. in the line of argument. The transition words and phrases have been assigned only once to somewhat artificial categories, although some words belong to more than one category.

There is some overlapping with prepositions and postpositions, but for the purpose of usage and completeness of this concise guide, I did not differentiate.

Linking & Connecting Words — Part 1/2

Agreement / Addition / Similarity

Opposition / limitation / contradiction, examples / support / emphasis, cause / condition / purpose, effect / consequence / result, conclusion / summary / restatement, time / chronology / sequence, space / location / place.

The transition words like also, in addition, and, likewise , add information , reinforce ideas , and express agreement with preceding material.

in the first place

not only ... but also

as a matter of fact

in like manner

in addition

coupled with

in the same fashion / way

first, second, third

in the light of

not to mention

to say nothing of

equally important

by the same token

identically

together with

comparatively

correspondingly

furthermore

additionally

Transition phrases like but , rather and or , express that there is evidence to the contrary or point out alternatives , and thus introduce a change the line of reasoning ( contrast ).

although this may be true

in contrast

different from

of course ..., but

on the other hand

on the contrary

at the same time

in spite of

even so / though

be that as it may

(and) still

even though

nevertheless

nonetheless

notwithstanding

These transitional phrases present specific conditions or intentions .

in the event that

granted (that)

as / so long as

on (the) condition (that)

for the purpose of

with this intention

with this in mind

in the hope that

to the end that

for fear that

in order to

seeing / being that

provided that

only / even if

inasmuch as

These transitional devices (like especially ) are used to introduce examples as support , to indicate importance or as an illustration so that an idea is cued to the reader.

in other words

to put it differently

for one thing

as an illustration

in this case

for this reason

to put it another way

that is to say

with attention to

by all means

important to realize

another key point

first thing to remember

most compelling evidence

must be remembered

point often overlooked

to point out

on the positive side

on the negative side

specifically

surprisingly

significantly

particularly

in particular

for example

for instance

to demonstrate

to emphasize

to enumerate

Some of these transition words ( thus, then, accordingly, consequently, therefore, henceforth ) are time words that are used to show that after a particular time there was a consequence or an effect .

Note that for and because are placed before the cause/reason. The other devices are placed before the consequences or effects.

as a result

under those circumstances

in that case

because the

consequently

accordingly

These transition words and phrases conclude , summarize and / or restate ideas, or indicate a final general statement . Also some words (like therefore ) from the Effect / Consequence category can be used to summarize.

as can be seen

generally speaking

in the final analysis

all things considered

as shown above

in the long run

given these points

as has been noted

for the most part

in conclusion

to summarize

by and large

on the whole

in any event

in either case

These transitional words (like finally ) have the function of limiting, restricting, and defining time . They can be used either alone or as part of adverbial expressions .

at the present time

from time to time

sooner or later

up to the present time

to begin with

in due time

in the meantime

in a moment

without delay

all of a sudden

at this instant

first, second

immediately

straightaway

by the time

occasionally

Many transition words in the time category ( consequently; first, second, third; further; hence; henceforth; since; then, when; and whenever ) have other uses.

Except for the numbers ( first, second, third ) and further they add a meaning of time in expressing conditions, qualifications, or reasons. The numbers are also used to add information or list examples . Further is also used to indicate added space as well as added time.

These transition words are often used as part of adverbial expressions and have the function to restrict, limit or qualify space . Quite a few of these are also found in the Time category and can be used to describe spatial order or spatial reference.

in the middle

to the left/right

in front of

on this side

in the distance

here and there

in the foreground

in the background

in the center of

adjacent to

opposite to 

List of Transition Words

Transition Words & Phrases

Transition Words are also sometimes called (or put in the category of) Connecting Words. Please feel free to download them via this link to the category page: Linking Words & Connecting Words as a PDF. It contains all the transition words listed on this site. The image to the left gives you an impression how it looks like.

Usage of Transition Words in Essays

Transition words and phrases are vital devices for essays , papers or other literary compositions. They improve the connections and transitions between sentences and paragraphs. They thus give the text a logical organization and structure (see also: a List of Synonyms ).

All English transition words and phrases (sometimes also called 'conjunctive adverbs') do the same work as coordinating conjunctions : they connect two words, phrases or clauses together and thus the text is easier to read and the coherence is improved.

Usage: transition words are used with a special rule for punctuation : a semicolon or a period is used after the first 'sentence', and a comma is almost always used to set off the transition word from the second 'sentence'.

Example 1: People use 43 muscles when they frown; however, they use only 28 muscles when they smile.

Example 2: however, transition words can also be placed at the beginning of a new paragraph or sentence - not only to indicate a step forward in the reasoning, but also to relate the new material to the preceding thoughts..

Use a semicolon to connect sentences, only if the group of words on either side of the semicolon is a complete sentence each (both must have a subject and a verb, and could thus stand alone as a complete thought).

Further helpful readings about expressions, writing and grammar: Compilation of Writing Tips How to write good   ¦   Correct Spelling Study by an English University

Are you using WORD for writing professional texts and essays? There are many easy Windows Shortcuts available which work (almost) system-wide (e.g. in every programm you use).

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54 Best Transition Words for Paragraphs

transition words for paragraphs

Good transition words for starting a paragraph include addition phrases like ‘furthermore’, cause and effect words like ‘consequently’, and contradiction words like ‘however’. Scroll down for a full table of transition words.

Using transition words in your writing can help you improve the readability and flow of your paragraph to the next.

These words help your text flow seamlessly into the next idea, which shows your readers the relationship between paragraphs and phrases.

List of Transition Words for Starting a Paragraph

Transition words can fall into more than one category based on what type of transition in your paragraph you’re planning to make.

For example, you’d want a different transition word if your second paragraph contradicts your first than if it supports it. Take the following examples:

Here is a list of transition words and what category they fall under.

  • Addition – A transition that combines two or more ideas and shows their relationship. Examples include, what’s more, equally important, again, also, and, furthermore, moreover, besides .
  • Cause and Effect – When one idea triggers another. This lets the reader know that they are directly connected. Examples include, consequently, hence, therefore, thus, next, as a result .
  • Clarification – This is to rephrase what was said to clarify a statement and provide emphasis. Examples include, in other words, that is to say, to clarify.
  • Compare and Contrast – This shows a relationship between two ideas that are compared based on differences or similarities. Examples are, after all, although this may be true, in contrast, likewise, on the contrary, similarly, whereas, yet.
  • Emphasis (Boosting) – This shows certainty. Examples include, emphatically, in fact, surprisingly, undeniably, in any case, indeed, never, without a doubt.
  • Providing examples : For example, for instance, as illustrated by, take the following case in point.
  • Exception or Contradiction – This happens when an action with a pre-conceived notion ends with a different action. Examples are, however, nevertheless, in spite of, of course, once in a while, despite.
  • Summarize or conclude – This signals the reader that they are at the end of the paragraph. Examples are, as this essay has shown, as a result, In conclusion, therefore, thus, hence, in short, in brief.
  • Sequential – This expresses a numerical sequence, conclusion, continuation, resumption, or summation. Examples are to change the topic, to conclude with, afterward, incidentally, by the way, initially.

List of Transition Words for New Paragraphs

Transition words to avoid.

I recommend avoiding the following transition words:

Examples in Sentences

The best way to understand transition words is to provide examples. Let’s look at this sentence:

“Amy did not study for her test. Therefore, she did not get a good result.”

When you see the word ‘therefore,’ the reader knows that this is a cause and effect. What happened in the first sentence caused a resulting action.

The transition word provided a seamless flow into the next sentence that describes this effect.

Using the transitional word, ‘therefore,’ shows that the two sentences are part of one idea/process. Even with skimming, the reader can guess what’s the resulting action. This is how transition words hold your ideas together. Without them, it’s like your piece is just a jumble of coherent words.

Transition words don’t have to be placed at the start of a sentence. Let’s look at this sentence:

“Many people came to the event. Cristine, Emily, and David, for instance.”

In this sentence, ‘for instance’ is at the end of the sentence. However, it still gives the reader the necessary information to see how the two sentences are linked.

What are Transition Words?

Transition words for beginning paragraphs help writers to introduce a shift, opposition, contrast, agreement, emphasis, purpose, result, or conclusion from what was previously written. They are essential in argumentative essays.

Transition words are like bridges between the different paragraphs in your pieces. They serve as the cues that help your reader understand your ideas. They carry your ideas from one sentence to the next and one paragraph to the next.

Transitional words and phrases link an idea from a sentence to the following paragraph, so your work is read smoothly without abrupt jumps or sudden breaks between concepts.

Why use Transition Words

Proper communication of your ideas through paragraphs is important in writing. In order for your reader to read your piece with a thorough understanding of each idea and point conveyed in the piece, you have to use transition words and phrases.

With the examples provided, you would see that transitions string together your ideas by establishing a clear connection between the sentences and paragraphs.

Without transition words, your work may seem daunting and stressful to read, and the reader will not understand the idea you’re trying to convey.

Transitional phrases are especially important when writing an essay or thesis statement , as each paragraph has to connect ideas effortlessly.

Therefore, when a paragraph ends, the next idea must have some link to the previous one, which is why transition words play an important role.

Where Else to use Transition Words in an Essay

Transition words are important English devices for essays and papers. They enhance the transitions and connections between the sentences and paragraphs, giving your essay a flowing structure and logical thought.

Transition terms may seem easy to remember; however, placing them in the incorrect manner can cause your essay to fall flat.

Here are some places where essays transition words may fit:

  • To show a connection between evidence and the ending
  • To flow into the next paragraph, use your closing statement at the conclusion of each one
  • At the start of the first body paragraph
  • At the start of the second body paragraph
  • In some of the starting sections of your summary or introductory paragraphs
  • In an overview of your opinions/solutions in the conclusion

When adding your transition words and phrases in your essay, make sure not to accidentally form an incomplete or fragmented sentence. This is common with transitions, such as, if, although, and since .

While transition words are important in any writing piece, you have to make sure that the word or phrase you choose matches the logic of the paragraph or point you’re making. Use these words and phrases in moderation, as too much of them can also heavily bring the quality of your work down.

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transition words for 3 paragraph essay

Transition Words (List for Essays, Paragraphs, and Writing)

transition words and phrases

In grammar , transition words play a very important role. If used correctly, they can link your ideas, make your paragraphs more coherent, and enhance your writing.

But first – what exactly are transition words and how should you use them ?

What exactly are transition words?

Simply put, transition words are words that basically act as the powerful link that holds your sentences together. They are used to show the relationship between two (or more) phrases, sentences, and even paragraphs.

Transition words improve the flow of your writing, and make it more sensible and easier to read . Words like “and,” “additionally,” “because,” “therefore,” etc. are all transition words. Along with transition words, we also have transition phrases like “as well as,” “for example,” “after all,” etc.

Why are transition words used in a sentence?

1. they are link builders.

Using transition words helps you connect your ideas and thoughts clearly. It helps the reader understand how different ideas logically are related and not get confused. In addition, these words also prepare the readers for what they should expect next.

Let’s consider the following example:

  • Shannon couldn’t sleep well last night. Therefore , she drank two cups of coffee before starting her day.

Now, using the transition word “therefore” helped you achieve two things here:

  • It told the reader the cause-and-effect relationship between two things
  • It described how these sentences are connected and are a part of one process.

From the above example, the reader will understand that Shannon requires two cups of coffee because she couldn’t sleep well last night. These are two different sentences, but they are glued together with the transition word. Remove the transition word and both of these sentences will lose coherency.

2. Transition words help you put your thoughts in a logical order

Organized thoughts are essential elements of clear and concise writing. Writers should ensure that all the points mentioned in a sentence have a logical flow and there should not be any abrupt pauses between them.

Transition words help in introducing sequence or order to your writing. Here’s how:

  • First , we will go shopping. Then , we will go to a movie.

Here, we have used two transition words (“first” and “then”) at the beginning of two different sentences. They are used to denote a particular order in which two actions are to be performed.

3. Transition words make your work logical and easy to read

High-quality writing is always clear and easy to understand. It has a logical structure and helps the reader move from one thought to another effortlessly. The simpler the writing, the better the readability!

Transition words are the magic connectors that help you write in clear and plain English.

In both the above-mentioned examples, we have used the transition word at the beginning of the sentences. However, these words can also be used in the middle or at the end of a sense or phrase.

Consider the following sentence, for example:

  • I love watching the TV show F.R.I.E.N.D.S because it makes me laugh.

Here, the transition word “because” helps in joining two clauses . It helps the reader understand two things clearly:

  • Which TV show does the writer loves watching
  • Why do they love watching that particular show

Different categories of transition words

Depending upon their usage and the types of transition a writer wishes to make, transition words are usually divided into multiple categories. There are transition words to show contrast, similarity, examples, and whatnot!

Generally, we have more than one transition word for a particular situation/ transition and so writers can pick the ones according to their liking.

Most of the time, these words mean the same things. However, sometimes they have slightly different meanings. Thus, it is important to understand the meaning and use-case of these words before making your final choice.

Here are some transition word examples according to different categories:

Transition words (contrast)

When it comes to displaying contrast “but” is the most common transition word. However, it is not the only word. There are several other transition words that you can use to display contrast in your sentences. Some of the common words include:

  • On the contrary
  • On the other hand
  • Despite this
  • Nevertheless

More on in contrast transition words .

Transition words (example)

The following transition words should be used for showing examples:

  • For example
  • For instance
  • To illustrate
  • Specifically

Transition words (cause and effect)

Cause and effect

These transition words are used for denoting the cause-and-effect relationship between two sentences. The common transition words you can use for this are as follows:

  • Accordingly

Transition words (similarity)

Another common use of transition words is to show the similarity between sentences and phrases. Here are some commonly used transition words for denoting the similarity between two sentences:

  • In the same way

Transition words (time)

For showing different periods, the following transition words should be used:

  • Immediately
  • Subsequently

Transition words (sequence)

These transition words also define sequence or time. Here are some common sequence-based transition words that writers can include in their work:

Transition words (location)

These transition words are used to connect things based on their location or where they are placed to each other. Here are some of them:

  • Adjacent to

Transition words (emphasis)

As the name suggests, emphasis transition words help you in stressing an important point and accentuate your argument. Here are some common emphasis transition words:

These transition words offer huge help when you are drafting the conclusion of your work . Whether you are working on a school essay, summing up an idea, or working on your blog, conclusion transition words are an integral part of all kinds of writing.

Here are some common conclusion transition words that writers can use to simplify their writing:

  • In conclusion
  • To sum it up
  • On the whole

More on conclusion transition words .

Do transition words actually make a difference?

The main purpose of transition words is to make clunky, confusing, and disjointed sentences smooth , logical, and coherent. These words must be used to improve the flow of sentences and make your paper more engaging.

When trying to write in plain English, using appropriate transition words wherever possible can make a significant positive impact.

Writers must avoid making abrupt pauses or jumping from one sentence to another illogically. Instead, it is recommended to use transition words to establish an organizational flow in your work.

But the question is – do transition words actually work?

Let’s consider the following sentences – with and without the transition word – and see the difference:

  • Jess is going back home for three months. He needs two big bags to carry all his belongings.

While there is nothing wrong with these two sentences, they lack a logical flow. Here’s how using a transition word can improve it.

  • Jess is going back home for three months therefore he needs two big bags to carry all his belongings.
  • Robin decided to stop studying. She failed high school .

Again, while both of these sentences are grammatically correct, they neither sound good nor logical, There’s an abrupt pause between them. Let’s see how they’ll sound after adding a transition word.

  • Robin decided to stop studying. Consequently , she failed high school.
  • I could go home. I could stay at the office and finish my work.

Now, these two sentences don’t sound coherent at all. There is something off about them, they lack flow, and they don’t make any logical sense, right? However, once we add a simple transition word between them, they will become so much better. Here’s how:

  • I could go home, or I could stay at the office and finish my work.

By adding “or” (a contrast transition word), we linked the sentences. No need to rely on two awkward sentences that are better off as one.

How to use transition words correctly

In order to make a positive difference in your writing, the transition words must be used in a grammatically correct way.

When including transition words in their sentences, writers must remember the following important points:

1. The correct placement: When writing an essay, a blog, or an academic paper, the placement of the transition words plays a crucial role. Writers must plan where they want to place the transition words beforehand and then proceed with writing the sentences.

Generally, transition words can be placed –

  • At the beginning of the sentences
  • At the end of the sentences
  • In the middle of a sentence

2. Use a comma : When using a transition word in the middle of the sentence, it is important to always use a comma (,) before it. Doing so will separate the transition word from the rest of the sentence and give more clarity to your writing.

3. Consider the relationship between two sentences: It is another important tip that every writer must use while including transition words in their writing. Two sentences can have different kinds of relationships. They can be in agreement or disagreement with each other, there can be a cause-and-effect relationship, they can be in chronological order, etc.

Thus, it is crucial to have a clear idea about their relationship before deciding on a transition word.

Key takeaways

In English, using transition words can do wonders for your writing. It can make it more appealing, logical, and clear for the readers. Today, we have learned a lot about transition words and how writers should use them in their work.

Here is a quick summary of everything that we have learned in this article:

  • Transition words are words that are used when a writer is transitioning from one point to another.
  • They are commonly used as “linking words” that join two or more sentences, phrases, and paragraphs.
  • Some common and widely used transition words in English include “also,” “or,” “therefore,” and “thus.”
  • There are various categories of transition words and writers can use them depending on the relationship between sentences. Common categories of transition words include – cause-and-effect transition, similarity transition, emphasis transition, contrast transition, and more.

The 10 most commonly used transitional words include the following:

  • Furthermore
  • Consequently

When using transition words, it is important to strike the correct balance. Overusing transition words can make your work hard to read and reduce its quality.

While you can use multiple transition words in a paragraph, it is recommended to use just one transition word in a sentence.

With SEO becoming more and more important, using the right amount of transition words in your content has become all the more important. Following the best SEO practices and including the ideal amount of transition words in blogs and articles can help in increasing their Google ranking.

Ideally, a writer must ensure that at least 30% of their sentences include transition words. This will go a long way in improving the readability of their content and making it more engaging and simple.

There are several ways to write effective transition sentences . Here are some writing tips that can help writers write effective transition sentences:

  • Generally, it is advisable to use transition words at the beginning of your sentences. It helps you introduce the paragraph topic and logically connect the new sentence with the previous one.
  • As much as possible, it is advisable to avoid using the transition word “this.” It is because it can make your sentences confusing as it is not always clear what or who “this” refers to. Moreover, many people use pronouns like “this” or “that” as filler words.

The five most common types of transitions include the following:

  • Comparison – For example, “similarly”, “likewise,” “in the same way,” etc.
  • Contrast – For example, “on the contrary,” “or,” “otherwise,” “however,” etc.
  • Emphasis – For example, “in fact,” “above all,” etc.
  • Sequence – For example, “first,” “next,” “eventually,” etc.
  • Consequence – For example, “accordingly,” “as a result,” “consequently,” etc.
  • Wikipedia – Transition
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transition words for 3 paragraph essay

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About the author

Dalia Y.: Dalia is an English Major and linguistics expert with an additional degree in Psychology. Dalia has featured articles on Forbes, Inc, Fast Company, Grammarly, and many more. She covers English, ESL, and all things grammar on GrammarBrain.

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Humanities LibreTexts

3.7: Paragraphs and Paragraph Transitions

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Learning Objective

  • Describe techniques for effective use of transitions in paragraphs

When to Paragraph

How do you know when “enough is enough”—when you have enough information in one paragraph and have to start a new one? A very rough guide is that you need more than one or two paragraphs per page of type. And how much is too much? There is no simple answer, and paragraphing conventions differ depending on the task and genre. For example, online writing typically requires shorter paragraphs, with multiple short paragraphs on one screen.

It’s best to deal with paragraphs as part of the revision step in the writing process. Find places where the information shifts in focus, and put paragraph breaks in those places. You can do your best to paragraph as you draft, but know that you’ll address paragraphing more during the revision process.

Overall Paragraph Structure of an Essay

Often, essays are constructed in a format that looks something like this outline shown below. Depending on the purpose of your writing assignment, this format may vary, as we’ll see when we dive further into rhetorical styles. You are probably familiar with this general format for the five-paragraph essay. Our hopes in this course are to build off of this basic structure to write essays that are not too rigid or overly structured according to this outline but are thoughtful and organic. Notice the way that paragraphs separate each topic and provide supporting evidence to the topic sentence.

  • Background information on topic
  • Overall point of view of the topic (thesis)
  • Overview of components to be discussed (structure)
  • Topic sentence outlining first component
  • Sentences giving explanations and providing evidence to support topic sentence
  • Concluding sentence – link to next paragraph
  • Topic sentence outlining second component
  • Sentences giving explanations and providing evidence to back topic sentence
  • Topic sentence outlining third component
  • Summary of the main points of the body
  • Restatement of the main point of view
  • Justification/evaluation (if required by task)

Can you determine the best order for these paragraphs? What clues can you use to figure out the best arrangement?

https://h5p.cwr.olemiss.edu/h5p/embed/97

Three architects looking at a blueprint.

Linking Paragraphs: Transitions

In writing traditional five-paragraph essays, you may have been taught very basic transition sentences: “My first point is,” “In conclusion,” etc.

In college, your professors will expect less formulaic writing. Strong transition, words or phrases that indicate linkages in ideas, are the key to taking your writing to the next level and moving from the formulaic to the organic.

When writing your argument, you need to lead your readers from one idea to the next, showing how those ideas are logically linked. Transition words and phrases help you keep your paragraphs and groups of paragraphs logically connected for a reader.

Below are some examples of transition words to help as you transition both within paragraphs and from one paragraph to the next.

We divide these transitions into four categories based on what kind of transition you want to make.

Transition Words and Phrases

https://h5p.cwr.olemiss.edu/h5p/embed/4

Making Connections

In general, if you feel your readers may have a hard time making connections, providing transition words (e.g., “due to” or “on the other hand”) can help lead them. Transitions between paragraphs may appear at the end of the first paragraph, at the beginning of the second paragraph, or in both places. If the transition introduces new ideas, it usually appears at the beginning of the second paragraph.

Below is a chart of transition words that are useful for linking ideas within a paragraph:

https://h5p.cwr.olemiss.edu/h5p/embed/100

Select the most appropriate transitions in the following passage:

https://assessments.lumenlearning.co...essments/16742

Smoothing Your Writing

From sentence-to-sentence, paragraph-to-paragraph, the ideas should flow into each other smoothly and without interruptions or delays. If someone tells you that your paper sounds choppy or jumps around, you probably have a problem with transitions. Compare these two sentences:

  • Proofreading is an important step in the writing process. Read your paper aloud to catch errors. Use spell check on your computer.
  • Proofreading is an important step in the writing process. One technique is to read your paper aloud, which will help you catch errors you might overlook when reading silently. Another strategy is to use spell check on your computer.

The second example has better transitions between ideas and is easier to read. Transitions can make a huge difference in the readability of your writing. If you have to pick one aspect of your writing to focus on during the revision process, consider focusing on adding effective transitions to help your reader follow your thinking.

Contributors and Attributions

  • Revision and adaptation. Provided by : Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Paragraphing and Transitioning. Provided by : Excelsior College. Located at : http://owl.excelsior.edu/writing-process/paragraphing/paragraphing-and-transitioning/ . Project : Excelsior OWL. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • TRANSITION WORDS. Authored by : Gregory M. Campbell. Located at : https://msu.edu/~jdowell/135/transw.html . License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Paragraph Structure. Authored by : Meredith Harper. Provided by : University of Mississippi. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Climate change is turning dehydration into a deadly epidemic. Authored by : Jane Palmer. Located at : https://mosaicscience.com/story/climate-change-deadly-epidemic-chronic-kidney-disease/ . License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Transitions. Provided by : Bay College. Located at : https://human.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Composition/Book%3A_Rhetoric_and_Composition_(Bay_College)/02%3A_The_Writing_Process/2.5%3A_Revising_and_Editing . License : CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
  • Essay Structure. Provided by : QUT Cite Write. Located at : http://www.citewrite.qut.edu.au/write/essay.jsp . Project : Writing an Essay. License : CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
  • Arranging your Ideas Example. Authored by : Meredith Harper. Provided by : University of Mississippi. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Image of architects. Authored by : Borko Manigoda. Provided by : Pixabay. Located at : pixabay.com/photos/architect-people-plan-construction-3979490/. License : Other . License Terms : pixabay.com/service/terms/#license
  • Section on Smoothing Your Writing. Authored by : Marianne Botos, Lynn McClelland, Stephanie Polliard, Pamela Osback. Located at : https://pvccenglish.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/eng-101-inside-pages-proof2-no-pro.pdf . Project : Horse of a Different Color: English Composition and Rhetoric. License : CC BY: Attribution

Essay Writing Guide

Transition Words For Essays

Last updated on: Dec 19, 2023

220 Best Transition Words for Essays

By: Nova A.

15 min read

Reviewed By: Jacklyn H.

Published on: Jul 9, 2019

Transition Words for Essays

Writing essays can be hard, and making sure your transitions are smooth is even harder. 

You've probably heard that good essays need good transitions, but what are they? How do you use them in your writing? Also, your essays are assessed according to particular criteria and it is your responsibility to ensure that it is being met.

But don't worry, we are here to help. This blog will give you transition words for essays, including how to choose the right ones and where to place them for maximum impact. Essay writing is a technical process that requires much more effort than simply pouring your thoughts on paper.

If you are new to the concept of transition words and phrases, deep dive into this article in order to find out the secret to improving your essays.

Transition Words for Essays

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What Are Transition Words 

Transition words are essential elements in essay writing that create smooth transitions between ideas. 

Think of a transition as a conjunction or a joining word. It helps create strong relationships between ideas, paragraphs, or sentences and assists the readers to understand the word phrases and sentences easily.

As writers, our goal is to communicate our thoughts and ideas in the most clear and logical manner. Especially when presenting complex ideas, we must ensure that they are being conveyed in the most understandable way.

To ensure that your paper is easy to understand, you can work on the sequencing of ideas. Break down your ideas into different sentences and paragraphs then use a transition word or phrase to guide them through these ideas.

Why Should You Use Transitions

The purpose of transition words goes beyond just connectivity. They create a cohesive narrative , allowing your ideas to flow seamlessly from one point to another. These words and phrases act as signposts and indicate relationships. 

These relations could include:

  • Cause and Effect
  • Comparison and Contrast
  • Addition and Emphasis
  • Sequence and Order
  • Illustration and Example
  • Concession and Contradiction
  • Summary and Conclusion

They form a bridge and tie sentences together, creating a logical connection. In addition to tying the entire paper together, they help demonstrate the writer’s agreement, disagreement, conclusion, or contrast.

However, keep in mind that just using or including transitional words isn’t enough to highlight relationships between ideas. The content of your paragraphs must support the relationship as well. So, you should avoid overusing them in a paper.

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Types of Transitions

Transitions in essays can be classified into different types based on the relationships they indicate between ideas. Each type serves a specific purpose in guiding readers through your arguments. 

Let's explore some common types of transitions and their examples:

Additive Transitions 

These transitions are used to add information or ideas. They help you expand on your points or provide additional supporting evidence. Examples:

  • In addition
  • Furthermore
  • Additionally
  • Not only... but also
  • Coupled with

Adversative Transitions

Adversative transitions show contrast or contradiction between ideas. They are used to present opposing viewpoints or highlight differences. Examples:

  • Nevertheless
  • On the other hand
  • In contrast

Causal Transitions

Causal transitions explain cause-and-effect relationships. They help you establish the reasons behind certain outcomes or actions. Examples:

  • As a result
  • Consequently
  • Resulting in
  • For this reason

Sequential Transitions

Sequential transitions indicate the order or sequence of events or ideas. They help you present your thoughts in a logical and organized manner. Examples: 

  • Subsequently
  • In the meantime
  • Simultaneously

Comparative Transitions

Comparative transitions highlight similarities or comparisons between ideas. They help you draw connections and illustrate relationships. Here are some transition words for essays examples: 

  • In the same way
  • Compared to
  • In comparison
  • Correspondingly
  • By the same token
  • Equally important
  • Analogous to

Getting started on your essay? Check out this insightful read on essay writing to make sure you ace it!

List of Good Transition Words for Essays

As mentioned above, there are different categories of transitions that serve a unique purpose. Understanding these different types will help you pick the most suitable word or phrase to communicate your message.

Here we have categorized the best transition words for essays so you can use them appropriately!

Transition Words for Argumentative Essays

In argumentative essays , the effective use of transition words is essential for presenting a well-structured and coherent argument. 

Transition Words for Compare and Contrast Essays

In compare and contrast essays , transition words play a crucial role in highlighting the similarities and differences between the subjects being compared. 

Here are a few transition words that are particularly useful in compare and contrast essays:

Transition Words for Cause and Effect Essays

In cause and effect essays , transition words help illustrate the relationships between causes and their corresponding effects. 

Here are a few transition words that are particularly useful in cause-and-effect essays:

Transition Words for Different Parts of Essays

Transition words are valuable tools that can be used throughout different parts of an essay to create a smooth and coherent flow. By understanding the appropriate transition words for each section, you can logically connect your ideas. 

Introduction Transition Words for Essays

Introductions are one of the most impactful parts of the essay. It's important that it connects logically with the rest of the essay. To do this, you can utilize different transition words for essays to start. Here are some starting transition words for essays:

Transition Words for Essays Body Paragraph

In an essay, body paragraphs play a crucial role in presenting and developing your ideas. To ensure a logical flow within each body paragraph, the strategic use of transition words is essential.

Here are lists of transitions for essays for different body paragraphs:

Transition Words for Essays for First Body Paragraph

Here is a list of transition words that you can use for the first body paragraph of an essay:

Transition Words for Essays Second Body Paragraph

Here is a list of transition words for the second body paragraph of an essay:

Transition Words for Essays Third Body Paragraph

Transition words for essays last body paragraph, transition words for essays conclusion .

Here is a list of ending transition words for essays:

Do’s and Don’ts of Using Essay Transitions

When it comes to using transitions in your essay, there are certain do's and don'ts that can help you effectively enhance the flow of your writing. Here are some key guidelines to keep in mind:

  • Add transitions only when introducing new ideas.
  • Go through the paper to make sure they make sense.
  • Start by creating an outline, so you know what ideas to share and how.
  • Use different transitions for each idea.
  • Don’t overuse them.
  • Don’t keep adding transitions in the same paragraph.
  • Don’t completely rely on transitions to signal relationships.
  • Don’t incorporate it into your content without understanding its usage.

By now, you have probably understood how transition words can save you from disjointed and directionless paragraphs. They are the missing piece that indicates how ideas are related to one another. You can also generate more essays with our AI powered essay writer to learn the art of transitioning smoothly from one paragraph to another. 

If you are still unable to distinguish transitions to open or conclude your essays, don’t be upset - these things require time and practice.

If you are looking for the perfect essay-writing service, get in touch with the expert writers at 5StarEssays.com. We will include the right transitions according to the type of paper, ensuring a coherent flow of ideas.

Just say ‘ write my essay ’ now and let our essay writer create quality content at the most pocket-friendly rates available.

Nova A.

As a Digital Content Strategist, Nova Allison has eight years of experience in writing both technical and scientific content. With a focus on developing online content plans that engage audiences, Nova strives to write pieces that are not only informative but captivating as well.

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Transition Words For Essays

Barbara P

Transition Words for Essays - An Ultimate List

12 min read

Published on: Jan 1, 2021

Last updated on: Jan 30, 2024

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Share this article

Are you tired of reading essays that feel disjointed and difficult to follow? Do you find yourself struggling to connect your ideas smoothly and effectively? 

If so, then you're in luck, because today we're going to take a closer look at the magic of transition words.

In this blog, we'll cover different types of transition words and their precise usage, and how they can elevate your writing. By the end, you'll have the tools to captivate your readers and leave a lasting impression. 

Let's dive in!

On This Page On This Page -->

What are Transition Words?

Transition words are linking words used to connect sentences and ideas in the content. They help the audience move from one idea to another, building a coherent relationship within the document.

When  writing an essay , it is essential to make sure that the information provided is readable and understandable by the readers. For this purpose, explicit language, transition words, and phrases are used.

Moreover, these words set a base for the idea that is going to be discussed next.

Transition words can either make or break the entire essay. It is mandatory to keep in view that not every sentence in your essay needs a transitional phrase. 

Types of Transitions

Generally, there are three types of transitions that are used while drafting a piece of document. Depending on the length, complexity, and kind of text, transitions can take the following form:

  • Transition Between Sections - When your document is lengthy, transition paragraphs are used to summarize a particular section for the readers. In addition to this, it also links the information that is to be shared next.

For example:

"In the following section..." "Moving on to..." "Now, let's explore..." "Turning our attention to..." "To delve deeper, we will now examine..."

  • Transition Between Paragraphs -  The transition between paragraphs is when you logically connect the two paragraphs. This connection summarizes the paragraph’s primary concern and links it to the next idea of the other paragraph.

"Furthermore..." "On the other hand..." "Similarly..." "In contrast..." "Moreover..." "Additionally..." "In addition to..." "Conversely..." "Likewise..." "In a similar vein...

  • Transition Within Paragraphs -  They act as cues for the readers to prepare them for what is coming next. They are usually single words or small phrases.

"For instance..." "In particular..." "To illustrate..." "Additionally..." "Moreover..." "Furthermore..." "On the contrary..." "However..." "In contrast..." "In other words..."

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Types of Transition Words

Here's a table showcasing different types of transition words and their corresponding functions:

Transition Words For Different Types of Essays

Transitional words depend on the relationship you want to convey to the audience about the ideas and paragraphs. Below is a list of words and phrases that can be used to link different sentences, paragraphs, and sections.

Identify which transition expression you want to share for your logical relationship.

Transition Words for Argumentative Essay

  • In the same way
  • Equally important
  • Furthermore
  • Comparatively
  • Additionally
  • In addition
  • Not only...but also

Transition Words for Compare and Contrast Essay

  • In contrast
  • Different from
  • On the contrary
  • In spite of

Transition Words for Informative Essay

  • Provided that
  • With this in mind
  • For the purpose of
  • In the hope that
  • In order to
  • With this intention

Transition Words for College Essays

  • In other words
  • By all means
  • To demonstrate
  • As in illustration
  • To put it another way

Transition Words for Cause and Effect Essay

  • As a result
  • For this reason
  • Because the
  • Under those circumstances
  • Accordingly
  • Consequently

Transition Words for Expository Essay 

  • Not long after that
  • Specifically
  • To begin with
  • Without doubt
  • Undoubtedly
  • Due to circumstances
  • In similar fashion

Transition Words for Different Parts of Essay

Here's a table listing transition words for different parts of an essay:

How Transitions work

Transitions work by creating a bridge between ideas, sentences, paragraphs, or sections in your essay. They help to establish logical connections and guide the reader through the flow of your writing. 

Here's how transitions work:

  • Coherence : Transitions create smooth connections between ideas, ensuring a coherent flow in your writing.
  • Signal Relationships: Transitions clarify how ideas are related, such as cause and effect, comparison, contrast, or sequence.
  • Guide the Reader: It acts as signpost, guiding readers through your essay and indicating the direction of your thoughts.
  • Enhance Clarity: Transitions improve clarity by organizing ideas and helping readers understand logical progression.
  • Improve Flow: It ensures a seamless flow between sentences, paragraphs, and sections, preventing choppiness.
  • Emphasize Key Points: Transitions can be used strategically to highlight important ideas and make them more impactful.

Let's consider an example:

In the above example, transitions like " one such source " connect the idea of solar power to renewable energy sources. " Similarly " then introduces the concept of wind power, creating a logical progression. These transitions help readers follow the flow of ideas and understand the relationships between different energy sources.

Tips to Use Transition Words in your Essay

Here are some tips to effectively use transition words in your essay:

  • Understand the Purpose: Familiarize yourself with the different types and functions of transition words, phrases, or sentences. Recognize how they connect ideas, provide structure, and indicate relationships between different parts of your essay.
  • Plan your Essay Structure: Before you start writing, outline the main sections, paragraphs, and points you want to cover. Consider where transition words can be used to improve the flow and coherence of your essay.
  • Use Transition Words Appropriately: Ensure that the transition word you choose accurately reflects the relationship between ideas. Don't force a transition where it doesn't fit naturally.
  • Vary Transition Words: Avoid repetitive or excessive use of the same transition word throughout your essay. Use a variety of transition words to maintain reader interest and enhance overall readability.
  • Pay Attention to Placement: Place transition words at the beginning, middle, or end of sentences, depending on the desired effect. Consider the logical flow of your ideas and choose the appropriate placement for each transition word.
  • Use Transitional Phrases: Instead of using single transition words, consider incorporating transitional phrases or clauses. These can provide more context and clarity, strengthening the connection between ideas.
  • Revise and Edit: After completing your essay, review it for the effectiveness and smoothness of transitions. Ensure that they serve their purpose in guiding the reader and enhancing the overall coherence of your writing.
  • Seek Feedback: Share your essay with others and ask for feedback, specifically on the use of transition words. Others' perspectives can help you identify any areas that need improvement or where transitions could be strengthened.

To sum it up! While mastering transition words may require time and practice, it is a skill well worth developing. These words are crucial for creating coherence and flow in your essays. Throughout this blog, we have explored various transition words and phrases that can greatly enhance your writing.

Remember, practice makes perfect, so don't hesitate to apply these newfound skills in your future essays. You can utilize an AI essay writer to enhance and refine your writing skills.

If you still need assistance or have further inquiries, our team at CollegeEssay.org is available to provide legit essay writing service . 

Contact us today, and let us be a part of your journey toward academic excellence!

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Barbara is a highly educated and qualified author with a Ph.D. in public health from an Ivy League university. She has spent a significant amount of time working in the medical field, conducting a thorough study on a variety of health issues. Her work has been published in several major publications.

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Essay Writing: Paragraphs and Transitions

  • Essay Writing Basics
  • Purdue OWL Page on Writing Your Thesis This link opens in a new window
  • Paragraphs and Transitions
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  • Formatting Your References Page
  • Cite a Website
  • Common Grammatical and Mechanical Errors
  • Additional Resources
  • Proofread Before You Submit Your Paper
  • Structuring the 5-Paragraph Essay

Paragraph Structure

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Begins with a sentence that captures the reader’s attention

1) You may want to use an interesting example, a surprising statistic, or a challenging question.

B. Gives background information on the topic.

C. Includes the THESIS STATEMENT which:

1) States the main ideas of the essay and includes:

b. Viewpoint (what you plan to say about the topic)

2) Is more general than supporting data

3) May mention the main point of each of the body paragraphs

II. BODY PARAGRAPH #1

A. Begins with a topic sentence that:

1) States the main point of the paragraph

2) Relates to the THESIS STATEMENT

B. After the topic sentence, you need to fill the paragraph with well-organized details, facts, and examples.

C. Paragraph may end with a transition.

III. BODY PARAGRAPH #2

IV. BODY PARAGRAPH #3

3) States the main point of the paragraph

4) Relates to the THESIS STATEMENT

V. CONCLUSION

A. Echoes the THESIS STATEMENT but does not repeat it.

B. Poses a question for the future, suggests some action to be taken, or warns of a consequence.

C. Includes a detail or example from the INTRODUCTION to “tie up” the essay.

D. Ends with a strong image – or a humorous or surprising statement.

Transition Words and Phrases

More transitions and linking expressions, a monroe college research guide.

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Essay Writing Guide

Transition Words For Essays

Nova A.

Transition Words For Essays - The Ultimate List

11 min read

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Do you find it challenging to make your essays flow smoothly and hold your readers' attention from start to finish? Are your paragraphs disjointed, leaving your writing feeling unpolished?

It can be frustrating when your ideas don't connect seamlessly. You might wonder how to make your writing shine and ensure it leaves a lasting impression on your professors.

Don't worry; we've got you covered! 

In this guide, we'll introduce you to transition words for essays. These words are your secret weapon for crafting well-structured, compelling essays that will impress your teachers and elevate your writing game.  Let's get started!

Arrow Down

  • 1. What are Good Transition Words for Essays?
  • 2. Examples of Different Types of Transition Words
  • 3.   Transition Words for Argumentative Essays
  • 4. Transition Words for Persuasive Essays
  • 5. Transition Words for Compare and Contrast Essays
  • 6. Transition Words for Informative Essays
  • 7. Transition Words for Expository Essays
  • 8. Transition Words for Cause and Effect Essays
  • 9. Transition Words for Synthesis Essays
  • 10. Transition Words for Analysis Essays
  • 11. Conclusion Transition Words for Essays
  • 12. Beginning Transition Words for Essays
  • 13. Paragraph Transition Words for Essays
  • 14. Transition Words for Quotes in Essays
  • 15. Transition Words for Essays Middle School
  • 16. Transition Words for Essays High School
  • 17. Transition Words for Essays College
  • 18. Do’s and Don’ts of Using Transition Words

What are Good Transition Words for Essays?

Transition words are essential tools in essay writing , providing a clear path for your readers to follow. They serve the crucial purpose of connecting words, phrases, sentences, or even entire paragraphs. 

By using these transitions effectively, you can effortlessly convey your ideas and thoughts in a coherent and easily understandable manner.

However, it's crucial to exercise moderation when using transition words. Overusing them can clutter your essay, making it confusing and difficult to read. 

On the other hand, omitting them entirely can result in a piece that lacks flow and direction. Striking the right balance ensures that your essay is both engaging and comprehensible.

Purpose of Transition Words

Let’s take a look at the purpose of using transitions in essays:

  • Enhance Readability: Transition words improve the overall flow and coherence of your writing.
  • Clarify Relationships: They signal connections between ideas, whether it's adding, contrasting, or summarizing.
  • Improve Comprehension: Readers can follow your argument or narrative more easily.
  • Smooth Transitions: They act as bridges, seamlessly guiding your audience from one point to the next.
  • Manage Change: They prepare the reader for shifts in topic or perspective.
  • Enhance Engagement: Well-placed transitions keep readers interested and invested in your content.
  • Encourage Flow: They maintain a logical progression, aiding in the overall structure of your work.

Examples of Different Types of Transition Words

Here are some common types of transitions for essays that can be used in almost any situation. 

Addition Transitions

  • Furthermore
  • Additionally
  • In addition
  • Not only...but also

Comparison Transitions

  • In the same way
  • Comparable to
  • Correspondingly
  • In comparison
  • By the same token

Contrast Transitions

  • On the other hand
  • In contrast
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • Even though

Cause and Effect Transitions

  • Consequently
  • As a result
  • For this reason
  • Accordingly

Time Transitions

  • Simultaneously
  • In the meantime
  • Subsequently
  • At the same time

Illustration Transitions

  • For example
  • For instance
  • Specifically
  • To illustrate
  • In particular
  • In this case
  • As an illustration

Emphasis Transitions

  • Undoubtedly
  • Without a doubt

Summary Transitions 

  • To summarize
  • To conclude

Sequence Transitions

Example transitions.

  • As an example
  • To demonstrate
  • For one thing
  • As evidence
  • As an instance

For Showing Exception

  • At The Same Time 
  • Nevertheless  
  • On The Other Hand 
  • But At The Same Time 
  • Conversely 

For Proving

  • For This Reason 
  • Certainly 
  • To Demonstrate
  • In Fact 
  • Clearly 
  • As A Result

This transition words for essays list will make it easier for you to understand what words to use in which kind of essay or for which purpose. 

  Transition Words for Argumentative Essays

  • To begin with
  • By contrast
  • One alternative is
  • To put more simply
  • On the contrary
  • With this in mind
  • All things considered
  • Generally speaking
  • That is to say
  • Yet another

Transition Words for Persuasive Essays

  • furthermore 
  • Moreover 
  • Because 
  • Besides that
  • Pursuing this further 

Transition Words for Essays PDF

Transition Words for Compare and Contrast Essays

  • Althoughyhtjyjum,u
  • Notwithstanding

Transition Words for Informative Essays

  •  After all
  • As can be expected
  • Obviously 

Transition Words for Expository Essays

  • Equally important
  • Another reason
  • Not long after that
  • Looking back

Transition Words for Cause and Effect Essays

  • In order to
  • Provided that
  • Because of this

Transition Words for Synthesis Essays

  • As noted earlier
  • Consequently 
  • Whereas 
  • This leads to 
  • Another factor 
  • This lead to 
  • The underlying concept 
  • In this respect 

Transition Words for Analysis Essays

  • (once) again 
  • Primarily 
  • Due to 
  • Accordingly 
  • That is to say 
  • Subsequently 
  • To demonstrate 
  • However 

Conclusion Transition Words for Essays

  • In any event
  • As mentioned
  • In other words
  • As you can see

Beginning Transition Words for Essays

These are some introduction transition words for essays to start writing: 

  • In the first place
  • First of all
  • For the most part
  • On one hand
  • As a rule 

Paragraph Transition Words for Essays

  • To put it differently
  • Once and for all

Transition Words for Essay’s First Body Paragraph

  • To start with
  • First and foremost
  • In the beginning

Transition Words for Essay’s Second Body Paragraph 

  • In addition to this 
  • Furthermore 

Transition Words for Essay’s Last Body Paragraph

  • In conclusion
  • Finally 
  • Last but not least 
  • To sum up 
  • Altogether 

Transition Words for Quotes in Essays

  • Acknowledges

Transition Words for Essays Middle School

  • In conclusion 
  • For instance 

Transition Words for Essays High School

  • Today 
  • In addition 
  • To summarize 
  • On the other hand 
  • As well as 
  • Although 

Transition Words for Essays College

Here are some college level transition words for essay:

  • Pursuing this
  • Similarly 
  • What’s more 
  • As much as 
  • In a like manner
  • In the same fashion

Do’s and Don’ts of Using Transition Words

So, now you have some strong transition words for essays at hand. But how do you use these transition words? 

Here are the basic dos and don’ts of using transition words for essays. 

  • Understand that these terms are an important part of any type of essay or paper, adding to its overall flow and readability. 
  • Use these words when you are presenting a new idea. For example, start a new paragraph with these phrases, followed by a comma. 
  • Do not overuse transition words. It is one of the most common essay writing problems that students end up with. It is important to only use those words required to convey your message clearly. It is good to sound smart by using these words but don’t overdo it. 
  • Avoid using these words at the start and in the middle. Always try to use transition words only a few times where it is necessary to make it easy for the readers to follow the ideas.

So, now you have an extensive list of transition words. These are some of the best transition words for essays that you can add to your essays.

If your essay seems redundant because you used similar transition words, you can always have a look at this list to find some good replacements. 

So, whenever you’re writing an essay, refer back to this list and let your words flow!

If you still feel that your essay is not properly conveying your ideas, turn to our expert essay writers at MyPerfectWords.com.

If you have some write-up, our essay writing service will make it flow without changing the entire content. Or, if you wish to have an essay from scratch, we will write a paper for you!

Simply contact us and place your order now. Our writers will take care of everything to help you ace your assignment. 

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Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.

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Complete List of Transition Words

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Once you have completed the first draft of your paper, you will need to rewrite some of the introductory sentences at the beginning and the transition statements at the end of every paragraph . Transitions, which connect one idea to the next, may seem challenging at first, but they get easier once you consider the many possible methods for linking paragraphs together—even if they seem to be unrelated.

Transition words and phrases can help your paper move along, smoothly gliding from one topic to the next. If you have trouble thinking of a way to connect your paragraphs, consider a few of these 100 top transitions as inspiration. The type of transition words or phrases you use depends on the category of transition you need, as explained below.

Additive Transitions

Probably the most common type, additive transitions are those you use when you want to show that the current point is an addition to the previous one, notes  Edusson , a website that provides students with essay-writing tips and advice . Put another way, additive transitions signal to the reader that you are adding to an idea and/or your ideas are similar, says  Quizlet , an online teacher and student learning community. Some examples of additive transition words and phrases were compiled by Michigan State University  writing lab. Follow each transition word or phrase with a comma:

  • In the first place
  • Furthermore
  • Alternatively
  • As well (as this)
  • What is more
  • In addition (to this)
  • On the other hand
  • Either (neither)
  • As a matter of fact
  • Besides (this)
  • To say nothing of
  • Additionally
  • Not to mention (this)
  • Not only (this) but also (that) as well
  • In all honesty
  • To tell the truth

An example of additive transitions used in a sentence would be:

" In the first place , no 'burning' in the sense of combustion, as in the burning of wood, occurs in a volcano;  moreover , volcanoes are not necessarily mountains;  furthermore , the activity takes place not always at the summit but more commonly on the sides or flanks..." – Fred Bullard, "Volcanoes in History, in Theory, in Eruption"

In this and the examples of transitions in subsequent sections, the transition words or phrases are printed in italics to make them easier to find as you peruse the passages.

Adversative Transitions

Adversative transitions are used to signal conflict, contradiction, concession, and dismissal, says Michigan State University. Examples include:

  • In contrast
  • But even so
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • (And) still
  • In either case
  • (Or) at least
  • Whichever happens
  • Whatever happens
  • In either event

An example of an adversative transition phrase used in a sentence would be:

" On the other hand, professor Smith completely disagreed with the author's argument."

Causal Transitions

Causal transitions—also called cause-and-effect transitions—show how certain circumstances or events were caused by other factors, says Academic Help . The website that offers assistance with academic writing adds: "They [causal transitions] make it easier for the reader to follow the logic of the arguments and clauses represented in paper." Examples include:

  • Accordingly
  • As a result
  • Consequently
  • For this reason
  • Granting (that)
  • On the condition (that)
  • In the event that
  • As a result (of this)
  • Because (of this)
  • As a consequence
  • In consequence
  • So much (so) that
  • For the purpose of
  • With this intention
  • With this in mind
  • Under those circumstances
  • That being the case

An example of a causal transition used in a sentence would be:

"The study of human chromosomes is in its infancy,  and so  it has only recently become possible to study the effect of environmental factors upon them." –Rachel Carson, "Silent Spring"

Sequential Transitions

Sequential transitions express a numerical sequence, continuation, conclusion , digression , resumption, or summation, says Michigan State, which gives these examples:

  • In the (first, second, third, etc.) place
  • To begin with
  • To start with
  • Subsequently
  • To conclude with
  • As a final point
  • Last but not least
  • To change the topic
  • Incidentally
  • To get back to the point
  • As was previously stated

An example of a sequential transition would be:

"We should teach that words are not the things to which they refer. We should teach that words are best understood as convenient tools for handling reality... Finally , we should teach widely that new words can and should be invented if the need arises." –Karol Janicki, "Language Misconceived"

In sum , use transition words and phrases judiciously to keep your paper moving, hold your readers' attention, and retain your audience until the final word.

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Make Smooth Transitions: 300+ Strong Transition Words for Essays

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Have you ever read a piece of literature and wondered how smoothly the author transitioned from one paragraph to the next?

Making smooth transitions while writing is not a piece of cake. Most students struggle to write in a cohesive manner that effectively communicates the message.

If you want to improve paragraph transitions and are wondering which words or phrases to use, this article’s for you. Read on to learn more about using strong transition words for essays with confidence.

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What are transition words and phrases.

Having strong transition words for essays is pivotal as it leads the reader from one idea to another. In the absence of transition words, sentences would not have a structure, appear connected, or flow smoothly.

Using transition words prevents the reader from having to jump from one paragraph or sentence to another. This makes your essay easier to follow and gets your message across in a more coherent manner.

In short, transition words are majorly used to place smooth, easy to comprehend, and logical connections between sentences and paragraphs in your essay.

Here’s an interesting video by Write to Top that talks about the importance of coherence and cohesion in essay writing.

A Handy List of 300+ Strong Transition Words for Essays

Now that you know how important it is to use transition words and phrases to connect and structurally flow the ideas and arguments in your essay let’s take a look at 300+ strong transition words you can use.

The list is divided into 12 broad categories, making it easier for you to use them while writing essays .

1. Cause & Effect

Connects the instigator(s) to the consequences or the outcome of an action.

  • For that/this reason
  • As a result
  • Accordingly
  • In that case
  • Consequently
  • Under those circumstances
  • In other words
  • With the result that

2. Chronology or Time

Connects a situation or issue to when it occurred or conveys a series of events by limiting, restricting, and defining time.

  • From time to time
  • To begin with
  • Subsequently
  • In the meantime
  • Immediately
  • In a moment
  • In the first place
  • Without delay
  • At this instant
  • First, second, third
  • All of a sudden
  • In due time
  • Concurrently
  • In the future
  • Immediately after
  • Simultaneously

3. Combinations, Comparisons, or Additions

Finds similarities, compares two preceding statements, ideas, or concepts, connects multiple events to make one whole story, and adds new words to complete the paragraph.

  • Comparatively
  • Additionally
  • As a matter of fact
  • In the same way
  • In addition
  • Identically
  • In like fashion
  • In light of
  • Compared to
  • Furthermore
  • Not to mention
  • To say nothing of

4. Contrast or Differences

Connecting two instances or phrases, mainly focusing on their differences or suggesting alternative ideas to be considered. Alternatively, these can also be used to contrast two ideas, thoughts, or key pieces of information in your essay.

  • In contrast
  • Although this may be true
  • On the contrary
  • At the same time
  • In spite of
  • (and) still
  • On the other hand
  • Nevertheless
  • Be that as it may
  • Notwithstanding

5. Clarification

Connects to further clarify the arguments being made in simpler, more compact terms.

  • To rephrase it
  • To put it another way
  • In lay terms
  • Simply stated
  • In explanation
  • In simple terms
  • To clearly define
  • To break it down
  • To simplify
  • To put it clearly

6. Concession

Connects to express an idea that acknowledges the opposing view of the main part of the argument or sentence.

  • At any rate
  • Even though
  • While it may be true
  • Up to a point
  • Nonetheless
  • Regardless of this

7. Examples

Connects to add emphasis, or introduce evidence or example as support.

  • For example
  • For instance
  • To demonstrate
  • To emphasize
  • To enumerate
  • To put it differently
  • As an illustration
  • In this case
  • For this reason
  • That is to say
  • Important to realize
  • Most compelling evidence
  • Must be remembered
  • To point out
  • With this in mind
  • On the positive/negative side
  • Specifically
  • Particularly
  • To illustrate
  • Proof of this
  • As an example of
  • In this situation
  • By all means
  • Hypothetically
  • In particular
  • Another key point
  • More importantly

8. Importance

Connecting an important aspect to an otherwise unimportant sentence or paragraph.

  • Essentially
  • Most importantly
  • Principally
  • Fundamentally
  • Unquestionably

9. Generalization

Connects to give an idea about a general subject.

  • Generally speaking
  • For the most part
  • By and large

10. Location

Connects elements according to where they are placed in a relationship to each other. These provide spatial order and references to locations and space.

  • In the middle
  • In front of
  • To the right or left
  • Here and there
  • On this side
  • In the distance
  • In the foreground
  • In the background
  • In the center of
  • Opposite to
  • Adjacent to
  • Neighboring on
  • Along the edge
  • Straight ahead
  • At the bottom
  • In proximity to
  • In vicinity of
  • On the horizon
  • Peripherally
  • Surrounding
  • At the rear
  • At the front
  • Within sight
  • Out of sight

11. Purpose

Connects when you want to present specific intentions, causes, or conditions.

  • In the event that
  • As/So long as
  • For this purpose
  • In order that
  • To that end
  • To this end
  • With the hope that
  • With this intention
  • On the condition that
  • Provided that
  • With this purpose
  • Seeing that

12. Summary

Connects to summarize, conclude or restate certain arguments, points, and ideas that were previously mentioned in the essay. These transition words are used to indicate a final generalized statement about the approached argument and wrap it up.

  • To summarize
  • To conclude
  • In the final analysis
  • All things considered
  • As shown above
  • In the long run
  • As has been noted
  • Given these points
  • To reiterate
  • On the whole
  • In either case
  • As can be seen
  • As mentioned
  • As demonstrated above
  • As indicated
  • As discussed
  • In the short run
  • At the end of the day
  • In a nutshell
  • To put it briefly

8 Dos and Don’ts of Using Strong Transition Words for Essays

Just as using the above transition words are necessary for essays and other academic papers, it is equally important to know the appropriate dos and don'ts of using transition words in essays.

1. Be sure to know what your transition word means and if it is used correctly and makes sense in a sentence.

2. Ensure that you don't accidentally create incomplete sentences. Check to see if you are using subordinating conjunctions, as they can lead to fragmented sentences.

3. Use when presenting a new idea or in the middle of two ideas to show a logical connection.

4. Use an essay outline to organize your writing and figure out exactly where you can use your transition words and how to avoid overusing them.

1. Just as you can have too few transition words in your essay, you can also have too many. Use your transition words sparingly and in key places.

Adding too many can be distracting to read, can make your content piece complicated to understand, and make your reader seem as if they aren’t capable enough to comprehend basic connections.

2. Never add a transition word at the end of a sentence. This confuses the readers and takes the emphasis off what you want to say.

3. Never start a sentence with a “but,” “and,” or “because” in an academic assignment. Instead, replace them with a more formal transition word.

4. Don't use transition words from a different category than the one it is needed for. For example, if it is a general statement, don’t use transition words for summarizing a paragraph. Stick to the words or phrases in each category.

The Takeaway

This list must have felt like a lot; so many words and phrases to remember. But you wouldn’t necessarily need to do that because you can come back to this blog post whenever you need a reminder.

Our list of strong transition words for essays can guide you to achieve high grades on your assignments as well as impress your professors . So, use these transition words to do away with choppy sentences and disconnected ideas!

Not confident about your writing skills? Writers Per Hour can help. Our team of professional writers can help you deliver high-quality essays written from scratch with transition words et al.

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IMAGES

  1. Writing Mini Lesson #25- Revising a Narrative Essay- Add- Transition

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  2. 20+ Good Transition Words For Paragraphs Connecticut

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  3. Transition Words: Examples In Sentences, Paragraphs & Essays

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  4. Paragraphing & Transitioning

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  5. List of Transitional Words for Writing Essays

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  6. Making effective paragraph transitions

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  1. Transition words for Essay, Part 1

  2. My Self 5 Sentence || About Your Self || Short Paragraph My Self || Kids Learn

  3. english connectors

  4. Transition Words for Essay, Part 2

  5. 9- Geçiş İfadeleri ve Bağlaçlar / Transition Words and Connectors / Türkçe Anlatım

  6. English for Academic Purposes Class: Essay Structure, Transitions, Highlighting, and Annotating

COMMENTS

  1. 92 Essay Transition Words to Know, With Examples

    Abruptly switching topics in essays can be jarring; however, transition words can smooth the change for the convenience of the reader.Moreover, you can use essay transition words to start a paragraph, sentence, or clause more naturally.Additionally, essay transition words can connect new information to the previous statement so you don't have to say everything at once.

  2. Transitional Words and Phrases

    Transitional words and phrases can create powerful links between ideas in your paper and can help your reader understand the logic of your paper. However, these words all have different meanings, nuances, and connotations. Before using a particular transitional word in your paper, be sure you understand its meaning and usage completely and be sure…

  3. Transition Words & Phrases

    Transition words commonly appear at the start of a new sentence or clause ... Transition sentences are used to start a new paragraph or section in an essay. They help the reader understand connections between ideas. 545. ... Use topic sentences to structure your ideas and keep your paragraphs focused. 1118. Scribbr. Our editors; Jobs;

  4. Transition Sentences

    Clear transitions are crucial to clear writing: They show the reader how different parts of your essay, paper, or thesis are connected. Transition sentences can be used to structure your text and link together paragraphs or sections. Example of a transition sentence for a new paragraph. In this case, the researchers concluded that the method ...

  5. Transitions

    A transition between paragraphs can be a word or two (however, for example, similarly), a phrase, or a sentence. Transitions can be at the end of the first paragraph, at the beginning of the second paragraph, or in both places. Transitions within paragraphs: As with transitions between sections and paragraphs, transitions within paragraphs act ...

  6. 33 Transition Words for Essays

    33 Transition Words and Phrases. 'Besides,' 'furthermore,' 'although,' and other words to help you jump from one idea to the next. Transitional terms give writers the opportunity to prepare readers for a new idea, connecting the previous sentence to the next one. Many transitional words are nearly synonymous: words that broadly indicate that ...

  7. Transitions

    Transitions. Transitions help your readers move between ideas within a paragraph, between paragraphs, or between sections of your argument. When you are deciding how to transition from one idea to the next, your goal should be to help readers see how your ideas are connected—and how those ideas connect to the big picture.

  8. PDF 7th Edition Transitions Quick Guide

    Transitions Quick Guide. There are two kinds of transitions: (a) transitional words and phrases that are used at the start of a sentence to show how the sentence connects with the previous sentence and (b) transitional sentences that are used at the start of a paragraph to show how the paragraph logically connects with the previous paragraph.

  9. Transition Sentences: Definition, Usage Tips & Examples

    Here are a few more examples of transition sentences at work: Employees who've returned to the office reported higher productivity levels since switching to a four-day week. Similarly, remote employees have also reported they're more productive with the new schedule. First, preheat your oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit.

  10. Common Transition Words and Phrases

    Common Transition Words and Phrases. ... 9. Emphasis. Use to suggest that an idea is particularly important to your argument important to note, most of all, a significant factor, a primary concern, a key feature, remember that, pay particular attention to, a central issue, the most substantial issue, the main value, a major event, the chief factor, a distinctive quality, especially valuable ...

  11. 190 Good Transition Words for Essays

    In addition, Emmett is a member of the Poetry Board at the Columbia Journal, and his work has been published in HAD, Otoliths, and Some Kind of Opening, among others. Transition words for essays can help improve flow and enhance the quality of your writing. Includes transition words for college essays.

  12. Transition Words & Phrases

    Usage of Transition Words in Essays. Transition words and phrases are vital devices for essays, papers or other literary compositions. They improve the connections and transitions between sentences and paragraphs. They thus give the text a logical organization and structure (see also: a List of Synonyms).

  13. 54 Best Transition Words for Paragraphs (2024)

    List of Transition Words for New Paragraphs. Emphatically, In fact, Surprisingly, Undeniably, Without a doubt, Indeed, Of course, Surely, Undoubtedly, Without a doubt. Furthermore, Moreover, Supporting the above points, Similar research has found, In fact ( See more transition words for addition here ).

  14. Transition Words (List for Essays, Paragraphs, and Writing)

    They are commonly used as "linking words" that join two or more sentences, phrases, and paragraphs. Some common and widely used transition words in English include "also," "or," "therefore," and "thus.". There are various categories of transition words and writers can use them depending on the relationship between sentences.

  15. 3.7: Paragraphs and Paragraph Transitions

    Transition words and phrases help you keep your paragraphs and groups of paragraphs logically connected for a reader. Below are some examples of transition words to help as you transition both within paragraphs and from one paragraph to the next. Transition Word / Phrase: Shows: and, also, again. More of the same type of information is coming ...

  16. Transition Words: Examples In Sentences, Paragraphs & Essays

    The last thing you want is your transition words to feel trite and uninspired. Discover what these words are and a variety of examples for your writing here.

  17. 220 Good Transition Words for Essays by Experts

    Transition Words for Essays for First Body Paragraph. Here is a list of transition words that you can use for the first body paragraph of an essay: Firstly. To start off. Primarily. Another important factor is. To begin with. In the beginning. Above all.

  18. A Complete List of 200+ Transition Words for Essays

    Vary Transition Words: Avoid repetitive or excessive use of the same transition word throughout your essay. Use a variety of transition words to maintain reader interest and enhance overall readability. Pay Attention to Placement: Place transition words at the beginning, middle, or end of sentences, depending on the desired effect. Consider the ...

  19. Paragraphs and Transitions

    BODY PARAGRAPH #3. A. Begins with a topic sentence that: 3) States the main point of the paragraph. 4) Relates to the THESIS STATEMENT. B. After the topic sentence, you need to fill the paragraph with well-organized details, facts, and examples. C. Paragraph may end with a transition. V. CONCLUSION.

  20. A List of 200+ Transition Words For Essays

    Transition Words for Analysis Essays. 11. Conclusion Transition Words for Essays. 12. Beginning Transition Words for Essays. 13. Paragraph Transition Words for Essays. 14. Transition Words for Quotes in Essays.

  21. Complete List of Transition Words

    Transition words and phrases can help your paper move along, smoothly gliding from one topic to the next. If you have trouble thinking of a way to connect your paragraphs, consider a few of these 100 top transitions as inspiration. The type of transition words or phrases you use depends on the category of transition you need, as explained below.

  22. Make Smooth Transitions: 300+ Strong Transition Words for Essays

    Just as using the above transition words are necessary for essays and other academic papers, it is equally important to know the appropriate dos and don'ts of using transition words in essays. DOs. 1. Be sure to know what your transition word means and if it is used correctly and makes sense in a sentence. 2.

  23. 170 Words To Start A Paragraph

    Words to start a paragraph are transitions that provide direction for the reader as to where you are going with an argument, analysis, explanation or narrative. These include words and phrases that introduce comparisons, contrasts, evidence, themes, conclusions, stories or explanations. The following are common words that can be used to start ...