early childhood education essay topics

21 Early Childhood Education Essay Topics (Best Titles)

During your studies, the time to write an essay on early childhood education may come. We’ve compiled a list of good and creative early childhood education essay topics to help you fasten the process.

What is Early Childhood Education?

Early childhood education is described as education combined with child care services provided to young people from the time they are born until they reach the age of eight. When it comes to early childhood education, children participate in a variety of educational environments throughout their early childhood years. Whenever someone learns that you are a student majoring in education, they can’t help but wonder why you want to become a teacher. Isn’t it true that teachers are underpaid?

Due to their enthusiasm for all aspects of teaching, most aspiring teachers are completely immersed in the world of education before enrolling in even the first college course in their field. Consequently, many teacher candidates have difficulty narrowing their emphasis on a particular issue to do research for their thesis paper as a result of this. Fortunately, there is a diverse range of domains available within the field of education from which to pick from. When picking a field to investigate more, think about what motivates you the most as an instructor and how you can benefit from studying more about a specific issue in greater depth.

Early Childhood Education Essay Topics

When writing an essay on the importance of early childhood education, here are some of the best topics you can choose from.

1. How does poverty impact a child’s education?

In addition to the kid’s health and nutrition, parental mental and physical participation, a facilitating family environment, child care, as well as neighborhood and school environments, poverty can have an impact on a child’s developmental trajectory. As a result of these variables, a kid may develop feelings of self-doubt, disinterest, and inability to create a healthy educational environment.

So, what steps can we take to begin providing outreach to these stunted children? In order to address the numerous variables that contribute to the educational stagnation of low-income students, several alternatives must be explored.

To lessen or remove the financial divide between education and students, we must first ensure that funding is directly responsive to the needs of students and educational institutions.

I’ve witnessed personally the dearth of books, as well as outdated and usable technology, available to pupils. It is impossible to expect students to recall all of the necessary curriculum if they are not provided with adequate resources in school. If our own instructors are not equipped with the necessary resources to educate, how can we expect to prosper when presented with the opportunity to pursue higher education?

2. The use of Technology in early childhood learning.

There is a great deal of disagreement in the educational community about the use of electronics and multimedia in the classroom, particularly when it comes to early childhood education. Should children as young as three years old be allowed to use computers? What is the appropriate age for a youngster to learn how to use an iPad before learning how to use the bathroom on his or her own? When doing this research, researchers would look not only at the past, but also at the future, as technology becomes increasingly pervasive in children’s daily life. In light of the fact that these ideas are relatively new to the field of education, any research that is conducted on the benefits of using technology in the classroom will assist to define the future of teaching in contemporary society.

3. The relationship between early childhood education and literary skills in high school.

As a small child grows, his or her environment has a significant impact on the abilities that he or she acquires.  The emergent literacy skills, that comprise phonological awareness, narrative awareness, alphabet knowledge, print concepts, vocabulary, and oral language, are part of the critical skills that will help these young learners prepare for their future.

preschool essay topics to write about

It is possible to acquire these abilities through the home environment and early childhood school environments. Before kindergarten, children’s emergent literacy abilities are established, and they are predictive of a child’s later success in reading. There are a variety of elements that can influence whether or not a youngster is able to develop reading abilities.

4. Should the federal and state governments improve funding of early childhood learning?

Technology grants and philanthropic foundations are available to assist underserved communities. Because of its more user-friendly platforms, Apple initially had a monopoly on the market for educational applications of technology. For many educators, Apple continues to be the favored choice because of the discounts and additional possibilities that the company provides to its customers. Because of the numerous cross-platform software packages that have been produced, both Macintosh and Microsoft settings are increasingly being given equal access to current educational environments. Education decision-makers should remember that the future is unpredictable and that today’s smart buy may wind up on tomorrow’s garbage heap of obsolete technology, no matter which platform they chose.

5. Adverse Childhood Experiences and their Effects on High School Graduation Rates.

The shocking impact that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have on children and adults was shown in a landmark study that was initially published twenty years ago and has since gained widespread attention. Adults’ exposure to abuse, divorce, substance abuse, and other factors were found to be associated with a number of health risk factors, according to Andra et al (1998).

kindergarten education graduation in high school

The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study expanded our understanding of the long-term impacts of direct and indirect abuse, as well as the fact that children did not have to be abused themselves in order to suffer serious consequences to their physical, mental, and even social well-being in the long run.

6. The contribution of a child’s socioeconomic background to the success of early education.

In order for a child to acquire the necessary skills, his or her socioeconomic position must be taken into consideration. In addition, the child’s socioeconomic position will influence what resources are accessible at home and whether or not the parent or guardian is able to provide the child with the essential language and literacy exposure because they are constantly at work. Additionally, there are several other elements to consider, such as a child’s language handicap and prior adverse literacy experiences.

Therefore, to that extent, early childhood educators must conduct an in-depth investigation into the child’s family and community relationships in order to provide the best possible care. It is possible to use the outcomes of such investigations to optimize the teaching process and dissipate any negative connotations that may be detrimental to the child’s development.

On the other side, both the family and the community can work together to ensure the child’s future success in school and in the workplace. As a result, the educator must work to foster positive relationships with parents and members of the community for the children in his or her care.

7. Examining the benefits of daycare to young children

Early childhood educators, of course, are well aware of the significance of their work. Despite the fact that individuals may intuitively understand the relevance of early childhood education programs, research on the benefits of such programs places a quantifiable value on their significance, which has implications for funding. Participation in early education programs can have a variety of consequences for a kid.

Conducting longitudinal study on the potential future success of children in higher grades is essential to fully comprehending how a primary teacher’s efforts can result in long-term advantages for her students. This research can be done in a variety of ways.

The recognition of these consequences motivates teachers to do their best work every day and to constantly improve their approaches.

8. Does attending preschool improve a child’s vocabulary?

Following the completion of quality preschools, children have stronger self-regulation behavior and academic skills than their counterparts who do not participate in preschool. This is according to some new studies.

  • Perks such as expanded vocabulary developed through socialization with other youngsters and a love of reading can provide children an advantage throughout their academic lives.
  • By the time they reach high school, children who attend preschools where instructors receive additional training can still make academic gains of up to a quarter of a letter grade.
  • With the start of a new school year in full swing, parents of preschool-aged children may be wondering whether or not sending their children to preschool makes a significant impact in their children’s development.

9. Contribution of early childhood learning to the cognitive development of young children.

In addition to assisting children in developing their individual cognitive, physical, emotional, and social skills, childhood care providers also assist instructors in responding to the unique requirements of each child in their care. One of the most important responsibilities of childhood care providers is to prepare children for school through curricula that assist children in developing their individual cognitive, physical, emotional, and social skills, and at the same time helps instructors respond to the unique requirements of each child in their care.

In this scenario, cognitive development is particularly important, since it provides youngsters with knowledge of topics such as measuring and patterns, forms and numbers, and counting strategies, among other things. The most effective way for children to develop in this area is through play.

As an example, a report from the Manitoba Early Learning and Childhood Curriculum Framework proposes that children’s cognitive and intellectual skills be developed through relevant activities – such as allowing them to experiment with a range of cardboard boxes and tube shapes.

10. The practices of early childhood teachers related to the use of dramatic play in learning environment.

A surprising finding from the research is that there is no single early childhood method that is intrinsically superior; rather, what matters most is that children are exposed to educational opportunities at the earliest feasible age. In spite of the fact that no single curriculum or pedagogical approach can be determined to be the most effective, children who participate in carefully planned, high-quality early childhood programs in which curriculum aims are specified and integrated across domains tend to learn more and are better prepared to master the complex demands of formal schooling.”

More essay topics on Early Childhood Education

11. The effects of school district policies on preventing maltreatment among early childhood learners.

12. The impacts of politics on the success of early childhood learning programs.

13. Exploring the problems of measuring the efficacy of ECE programs such as Head Start.

14. Evaluating the progress and transformation of early childhood learning.

15. Approaches to make early childhood curriculum effective.

16. What are the challenges facing early childhood learning in modern America?

Early Childhood Education - List of Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas

Early childhood education (ECE) plays a crucial role in laying the foundation for lifelong learning and development. Essays could explore the key principles of ECE, its benefits, and the different pedagogical approaches used. The discussion might also delve into the accessibility and quality of early childhood education across different socioeconomic groups, exploring the long-term implications on educational attainment and social mobility. An analysis of policy frameworks governing ECE, the investment in early childhood education infrastructure, and the training and professional development of ECE educators could be discussed. Moreover, a comparative analysis of early childhood education models across different countries and cultures can provide insights into the varied approaches and their outcomes, contributing to a comprehensive understanding of early childhood education and its significant impact on individuals and society. A substantial compilation of free essay instances related to Early Childhood Education you can find in Papersowl database. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

Benefits of Early Childhood Education

“If school is about learning, and learning starts at birth, then the idea that we expect Kindergarteners to meet their first teachers at age five is all wrong (English, 2018)”. There is increasing research being facilitated on early education with specific emphasis on the overall benefits it has on children. The range of benefits discussed in recent research include academic achievement, behavior, educational progression and attainment, delinquency and crime, and labor market success, among other domains (RAND, 2005). While much […]

What is Early Childhood Education?

In early childhood education, diversity supports in a two-dimensional process which helps children to like themselves, their families, and their communities, and furthermore presenting kids to contrasts, things that are new, and encounters past their immediate lives. As in doing such, we should ensure these encounters are genuine and concrete, and that they consistently challenge young children’s cliché thinking. We should demand resistance and regard toward all who are extraordinary. Finally, this procedure must be constant and progressing, not just […]

Early Childhood Language and Literacy Development

Early childhood language and literacy development for the children aged 0-8 years old is strongly influenced by the linguistic environment of the child. ""Many educators and researchers have attempted to address the literacy skills that children will need to succeed in the 21st century and, in doing so, have discovered something of a paradox. Young children these days are so immersed into Ipads and smart phones, (which their little hands can easily hold and navigate by swiping) that they learn […]

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About the Early Childhood Education

The inspiration to join early childhood education is the children. They are unique in certain ways. Children are God best gift. I believe that we can cultivate many wonderful skills in children. Before this, I went to Culinary arts programme. My initial plan was to do cooking classes for children. I finally realize that it is important for me to join this BCE because I have to learn child psychology and development first. The cooking skills I can easily acquire […]

How does Poverty Impact a Child’s Education?

Poverty can mold a child's development in result of a child's health and nutrition, parental mental and physical involvement, stimulating home environment and child care, also neighborhood and school conditions. These factors can cause a child to become self-doubting, uninterested and unable to maintain a healthy education. So how can we begin to provide an outreach for these stunted children? There are complex factors that result in the stunting in education for low-income student, require several solutions. To reduce or […]

Adverse Childhood Experiences and their Effects on High School Graduation Rates

Introduction The startling effect adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have on children and adults came to light in a groundbreaking study first published twenty years ago. Andra et al. reported a strong link between exposure to abuse, divorce, substance abuse, and more to several health risk factors in adults (1998). The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study opened our eyes to the long-term impact of direct and indirect abuse and how child did not have to be abused themselves to suffer serious […]

Early Childhood Providers as Adult Learners

Early childcare providers can be a child's first teacher. The quality of early childcare depends on the education and skills of the childcare provider. Multiple research studies link positive outcomes for young children with higher levels of teacher education (Garavuso, 2016, p. 182). A college degree is usually not a requirement to care for young children, yet when childcare providers show evidence of a college degree, the result can be two fold, quality early care for children and higher pay. […]

What is CW-FIT?

Caldarella, Hansen, Williams and Wills (2014) conducted a study to investigate the effects of CW-FIT implemented in early elementary school classrooms. Participants in the study included five teachers and 76 students. 17 of the 76 students were at risk of developing EBD. The researchers used a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design. The dependent variables for this study were student and teacher behaviors that included teacher praise, teacher reprimands, disruptive student behavior, group on task and student engagement. Teacher praise and […]

The Field of Early Childhood

A Mission Statement for the Field of Early Childhood The early childhoodfield consists of five sectors. ""The sectors are Head Start, Chid Care, Health and Well Being of Children and Families, Research and Academia in the Early Childhood Field and Public Early Childhood Education, Each sectors talks about the goals and accomplishment, history, contributors, history and current issues"" (Laureate Education). Summary of five sctors goals Head Start is a program that is funded by the federal government to serve children […]

Mental Representation of 3-year-old Male Child

At an early age of 3-5, the majority of students are enrolled in either Pre-Kindergarten or Kindergarten. At this point in time, these years are critical for growth in reading. Primarily, at this age, students will know the names of their favorite books, be capable of holding the book, and recall familiar words and phrases. Some might even be readily prepared to predict what happens next in the book or retell a familiar story. However, at this age, children are […]

Understanding Prepubescence: a Journey through Early Childhood Education

Prepubescence, often overshadowed by its more dramatic successor, adolescence, is a fascinating and crucial stage in human development. Typically covering the years from about six to twelve, this phase is more than just a prelude to teenage angst and hormonal surges. It's a period of profound growth, learning, and exploration, where the foundations of a person's character and abilities are laid down. Let’s delve into this less-discussed but equally important stage of life, exploring what makes it so unique and […]

Ethical Foundations in Early Childhood Education: the Role of NAEYC Code

Let's chat about something that's the heartbeat of early childhood education – the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. This isn't just another set of rules. It's a compass that guides educators through the joyful yet challenging journey of teaching little ones. Think of it as the secret sauce that makes a great early childhood educator. First off, why do we even need a specific ethical code for teaching tots? Well, when you're shaping young minds, every decision, every action can […]

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255 Education Argumentative Essay Topics & Ideas

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  • Icon Calendar 17 May 2024
  • Icon Page 2256 words
  • Icon Clock 11 min read

Education, a cornerstone of societal development, is a fertile field for writing papers. In this case, education argumentative essay topics can range widely, from debates over traditional vs. digital classrooms, the effectiveness of standardized testing, and the necessity of college education in the 21st century to the balance between academics and character development. Arguments can consider whether current school curriculums cater adequately to the needs of all students or primarily reinforce societal inequalities. Examining education policies at the local, national, or international levels can provide further insights. In turn, exploring the role of educational institutions in preparing students for the future workforce, including discussions on vocational training and entrepreneurial education, is another promising direction for developing argumentative essay topics in education.

Best Education Argumentative Essay Topics

  • Balancing School Curriculum: Is Art Education as Important as Science?
  • Roles of Technology in Enhancing Educational Outcomes
  • The Ethics of Using Animals for School Biology Experiments
  • Parental Influence on a Child’s Academic Success
  • University Tuition Fees: Necessary Expense or Excessive Burden?
  • Should Physical Education Be Mandatory in Schools?
  • Importance of Teaching Life Skills alongside Traditional Subjects
  • Grading System: Helping Students Learn or Adding Undue Pressure?
  • Incorporating Meditation in Schools for Improved Mental Health
  • Homeschooling vs. Traditional Schooling: Which Prepares Students Better?
  • Examining the Role of Sex Education in Preventing Teenage Pregnancy
  • Importance of Introducing Multicultural Education in Schools
  • Mandatory Community Service as Part of the Curriculum: Pros and Cons
  • Cyberbullying: Should Schools Take Responsibility?
  • Unraveling the Effects of School Uniforms on Student Behavior
  • Gender-Separated Classes: Beneficial or Discriminatory?
  • Are College Degrees Worth the Financial Investment?
  • The Role of Teachers’ Salaries in Ensuring Quality Education
  • Digital Textbooks vs. Traditional Books: Which Is More Effective?
  • Evaluating the Effectiveness of Homework in Enhancing Learning
  • The Pros and Cons of Year-Round Schooling
  • Roles of Parent-Teacher Communication in Enhancing Students’ Performance
  • Effectiveness of Distance Learning: Is It Comparable to Traditional Learning?
  • Should Controversial Topics Be Discussed in School?

Easy Education Essay Topics

  • Exploring the Impact of School Lunch Programs on Student Health
  • Is Cursive Writing Necessary in Today’s Digital Age?
  • Teaching Consent in Schools: A Necessity or Overstepping Bounds?
  • Gifted Programs: Are They Unfair to Other Students?
  • Bilingual Education: Key to Global Competency or Detrimental to Native Culture?
  • Implementing Zero Tolerance Policies in Schools: Beneficial or Harmful?
  • Should Teachers Be Allowed to Carry Firearms for Classroom Protection?
  • Influence of School Infrastructure on Student Learning Outcomes
  • Incorporating Climate Change Education in School Curriculums
  • Should Students Be Grouped by Ability in Classrooms?
  • Effectiveness of Anti-Bullying Campaigns in Schools
  • The Right to Privacy: Should Schools Monitor Student’s Online Activities?
  • Evaluating the Role of Extracurricular Activities in Student Development
  • The Need for Financial Literacy Education in Schools
  • Freedom of Speech: Should Students Be Allowed to Express Controversial Opinions in School?
  • Potential Benefits of Single-Sex Schools
  • Relevance of History Education in Modern Times
  • The Influence of Religious Beliefs on Education
  • Foreign Language Requirements: Necessity or Unnecessary Burden?
  • Are Teachers’ Unions Beneficial or Detrimental to Education Quality?
  • Impacts of Parental Educational Background on Children’s Academic Achievement
  • Does Grade Inflation Devalue a College Degree?
  • Does Early Childhood Education Have Long-Term Benefits?
  • Are College Admissions Processes Fair?

Education Argumentative Essay Topics & Ideas

Interesting Education Essay Topics

  • The Consequences of Educational Budget Cuts
  • Exploring the Role of Sports in Academic Achievement
  • Effects of Teacher Burnout on Student Learning
  • Is Educational Equality Achievable in a Capitalist Society?
  • Are Private Schools Necessarily Better than Public Schools?
  • Role of Social Media in Education: Distraction or Useful Tool?
  • Is Traditional Discipline Effective in Modern Schools?
  • Examining the Effectiveness of Montessori Education
  • Are Standardized Curriculum Frameworks Limiting Teachers’ Creativity?
  • Is There a Place for Character Education in Today’s Schools?
  • Importance of Critical Thinking Skills in the Curriculum
  • Do Student Evaluations of Teachers Improve Teaching Quality?
  • Music Education’s Influence on Academic Performance
  • Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Academic Achievement
  • Should Children Be Taught Entrepreneurship in Schools?
  • Educational Benefits of Field Trips in Curriculum
  • Does School Counseling Effectively Address Students’ Mental Health Needs?
  • The Role of Games in Enhancing Math Education
  • Is the Current Emphasis on STEM Education Justified?
  • The Influence of Family Structure on Children’s Educational Outcomes
  • Does Multitasking with Technology Hinder Learning?
  • Should Political Education Be Mandatory in Schools?
  • Effects of Classroom Diversity on Student Learning and Empathy

Education Essay Topics for High School

  • Does Standardized Testing Accurately Reflect a Student’s Knowledge?
  • Should Schools Invest More in Arts Education?
  • Is a Year-Round School Calendar Beneficial for Learning?
  • Are School Uniforms Necessary for a Conducive Learning Environment?
  • Does Homework Actually Benefit Students?
  • Should Advanced Courses Be Made Available to All High School Students?
  • Can Online Learning Replace Traditional Classroom Teaching?
  • How Is Essential Sex Education in High School Curriculum?
  • The Impact of School Infrastructure on Quality of Education
  • Are School Sports Essential for Student Development?
  • Does Bilingual Education Enhance Cognitive Skills?
  • Does Parental Involvement Improve Academic Performance?
  • Is There a Need to Reinvent School Discipline Policies?
  • How Does the Use of Technology in Schools Affect Learning?
  • The Role of Schools in Promoting Healthy Eating Habits
  • Are School Field Trips Essential for Practical Learning?
  • Should Schools Introduce Personal Finance Classes?
  • Physical Education Classes: Necessity or Luxury?
  • Effect of Bullying on Academic Performance
  • The Influence of Peer Pressure on Students’ Performance
  • Should We Teach Entrepreneurship in High Schools?
  • Does a Longer School Day Improve Learning Outcomes?
  • Roles of Moral Education in Character Building

Education Essay Topics for College Students

  • Incorporating Technology in Classrooms: Necessity or Distraction?
  • Standardized Testing: An Effective Evaluation Tool or a Hindrance to Creativity?
  • University Degrees: Essential for Success or Overrated?
  • Pros and Cons of Single-Sex Education: A Deep Dive
  • Private vs. Public Schools: Who Provides a Better Education?
  • Traditional Education vs. Online Learning: Comparing Effectiveness
  • Impact of Extracurricular Activities on Academic Performance
  • Bilingual Education: Potential Benefits and Challenges
  • Vocational Training: Does It Deserve More Emphasis in the Curriculum?
  • Effects of Class Size on Student Learning Outcomes
  • Homeschooling vs. Traditional Schooling: Weighing the Outcomes
  • Mandatory Physical Education: A Boon or Bane?
  • College Athletes: Should They Be Paid?
  • Education in Rural vs. Urban Settings: Exploring Disparities
  • Funding: How Does It Impact the Quality of Education?
  • Role of Sex Education in Schools: Analyzing the Importance
  • Uniforms in Schools: Do They Promote Equality?
  • Plagiarism Policies: Are They Too Strict or Not Enough?
  • Art Education: Is It Being Neglected in Schools?
  • Teaching Soft Skills: Should It Be Mandatory in Schools?
  • Tuition Fees: Do They Restrict Access to Higher Education?
  • Inclusion of Students With Disabilities: Analyzing Best Practices

Education Argumentative Essay Topics for University

  • Cyberbullying: Should Schools Have a Greater Responsibility?
  • STEM vs. Liberal Arts: Which Provides a Better Future?
  • Impacts of Mental Health Services in Schools
  • Grade Inflation: Does It Devalue a Degree?
  • Diversity in Schools: Does It Enhance Learning?
  • Gap Year: Does It Help or Hinder Students?
  • Recess: Is It Necessary for Students’ Well-Being?
  • Early Childhood Education: Does It Contribute to Later Success?
  • Parental Involvement: How Does It Influence Student Performance?
  • Value of Internships in Higher Education
  • Curriculum: Is It Outdated in Today’s Fast-Paced World?
  • Digital Textbooks vs. Paper Textbooks: Evaluating the Differences
  • Learning a Second Language: Should It Be Mandatory?
  • Censorship in School Libraries: Freedom or Protection?
  • Life Skills Education: Is It Missing From Our Curriculum?
  • Teachers’ Pay: Does It Reflect Their Value in Society?
  • College Rankings: Do They Truly Reflect Educational Quality?
  • Corporal Punishment: Does It Have a Place in Modern Education?
  • Student Loans: Are They Creating a Debt Crisis?
  • Learning Styles: Myth or Real Educational Framework?
  • Grading System: Is It the Best Measure of Students’ Abilities?

Academic Topics Essay

  • Fostering Creativity: Should Schools Prioritize the Arts?
  • Student Debt: Consequences and Possible Solutions
  • Bullying Policies in Schools: Are They Effective?
  • Teaching Ethics and Values: Whose Responsibility?
  • Distance Learning: The New Normal Post-Pandemic?
  • School Censorship: Are There Limits to Freedom of Speech?
  • College Admissions: Is the Process Fair?
  • Standardizing Multilingual Education: A Possibility?
  • Learning Disabilities: How Can Schools Provide Better Support?
  • Does Class Size Impact the Quality of Education?
  • Integrating Technology: Are There Potential Risks?
  • Affirmative Action in College Admissions: Fair or Biased?
  • The Role of Private Tuition: Supplemental Help or Unfair Advantage?
  • Military-Style Discipline in Schools: Effective or Harmful?
  • Should Schools Implement Mental Health Curriculums?
  • Early Education: Does It Pave the Way for Success?
  • Grading System: Is it an Accurate Measure of Student Ability?
  • Career Counseling in Schools: Should It be Mandatory?
  • Addressing Racial Bias in Educational Materials
  • The Debate Over Prayer in Schools: Freedom of Religion or Church-State Separation?
  • The Impact of Zero-Tolerance Policies on the School Environment
  • Education Funding: The Pros and Cons of School Vouchers
  • University Rankings: Helpful Guide or Harmful Pressure?
  • Personal Finance Education: Should It Be Included in the Curriculum?

Argumentative Essay Topics on Education

  • Impacts of Standardized Testing on Students’ Creativity
  • Digital Learning Platforms vs. Traditional Classroom Teaching
  • Effectiveness of the Montessori Education System
  • Mandatory Foreign Language Education: A Necessity or Luxury?
  • Single-Sex Schools’ Role in Modern Society
  • Teachers’ Salaries: A Reflection of Their Value in Society?
  • Technological Devices in Classrooms: A Boon or Bane?
  • Inclusion of Life Skills in the Curriculum
  • Ethical Education: Its Significance and Implementation
  • Educating Children About Climate Change and Sustainability
  • Homeschooling vs. Traditional Schooling: Which Yields Better Results?
  • School Uniforms: Do They Encourage Uniformity Over Individuality?
  • The Role of Extracurricular Activities in Holistic Education
  • Importance of Critical Thinking in the Curriculum
  • Corporate Sponsorship in Schools: Ethical Considerations
  • Increasing Parental Involvement in Children’s Education
  • Vocational Training in High School: Is It Necessary?
  • The Merits and Demerits of Charter Schools
  • Prioritizing Health Education in the School Curriculum
  • Diversifying History Lessons: The Impact on Cultural Understanding
  • Gifted and Talented Programs: Unfair Advantage or Necessary Support?
  • Implementing Mindfulness Training in Schools
  • Mandatory Physical Education: Is It Vital for Health?
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Year-Round Schooling
  • The Potential of Virtual Reality in Education

Education Persuasive Essay Topics

  • Enhancing Creativity: The Importance of Art Education in Schools
  • Mandatory Coding Lessons: Preparing Students for the Digital Future
  • Bilingual Education: Encouraging Multilingualism From an Early Age
  • Parental Involvement: Crucial for Academic Success or an Invasion of Privacy?
  • Cyberbullying Awareness: Should It Be Part of the School Curriculum?
  • The Role of Technology in Modern Education: Boon or Bane?
  • Sex Education: Essential for Reducing Teen Pregnancy and STD Rates
  • Standardized Tests: Accurate Measure of a Student’s Capabilities or Outdated Practice?
  • Religious Studies: The Necessity of Teaching World Religions in Public Schools
  • Homework Overload: Assessing the True Impact on Students’ Mental Health
  • School Uniforms: Encouraging Discipline or Suppressing Individuality?
  • Inclusion in Classrooms: The Benefits of Educating Special Needs Students Alongside Their Peers
  • Teacher Salaries: The Need for Higher Pay to Attract Quality Educators
  • Educational Video Games: Revolutionizing Learning or Distraction From Studying?
  • Student Athletes: Balancing Academics and Sports Participation
  • Year-Round Schooling: Improving Learning Retention or Overloading Students?
  • Early Education: The Benefits of Pre-School Programs
  • Social Media: Its Role in Modern Education
  • Field Trips: Enhancing Learning Outside the Classroom
  • Classroom Size: The Impact on Learning and Engagement
  • Vocational Training: Essential for Preparing Students for the Workforce
  • Distance Learning: Exploring its Advantages and Disadvantages

Education Research Paper Topics

  • Extracurricular Activities: The Importance in Students’ Holistic Development
  • Multiple Intelligence Theory: Implementing Diverse Teaching Strategies
  • Classroom Decor: Its Influence on Student Engagement and Learning
  • Mindfulness Practices: Promoting Emotional Health in Schools
  • Sustainability Education: Fostering Environmentally-Conscious Citizens
  • Cultural Diversity: Promoting Inclusion and Acceptance in Schools
  • Physical Education: Addressing Childhood Obesity through School Programs
  • Gifted and Talented Programs: Benefits and Drawbacks
  • Homeschooling: Advantages Over Traditional Schooling
  • Alternative Assessment Methods: Moving Beyond Exams and Grades
  • Bullying Prevention: The Role of Schools and Teachers
  • College Admissions: The Controversy Around Legacy Preferences
  • Ethics Education: Instilling Moral Values in Students
  • Student Loans: The Crisis and Its Impact on Higher Education
  • Nutrition Education: Promoting Healthy Eating Habits in Schools
  • Digital Literacy: Essential Skills for the 21st Century
  • Grade Inflation: The Deterioration of Academic Standards in Higher Education
  • Climate Change Education: Teaching the Next Generation About Global Warming
  • Character Education: Building Integrity and Responsibility in Students
  • Music Education: Its Influence on Cognitive Development
  • Literacy Programs: Overcoming Reading and Writing Challenges
  • Mentorship Programs: Enhancing Student Success and Confidence
  • Financial Literacy: Preparing Students for Real-World Money Management

Strong Education Argumentative Essay Topics

  • Is Censorship Justified in School Libraries?
  • The Benefits and Drawbacks of Single-Sex Schools
  • Is College Preparation in High School Adequate?
  • Are Teachers’ Salaries Commensurate With Their Job Responsibilities?
  • Cyberbullying: Should Schools Intervene?
  • The Importance of Cultural Diversity in Education
  • Should Mental Health Education Be Mandatory in Schools?
  • Do School Rankings Reflect the Quality of Education?
  • The Relevance of Cursive Writing in Today’s Digital World
  • Should Religious Studies Be Part of the School Curriculum?
  • Are Students Overburdened with Excessive Schoolwork?
  • The Implications of Zero Tolerance Policies in Schools
  • School Safety: Responsibility of Schools or Parents?
  • Does Grade Inflation Diminish the Value of Education?
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5 Current Issues in the Field of Early Childhood Education

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

Learning Objectives

Objective 1: Identify current issues that impact stakeholders in early childhood care and education.

Objective 2: Describe strategies for understanding current issues as a professional in early childhood care and education.

Objective 3: Create an informed response to a current issue as a professional in early childhood care and education.

Current Issues in the Field—Part 1

There’s one thing you can be sure of in the field of early childhood: the fact that the field is always changing. We make plans for our classrooms based on the reality we and the children in our care are living in, and then, something happens in that external world, the place where “life happens,” and our reality changes. Or sometimes it’s a slow shift: you go to a training and hear about new research, you think it over, read a few articles, and over time you realize the activities you carefully planned are no longer truly relevant to the lives children are living today, or that you know new things that make you rethink whether your practice is really meeting the needs of every child.

This is guaranteed to happen at some point. Natural events might occur that affect your community, like forest fires or tornadoes, or like COVID-19, which closed far too many child care programs and left many other early educators struggling to figure out how to work with children online. Cultural and political changes happen, which affect your children’s lives, or perhaps your understanding of their lives, like the Black Lives Matter demonstrations that brought to light how much disparity and tension exist and persist in the United States. New information may come to light through research that allows us to understand human development very differently, like the advancements in neuroscience that help us understand how trauma affects children’s brains, and how we as early educators can counteract those affects and build resilience.

And guess what—all this change is a good thing! Read this paragraph slowly—it’s important!  Change is good because we as providers of early childhood care and education are working with much more than a set of academic skills that need to be imparted to children; we are working with the whole child, and preparing the child to live successfully in the world. So when history sticks its foot into our nice calm stream of practice, the waters get muddied. But the good news is that mud acts as a fertilizer so that we as educators and leaders in the field have the chance to learn and grow, to bloom into better educators for every child, and, let’s face it, to become better human beings!

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

The work of early childhood care and education is so full, so complex, so packed with details to track and respond to, from where Caiden left his socks, to whether Amelia’s parents are going to be receptive to considering evaluation for speech supports, and how to adapt the curriculum for the child who has never yet come to circle time. It might make you feel a little uneasy—or, let’s face it, even overwhelmed—to also consider how the course of history may cause you to deeply rethink what you do over time.

That’s normal. Thinking about the complexity of human history while pushing Keisha on the swings makes you completely normal! As leaders in the field, we must learn to expect that we will be called upon to change, maybe even dramatically, over time. 

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

Let me share a personal story with you: I had just become director of an established small center, and was working to sort out all the details that directing encompassed: scheduling, billing policies, and most of all, staffing frustrations about who got planning time, etc. But I was also called upon to substitute teach on an almost daily basis, so there was a lot of disruption to my carefully made daily plans to address the business end, or to work with teachers to seek collaborative solutions to long-standing conflict. I was frustrated by not having time to do the work I felt I needed to do, and felt there were new small crises each day. I couldn’t get comfortable with my new position, nor with the way my days were constantly shifting away from my plans. It was then that a co-worker shared a quote with me from Thomas F. Crum, who writes about how to thrive in difficult working conditions: “Instead of seeing the rug being pulled from under us, we can learn to dance on a shifting carpet”.

Wow! That gave me a new vision, one where I wasn’t failing and flailing, but could become graceful in learning to be responsive to change big and small. I felt relieved to have a different way of looking at my progress through my days: I wasn’t flailing at all—I was dancing! Okay, it might be a clumsy dance, and I might bruise my knees, but that idea helped me respond to each day’s needs with courage and hope.

I especially like this image for those of us who work with young children. I imagine a child hopping around in the middle of a parachute, while the other children joyfully whip their corners up and down. The child in the center feels disoriented, exhilarated, surrounded by shifting color, sensation, and laughter. When I feel like there’s too much change happening, I try to see the world through that child’s eyes. It’s possible to find joy and possibility in the disorientation, and the swirl of thoughts and feelings, and new ways of seeing and being that come from change.

Key Takeaways

Our practices in the classroom and as leaders must constantly adapt to changes in our communities and our understanding of the world around us, which gives us the opportunity to continue to grow and develop.

You are a leader, and change is happening, and you are making decisions about how to move forward, and how to adapt thoughtfully. The good news is that when this change happens, our field has really amazing tools for adapting. We can develop a toolkit of trusted sources that we can turn to to provide us with information and strategies for ethical decision making.

If You’re Afraid of Falling…

One of the most important of these is the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct, which expresses a commitment to core values for the field, and a set of principles for determining ethical behavior and decision-making. As we commit to the code, we commit to:

  • Appreciate childhood as a unique and valuable stage of the human life cycle
  • Base our work on knowledge of how children develop and learn
  • Appreciate and support the bond between the child and family
  • Recognize that children are best understood and supported in the context of family, culture,* community, and society
  • Respect the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each individual (child, family member, and colleague)
  • Respect diversity in children, families, and colleagues
  • Recognize that children and adults achieve their full potential in the context of relationships that are based on trust and respect.

If someone asked us to make a list of beliefs we have about children and families, we might not have been able to come up with a list that looked just like this, but, most of us in the field are here because we share these values and show up every day with them in our hearts.

The Code of Ethical Conduct can help bring what’s in your heart into your head. It’s a complete tool to help you think carefully about a dilemma, a decision, or a plan, based on these values. Sometimes we don’t make the “right” decision and need to change our minds, but as long as we make a decision based on values about the importance of the well-being of all children and families, we won’t be making a decision that we will regret.

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

An Awfully Big Current Issue—Let’s Not Dance Around It

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

In the field of early childhood, issues of prejudice have long been important to research, and in this country, Head Start was developed more than 50 years ago with an eye toward dismantling disparity based on ethnicity or skin color (among other things). However, research shows that this gap has not closed. Particularly striking, in recent years, is research addressing perceptions of the behavior of children of color and the numbers of children who are asked to leave programs.

In fact, studies of expulsion from preschool showed that black children were twice as likely to be expelled as white preschoolers, and 3.6 times as likely to receive one or more suspensions. This is deeply concerning in and of itself, but the fact that preschool expulsion is predictive of later difficulties is even more so:

Starting as young as infancy and toddlerhood, children of color are at highest risk for being expelled from early childhood care and education programs. Early expulsions and suspensions lead to greater gaps in access to resources for young children and thus create increasing gaps in later achievement and well-being… Research indicates that early expulsions and suspensions predict later expulsions and suspensions, academic failure, school dropout, and an increased likelihood of later incarceration.

Why does this happen? It’s complicated. Studies on the K-12 system show that some of the reasons include:

  • uneven or biased implementation of disciplinary policies
  • discriminatory discipline practices
  • school racial climate
  • under resourced programs
  • inadequate education and training for teachers on bias

In other words, educators need more support and help in reflecting on their own practices, but there are also policies and systems in place that contribute to unfair treatment of some groups of children.

Key Takeaway

So…we have a lot of research that continues to be eye opening and cause us to rethink our practices over time, plus a cultural event—in the form of the Black Lives Matter movement—that push the issue of disparity based on skin color directly in front of us. We are called to respond. You are called to respond.

How Will I Ever Learn the Steps?

Woah—how do I respond to something so big and so complex and so sensitive to so many different groups of people?

As someone drawn to early childhood care and education, you probably bring certain gifts and abilities to this work.

  • You probably already feel compassion for every child and want every child to have opportunities to grow into happy, responsible adults who achieve their goals. Remember the statement above about respecting the dignity and worth of every individual? That in itself is a huge start to becoming a leader working as an advocate for social justice.
  • You may have been to trainings that focus on anti-bias and being culturally responsive.
  • You may have some great activities to promote respect for diversity, and be actively looking for more.
  • You may be very intentional about including materials that reflect people with different racial identities, genders, family structures.
  • You may make sure that each family is supported in their home language and that multilingualism is valued in your program.
  • You may even have spent some time diving into your own internalized biases.

This list could become very long! These are extremely important aspects of addressing injustice in early education which you can do to alter your individual practice with children.

As a leader in the field, you are called to think beyond your own practice.  As a leader you have the opportunity—the responsibility!—to look beyond your own practices and become an advocate for change. Two important recommendations (of many) from the NAEYC Advancing Equity in Early Childhood Education Position Statement, another important tool:

Speak out against unfair policies or practices and challenge biased perspectives.  Work to embed fair and equitable approaches in all aspects of early childhood program delivery, including standards, assessments, curriculum, and personnel practices.

Look for ways to work collectively with others who are committed to equity.  Consider it a professional responsibility to help challenge and change policies, laws, systems, and institutional practices that keep social inequities in place.

One take away I want you to grab from those last sentences: You are not alone. This work can be, and must be, collective.

As a leader, your sphere of influence is bigger than just you. You can influence the practices of others in your program and outside of it. You can influence policies, rules, choices about the tools you use, and ultimately, you can even challenge laws that are not fair to every child.

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

Who’s on your team? I want you to think for a moment about the people who help you in times where you are facing change. These are the people you can turn to for an honest conversation, where you can show your confusion and fear, and they will be supportive and think alongside you. This might include your friends, your partner, some or all of your coworkers, a former teacher of your own, a counselor, a pastor. Make a quick list of people you can turn to when you need to do some deep digging and ground yourself in your values.

And now, your workplace team: who are your fellow advocates in your workplace? Who can you reach out to when you realize something might need to change within your program? 

Wonderful. You’ve got other people to lean on in times of change. More can be accomplished together than alone. Let’s consider what you can do:

What is your sphere of influence? What are some small ways you can create room for growth within your sphere of influence? What about that workplace team? Do their spheres of influence add to your own?

Try drawing your sphere of influence: Draw yourself in the middle of the page, and put another circle around yourself, another circle around that, and another around that. Fill your circles in:

  • Consider the first circle your personal sphere. Brainstorm family and friends who you can talk to about issues that are part of your professional life. You can put down their names, draw them, or otherwise indicate who they might be!
  • Next, those you influence in your daily work, such as the children in your care, their families, maybe your co-workers land here.
  • Next, those who make decisions about the system you are in—maybe this is your director or board, or even a PTA. 
  • Next, think about the early childhood care and education community you work within. What kind of influence could you have on this community? Do you have friends who work at other programs you can have important conversations with to spread ideas? Are you part of a local Association for the Education of Young Children (AEYC)? Could you speak to the organizers of a local conference about including certain topics for sessions?
  • And finally, how about state (and even national) policies? Check out The Children’s Institute to learn about state bills that impact childcare. Do you know your local representatives? Could you write a letter to your senator? Maybe you have been frustrated with the slow reimbursement and low rates for Employment Related Day Care subsidies and can find a place to share your story. You can call your local Child Care Resource and Referral, your local or state AEYC chapter, or visit childinst.org to find out how you can increase your reach! It’s probably a lot farther than you think!

Break It Down: Systemic Racism

When you think about injustice and the kind of change you want to make, there’s an important distinction to understand in the ways injustice happens in education (or anywhere else). First, there’s personal bias and racism, and of course it’s crucial as an educator to examine ourselves and our practices and responses. We all have bias and addressing it is an act of courage that you can model for your colleagues.

In addition, there’s another kind of bias and racism, and it doesn’t live inside of individual people, but inside of the systems we have built. Systemic racism exists in the structures and processes that have come into place over time, which allow one group of people a greater chance of succeeding than other specific groups of people.

Key Takeaways (Sidebar)

Systemic racism is also called institutional racism, because it exists – sometimes unquestioned – within institutions themselves.

In early childhood care and education, there are many elements that were built with middle class white children in mind. Many of our standardized tests were made with middle class white children in mind. The curriculum we use, the assessments we use, the standards of behavior we have been taught; they may have all been developed with middle class white children in mind.

Therefore it is important to consider whether they adequately and fairly work for all of the children in your program community. Do they have relevance to all children’s lived experience, development, and abilities? Who is being left out?

Imagine a vocabulary assessment in which children are shown common household items including a lawn mower…common if you live in a house; they might well be unfamiliar to a three-year-old who lives in an apartment building, however. The child may end up receiving a lower score, though their vocabulary could be rich, full of words that do reflect the objects in their lived experience.

The test is at fault, not the child’s experience. Yet the results of that test can impact the way educators, parents, and the child see their ability and likelihood to succeed.

You Don’t Have to Invent the Steps: Using an Equity Lens

In addition to the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct and Equity Statement, another tool for addressing decision-making is an equity lens. To explain what an equity lens is, we first need to talk about equity. It’s a term you may have heard before, but sometimes people confuse it with equality. It’s a little different – equity is having the resources needed to be successful.

There’s a wonderful graphic of children looking over a fence at a baseball game. In one frame, each child stands at the fence; one is tall enough to see over the top; another stands tip-toe, straining to see; and another is simply too short. This is equality—everyone has the same chance, but not everyone is equally prepared. In the frame titled equity, each child stands on a stool just high enough so that they may all see over the fence. The stools are the supports they need to have an equitable outcome—being able to experience the same thing as their friend.

Seeking equity means considering who might not be able to see over the fence and figuring out how to build them a stool so that they have the same opportunity.

An equity lens, then, is a tool to help you look at decisions through a framework of equity. It’s a series of questions to ask yourself when making decisions. An equity lens is a process of asking a series of questions to better help you understand if something (a project, a curriculum, a parent meeting, a set of behavioral guidelines) is unfair to specific individuals or groups whose needs have been overlooked in the past. This lens might help you to identify the impact of your decisions on students of color, and you can also use the lens to consider the impact on students experiencing poverty, students in nontraditional families, students with differing abilities, students who are geographically isolated, students whose home language is other than English, etc.) The lens then helps you determine how to move past this unfairness by overcoming barriers and providing equitable opportunities to all children.

Some states have adopted a version of the equity lens for use in their early learning systems. Questions that are part of an equity lens might include:

  • What decision is being made, and what kind of values or assumptions are affecting how we make the decision?
  • Who is helping make the decision? Are there representatives of the affected group who get to have a voice in the process?
  • Does the new activity, rule, etc. have the potential to make disparities worse? For instance, could it mean that families who don’t have a car miss out on a family night? Or will it make those disparities better?
  • Who might be left out? How can we make sure they are included?
  • Are there any potential unforeseen consequences of the decision that will impact specific groups? How can we try to make sure the impact will be positive?

You can use this lens for all kinds of decisions, in formal settings, like staff meetings, and you can also work to make them part of your everyday thinking. I have a sticky note on my desk that asks “Who am I leaving out”? This is an especially important question if the answer points to children who are people of color, or another group that is historically disadvantaged. If that’s the answer, you don’t have to scrap your idea entirely. Celebrate your awareness, and brainstorm about how you can do better for everyone—and then do it!

Embracing our Bruised Knees: Accepting Discomfort as We Grow

Inspirational author Brene Brown, who writes books, among other things, about being an ethical leader, said something that really walloped me: if we avoid the hard work of addressing unfairness (like talking about skin color at a time when our country is divided over it) we are prioritizing our discomfort over the pain of others. 

Imagine a parent who doesn’t think it’s appropriate to talk about skin color with young children, who tells you so with some anger in their voice. That’s uncomfortable, maybe even a little scary. But as you prioritize upholding the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of every individual, you can see that this is more important than trying to avoid discomfort. Changing your practice to avoid conflict with this parent means prioritizing your own momentary discomfort over the pain children of color in your program may experience over time.

We might feel vulnerable when we think about skin color, and we don’t want to have to have the difficult conversation. But if keeping ourselves safe from discomfort means that we might not be keeping children safe from very real and life-impacting racial disparity, we’re not making a choice that is based in our values.

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

Change is uncomfortable. It leaves us feeling vulnerable as we reexamine the ideas, strategies, even the deeply held beliefs that have served us so far. But as a leader, and with the call to support every child as they deserve, we can develop a sort of super power vision, where we can look unflinchingly around us and understand the hidden impacts of the structures we work within.

A Few Recent Dance Steps of My Own

You’re definitely not alone—researchers and thinkers in the field are doing this work alongside you, examining even our most cherished and important ideas about childhood and early education. For instance, a key phrase that we often use to underpin our decisions is developmentally appropriate practice, which NAEYC defines as “methods that promote each child’s optimal development and learning through a strengths-based, play-based approach to joyful, engaged learning.” The phrase is sometimes used to contrast against practices that might not be developmentally appropriate, like expecting three-year-olds to write their names or sit quietly in a 30 minute story time.

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

Let me tell you a story about how professional development is still causing me to stare change in the face! At the NAEYC conference in 2020, during a session in which Dr. Jie-Qi Chen presented on different perspectives on developmentally appropriate practice among early educators in China and the United States. She showed a video from a classroom in China to educators in both the US and in China. The video was of a circle time in which a child was retelling a story that the class knew well, and then the children were encouraged to offer feedback and rate how well the child had done. The children listened attentively, and then told the storytelling child how they had felt about his retelling, including identifying parts that had been left out, inaccuracies in the telling, and advice for speaking more clearly and loudly.

The educators were asked what the impact of the activity would be on the children and whether it was developmentally appropriate. The educators in the United States had deep concerns that the activity would be damaging to a child’s self esteem, and was therefore not developmentally appropriate. They also expressed concerns about the children being asked to sit for this amount of time. The educators in the classroom in China felt that it was developmentally appropriate and the children were learning not only storytelling skills but how to give and receive constructive criticism.

As I watched the video, I had the same thoughts as the educators from the US—I’m not used to children being encouraged to offer criticism rather than praise. But I also saw that the child in question had self-confidence and received the feedback positively. The children were very engaged and seemed to feel their feedback mattered.

What was most interesting to me here was the idea of self-esteem, and how important it is to us here in the United States, or rather, how much protecting we feel it needs. I realized that what educators were responding to weren’t questions of whether retelling a story was developmentally appropriate, or whether the critical thinking skills the children were being asked to display were developmentally appropriate, but rather whether the social scenario in which one child receives potentially negative feedback in front of their peers was developmentally appropriate, and that the responses were based in the different cultural ideas of self-esteem and individual vision versus collective success.

My point here is that even our big ideas, like developmentally appropriate practice, have an element of vulnerability to them. As courageous leaders, we need to turn our eyes even there to make sure that our cultural assumptions and biases aren’t affecting our ability to see clearly, that the reality of every child is honored within them, and that no one is being left out.  And that’s okay. It doesn’t mean we should scrap them. It’s not wrong to advocate for and use developmentally appropriate practice as a framework for our work—not at all! It just means we need to remember that it’s built from values that may be specific to our culture—and not everyone may have equal access to that culture. It means we should return to our big ideas with respect and bravery and sit with them and make sure they are still the ones that serve us best in the world we are living in right now, with the best knowledge we have right now.

You, Dancing With Courage

So…As a leader is early childhood, you will be called upon to be nimble, to make new decisions and reframe your practice when current events or new understanding disrupt your plans. When this happens, professional tools are available to you to help you make choices based on your ethical commitment to children.

Change makes us feel uncomfortable but we can embrace it to do the best by the children and families we work with. We can learn to develop our critical thinking skills so that we can examine our own beliefs and assumptions, both as individuals and as a leader.

Remember that person dancing on the shifting carpet? That child in the middle of the parachute? They might be a little dizzy, but with possibility. They might lose their footing, but in that uncertainty, in the middle of the billowing parachute, there is the sensation that the very instability provides the possibility of rising up like the fabric. And besides—there are hands to hold if they lose their balance—or if you do! And so can you rise when you allow yourself to accept change and adapt to all the new possibility of growth that it opens up!

Current Issues in the Field Part 2—Dance Lessons

Okay, sure—things are gonna change, and this change is going to affect the lives of the children and families you work with, and affect you, professionally and personally. So—you’re sold, in theory, that to do the best by each one of those children, you’re just going to have to do some fancy footwork, embrace the change, and think through how to best adapt to it.

But…how? Before we talk about the kind of change that’s about rethinking your program on a broad level, let’s talk about those times we face when change happens in the spur of the moment, and impacts the lives of the children in your program—those times when your job becomes helping children process their feelings and adapt to change. Sometimes this is a really big deal, like a natural disaster. Sometimes it’s something smaller like the personal story I share below…something small, cuddly, and very important to the children.

Learning the Steps: How do I help children respond to change?

I have a sad story to share. For many years, I was the lead teacher in a classroom in which we had a pet rabbit named Flopsy. Flopsy was litter-trained and so our licensing specialist allowed us to let him hop freely around the classroom. Flopsy was very social, and liked to interact with children. He liked to be held and petted and was also playful, suddenly zooming around the classroom, hopping over toys and nudging children. Flopsy was a big part of our community and of children’s experience in our classroom.

One day, I arrived at school to be told by my distraught director that Flopsy had died in the night and she had removed his body. I had about 15 minutes before children would be arriving, and I had to figure out how to address Flopsy’s loss.

I took a few minutes to collect myself, and considered the following questions:

Yes, absolutely. The children would notice immediately that Flopsy was missing and would comment on it. It was important that I not evade their questions.

Flopsy had died. His body had stopped working. His brain had stopped working. He would not ever come back to life. We would never see Flopsy again. I wrote these sentences on a sticky note. They were short but utterly important.

I would give children the opportunity to share their feelings, and talk about my own feelings. I would read children’s books that would express feelings they might not have words for yet. I would pay extra attention to children reaching out to me and offer opportunities to affirm children’s responses by writing them down.

Human beings encounter death. Children lose pets, grandparents, and sometimes parents or siblings. I wanted these children to experience death in a way that would give them a template when they experienced more intense loss. I wanted them to know it’s okay to be sad, and that the sadness grows less acute over time. That it’s okay to feel angry or scared, and that these feelings, too, though they might be really big, will become less immediate. And that it’s okay to feel happy as you remember the one you lost.

I knew it was important not to give children mistaken impressions about death. I was careful not to compare it to sleep, because I didn’t want them to think that maybe Flopsy would wake up again. I also didn’t want them to fear that when mama fell asleep it was the same thing as death. I also wanted to be factual but leave room for families to share their religious beliefs with their children.

I didn’t have time to do research. But I mentally gathered up some wisdom from a training I’d been to, where the trainer talked about how important it is that we don’t shy away from addressing death with children. Her words gave me courage. I also gathered up some children’s books about pet death from our library.

The first thing I did was text my husband. I was really sad. I had cared for this bunny for years and I loved him too. I didn’t have time for a phone call, but that text was an important way for me to acknowledge my own feelings of grief.

Then I talked to the other teachers. I asked for their quick advice, and shared my plan, since the news would travel to other classrooms as well.

During my prep time that day, I wrote a letter to families, letting them know Flopsy had died and some basic information about how we had spoken to children about it, some resources about talking to children about death, and some titles of books about the death of pets. I knew that news of Flopsy’s death would be carried home to many families, and that parents might want to share their own belief systems about death. I also knew many parents were uncomfortable discussing death with young children and that it might be helpful to see the way we had done so.

I had curriculum planned for that day which I partially scrapped. At our first gathering time I shared the news with the whole group: I shared my sticky note of information about death. I told the children I was sad. I asked if they had questions and I answered them honestly. I listened when they shared their own feelings. I also told them I had happy memories of FLopsy and we talked about our memories.

During the course of the day, and the next few days, I gave the children invitations (but not assignments) to reflect on Flopsy and their feelings. I sat on the floor with a notebook and the invitation for children to write a “story” about Flopsy. Almost every child wanted their words recorded. Responses ranged from “Goodbye bunny” to imagined stories about Flopsy’s adventures, to a description of feelings of sadness and loss. Writing down these words helped acknowledge the children’s feelings. Some of them hung their stories on the wall, and some asked them to be read aloud, or shared them themselves, at circle time.

I also made sure there were plenty of other opportunities in the classroom for children who didn’t want to engage in these ways, or who didn’t need to.

We read “Saying Goodbye to Lulu” and “The Tenth Good Thing About Barney” in small groups; and while these books were a little bit above the developmental level of some children in the class, many children wanted to hear and discuss the books. When I became teary reading them, I didn’t try to hide it, but just said “I’m feeling sad, and it makes me cry a little bit. Everyone cries sometimes.”

This would be a good set of steps to address an event like a hurricane, wildfires, or an earthquake as well. First and foremost of course, make sure your children are safe and have their physical needs met! Remember your role as educator and caretaker; address their emotional needs, consider what you hope they will learn, gather the resources and your team, and make decisions that affirm the dignity of each child in your care.

  • Does the issue affect children’s lived experiences? 
  • How much and what kind of information is appropriate for their age?
  • How can I best affirm their emotions?
  • What do I hope they will learn?
  • Could I accidentally be doing harm through my response?
  • Which resources do I need and can I gather in a timely manner?
  • How do I gather my team?
  • How can I involve families?
  • Now, I create and enact my plan…

Did your plan look any different for having used these questions? And did the process of making decisions as a leader look or feel different? How so?

You might not always walk yourself through a set of questions–but using an intentional tool is like counting out dance steps—there’s a lot of thinking it through at first, and maybe forgetting a step, and stumbling, and so forth. And then…somehow, you just know how to dance. And then you can learn to improvise. In other words, it is through practice that you will become adept at and confident in responding to change, and learn to move with grace on the shifting carpet of life.

Feeling the Rhythm: How do I help myself respond to change

—and grow through it.

Now, let’s address what it might look like to respond to a different kind of change, the kind in which you learn something new and realize you need to make some changes in who you are as an educator. This is hard, but there are steps you can take to make sure you keep moving forward:

  • Work to understand your own feelings. Write about them. Talk them through with your teams—personal and/or professional.
  • Take a look in the mirror, strive to see where you are at, and then be kind to yourself!
  • Gather your tools! Get out that dog eared copy of the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct, and look for other tools that are relevant to your situation. Root yourself in the values of early childhood care and education.
  • Examine your own practices in light of this change.
  • Examine the policies, structures, or systems that affect your program in light of this change.
  • Ask yourself, where could change happen? Remember your spheres of influence.
  • Who can you collaborate with? Who is on your team?
  • How can you make sure the people being affected by this change help inform your response? Sometimes people use the phrase “Nothing for us without us” to help remember that we don’t want to make decisions that affect a group of people (even if we think we’re helping) without learning more from individuals in that group about what real support looks like).
  • Make a plan, including a big vision and small steps, and start taking those small steps. Remember that when you are ready to bring others in, they will need to go through some of this process too, and you may need to be on their team as they look for a safe sounding board to explore their discomfort or fear.
  • Realize that you are a courageous advocate for children. Give yourself a hug!

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

  • Work to understand your own feelings. Write about them. Talk them through with your teams—personal and/or professional. 

This might be a good time to freewrite about your feelings—just put your pencil to paper and start writing. Maybe you feel guilty because you’re afraid that too many children of color have been asked to leave your program. Maybe you feel angry about the injustice. Maybe you feel scared that this topic is politicized and people aren’t going to want to hear about it. Maybe you feel scared to even face the idea that bias could have affected children while in your care. All these feelings are okay! Maybe you talk to your partner or your friends about your fears before you’re ready to get started even thinking about taking action.

  • Take a look in the mirror, strive to see where you are at, and then be kind to yourself! Tell that person looking back at you: “I did then what I knew how to do. Now that I know better, I do better.”

Yep. You love children and you did what you believed was best for the children in your program. Maybe now you can do even better by them! You are being really really brave by investigating!

  • Gather your tools! Get out that dog-eared copy of the NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct, and look for other tools that are relevant to your situation.

Okay! This would be an excellent time to bring out the equity lens and your other tools. Read them over. Use them.

Do your practices affirm the dignity of every child and family? Ask yourself these hard questions while focusing on, in this case, how you look at behavior of children of color. Do the choices you make affirm the dignity of each unique child? Use your tools—you can pull out the equity lens here! Are you acknowledging the home realities of each child when you are having conversations that are meant to build social-emotional skills? Are you considering the needs of each child during difficult transitions? Do you provide alternative ways for children to engage if they have difficulty sitting in circle times?

And…Do your policies and structures affirm the dignity of every child and family? Use those tools! Look at your behavioral guidance policies—are you expecting children to come into your program with certain skills that may not be valued by certain cultures? What about your policies on sending children home or asking a family to leave your program? Could these policies be unfair to certain groups? In fact—given that you now know how extremely impactful expulsion is for preschoolers, could you take it off the table entirely?

Let’s say you’re a teacher, and you can look back and see that over the years you’ve been at your center, a disproportionately high number of children of color have been excluded from the program. Your director makes policy decisions—can you bring this information to him or her? Could you talk to your coworkers about how to bring it up? Maybe your sphere of influence could get even wider—could you share this information with other early educators in your community? Maybe even write a letter to your local representatives!

  • Who can you collaborate with? Who is on your team? 

Maybe other educators? Maybe parents? Maybe your director? Maybe an old teacher of your own? Can you bring this up at a staff meeting? Or in informal conversations?

  • How can you make sure the people being affected by this change help inform your response?

Let’s say your director is convinced that your policies need to change in light of this new information. You want to make sure that parent voice—and especially that of parents of color—is heard! You could suggest a parent meeting on the topic; or maybe do “listening sessions” with parents of color, where you ask them open-ended questions and listen and record their responses—without adding much of your own response; maybe you could invite parents to be part of a group who looks over and works on the policies. This can feel a little scary to people in charge (see decentered leadership?)

Maybe this plan is made along with your director and includes those parent meetings, and a timeline for having revised policies, and some training for the staff. Or—let’s back it up—maybe you’re not quite to that point yet, and your plan is how you are going to approach your director, especially since they might feel criticized. Then your plan might be sharing information, communicating enthusiasm about moving forward and making positive change, and clearly stating your thoughts on where change is needed! (Also some chocolate to reward yourself for being a courageous advocate for every child.)

And, as I may have mentioned, some chocolate. You are a leader and an advocate, and a person whose action mirrors their values. You are worth admiring!

Maybe you haven’t had your mind blown with new information lately, but I’ll bet there’s something you’ve thought about that you haven’t quite acted on yet…maybe it’s about individualizing lesson plans for children with differing abilities. Maybe it’s about addressing diversity of gender in the classroom. Maybe it’s about celebrating linguistic diversity, inviting children and parents to share their home languages in the classroom, and finding authentic ways to include print in these languages.

Whatever it is—we all have room to grow.

Make a Plan!

Dancing Your Dance: Rocking Leadership in Times of Change

There will never be a time when we as educators are not having to examine and respond to “Current Issues in the Field.” Working with children means working with children in a dynamic and ever-evolving landscape of community, knowledge, and personal experience. It’s really cool that we get to do this, walk beside small human beings as they learn to traverse the big wacky world with all its potholes…and it means we get to keep getting better and better at circling around, leaping over, and, yep, dancing around or even through those very potholes.

In conclusion, all dancers feel unsteady sometimes. All dancers bruise their knees along the way. All educators make mistakes and experience discomfort.  All dancers wonder if this dance just isn’t for them.  All dancers think that maybe this one is just too hard and want to quit sometimes. All educators second guess their career choices. But all dancers also discover their own innate grace and their inborn ability to both learn and to change; our very muscles are made to stretch, our cells replace themselves, and we quite simply cannot stand still. All educators have the capacity to grow into compassionate, courageous leaders!

Your heart, your brain, and your antsy feet have led you to become a professional in early childhood care and education, and they will all demand that you jump into the uncertainty of leadership in times of change, and learn to dance for the sake of the children in your care. This, truly, is your call to action, and your pressing invitation to join the dance!

Brown, B. (2018).  Dare to lead . Vermilion.

Broughton, A., Castro, D. and Chen, J.  (2020).  Three International Perspectives on Culturally Embraced Pedagogical Approaches to Early Teaching and Learning.  [Conference presentation].  NAEYC Annual Conference.

Crum, T.  (1987).  The Magic of Conflict: Turning a Life of Work into a Work of Art.  Touchstone.

Meek, S. and Gilliam, W. (2016).  Expulsion and Suspension in Early Education as Matters of Social Justice and Health Equity.  Perspectives: Expert Voices in Health & Health Care.

Scott, K., Looby, A., Hipp, J. and Frost, N. (2017).  “Applying an Equity Lens to the Child Care Setting.”  The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 45 (S1), 77-81.

Online Resources for Current Issues in the Field

Resources for opening yourself to personal growth, change, and courageous leadership:

  • Brown, Brenee. Daring Classrooms. https://brenebrown.com/daringclassrooms
  • Chang, R. (March 25, 2019).  What Growth Mindset Means for Kids [Video] .  TED Conferences.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66yaYmUNOx4

Resources for Thinking About Responding to Current Issues in Education

  • Flanagan, N. (July 31, 2020).  How School Should Respond to Covid-19 [Video] .  TED Conferences.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cSkUHHH4nb8
  • Harris, N.B.. (February 217, 015). How Childhood Trauma Affects Health Across a Lifetime [Video] .  TED Conferences.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95ovIJ3dsNk
  • Simmons, D. (August 28, 2020). 6 Ways to be an Anti Racist Educator [Video] . Edutopia.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM3Lfk751cg&t=3s

Leadership in Early Care and Education Copyright © 2022 by Dr. Tammy Marino; Dr. Maidie Rosengarden; Dr. Sally Gunyon; and Taya Noland is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Research Paper

Early childhood education.

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

Early childhood education (ECE) is a controversial and contested field. Since the Progressive Era, debate has existed over what role federal, state, and local government agencies should play in providing families and their young children with access to ECE programs. Within the field itself, there are disputes over issues such as what type of care should be provided to children and their families, what type of training early childhood educators should possess, and what type of instruction should take place and at what age.

Even with a majority of mothers within the United States in the workforce and numerous scientific studies demonstrating the importance of the early years of a child’s life on later development and academic performance, society has yet to accept the idea that access to high-quality ECE programs should be a basic right for all children. A key reason for this is the patriarchal norms that dominate the American psyche. In general, society still defines the role of the mother as the primary caregiver of the child, and thus it is her responsibility to ensure that the child is cared for and ready to enter elementary school. Ideally, the mother is married and has husband who is able to support her and her child. While these images have been contested across numerous fronts, the nuclear family is still a key construct in federal policy and is used by many who oppose an expanding role of government into early childhood education.

I. A Definition of Early Childhood Education

II. The Status of Early Childhood Education within the United States

III. Government Support

IV. Making the Case for Further Government Support of ECE

V. Making the Case for Less Government Support of ECE

VI. Early Childhood Education from the Progressive Era to Today

A. Kindergarten

B. Day Nurseries

C. Nursery Schools

D. The Federal Government Becomes Part of Early Childhood Education

E. Project Head Start

F. Standards for Early Childhood Education

VII. Conclusion

A Definition of Early Childhood Education

The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), the largest professional organization for early childhood educators, defines the early childhood years as those from birth through third grade, and thus this field of practice balances between systems of compulsory and noncompulsory schooling. This entry focuses on early childhood programs that serve children from birth through age five, including kindergarten.

The Status of Early Childhood Education within the United States

For children from birth through age five, early childhood services are offered through a patchwork system of care that includes public and private nonprofit agencies, religious organizations, corporations, for-profit enterprises, family child care providers, and public schools. Programs serve a range of ages, offer various types of services, and instill a range of curricula. For the most part, the early childhood community represents a fractured group of practitioners who are loosely coupled by licensure requirements that emphasize health, safety, and teacher and staff issues rather than academic expectations or curricula.

Government Support

While the debate over the role of government support for ECE continues, federal, state, and local governments do provide some funding for early childhood services and programs. Federal support for ECE exists through three main funding sources: (1) providing funding for child care services as an incentive to mothers who receive public assistance and are trying to enter the labor force; (2) providing funding for or access to services such as Head Start to children whom governmental agencies deem to be at risk due to factors such as poverty, language status, developmental delays, psychological issues, or a combination of these factors; and (3) providing financial support to families and corporations through tax credits.

The passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996 altered previous federal social services by mandating recipients to achieve particular goals and reducing the length of time they could receive support, which increased the need for early childhood services for these families. For instance, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant replaced programs such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children, provides states with funds that they are to use to assist families in taking care of their children at home, and provides child care for parents so that they can participate in job training. The Child Care and Development block grant provides funds to states to subsidize the child care expenses of low-income working parents, parents who are receiving training for work, and parents in school.

The most well known federally funded early childhood program is Head Start, which operates through the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The DHHS directly funds local grantees to provide Head Start programs to promote children’s school readiness by enhancing their social and cognitive development. Head Start grantees are to offer children and their families’ educational, health, nutritional, social, and other services.

Finally, the federal government offers two types of tax credits: (1) the dependent care tax credit for families who use out-of-home ECE services (which began as the child care tax deduction in 1954 and converted to a child care tax credit in 1972) and (2) tax credits for employers who establish or provide access for their employees to child care services (which began in 1962).

At the state and local level, funding is more eclectic. The availability of programs and services that extend beyond federal funding depends on the individual state or local community. Some (but not all) state governments supplement these federal funds, create their own programs for targeted populations, and encourage local participation in the process.

The most common form of state involvement in ECE is kindergarten, and the fastest growing program area among the states is prekindergarten (pre-K) for four- and sometimes three-year-olds. As of 2009, only 8 states require children to attend kindergarten, while the remaining 42 states require school districts to offer kindergarten. Forty states offer some form of pre-K funding to local school districts and community organizations, and three states—Oklahoma, Georgia, and Florida—offer all four-year-old children in their states access to prekindergarten, typically referred to as universal prekindergarten (UPK). Many states, such as New York, Illinois, Louisiana, and Iowa, are taking steps toward UPK. Other states, such as Maine, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and West Virginia, offer pre-K for all through their school funding formulas.

Making the Case for Further Government Support of ECE

Those who support the expansion of federal, state, and local early childhood services typically make their case through two interconnected lines of reasoning. The first frames ECE as an investment. The second sees ECE as a necessary step to ready children for the increasing demands of elementary school.

The investment argument emerges from a collection of longitudinal studies that examine the effects of specific early childhood programs on a child’s life. This research demonstrates that children who participate in high-quality early childhood programs are less likely as students to be retained or to require special education service and are more likely to graduate from high school. As adults, these children are more likely to be employed and not require social services and are less likely to be incarcerated (e.g., Reynolds, Ou, and Topitzes’s 2004 analysis of the effects of the Chicago Child-Parent Centers). As a result, every dollar that is invested in high-quality ECE programs will save taxpayers from having to spend additional monies on supplemental education and social services for children through their lifetimes.

The readiness argument, which follows a similar line of reasoning as the investment argument, states that, in order to have students ready for the increasing demands of elementary school, government agencies need to provide families with access to high-quality early education services to ensure that their children are ready to learn.

argumentative essay topics on early childhood education

Making the Case for Less Government Support of ECE

Those who oppose expanding the role of government also frame their argument through two lines of reasoning. The first, which takes a libertarian approach, contends that the government should limit its social responsibilities in taking care of children, except in the direst circumstances, and allow the market to deem the need and role of ECE (e.g., the Cato Institute). The second, which takes a more conservative approach, argues that the government should implement policies that encourage family members to stay home and care for their children, such as tax credits for stay-at-home family members or incentives for corporations to encourage part-time employment.

Early Childhood Education from the Progressive Era to Today

As the Progressive Era took shape, ECE emerged along two streams of care: the kindergarten movement and the day nursery movement. Within these two movements, issues of gender, class, and cultural affiliation not only affected the goals of each program but also which children and their families had access to these care and education services.

Kindergarten

The U.S. kindergarten movement began in 1854, when Margarethe Meyer Schurz founded the first kindergarten in Watertown, Wisconsin. These early kindergartens were supplemental programs that were designed to foster a child’s growth and development and to provide mothers with a break from their children. (See Beatty 1995 for a detailed history of the development of kindergarten in the United States.)

Public kindergarten emerged in the 1870s through the work of individuals such as Susan Blow in St. Louis and spread across numerous cities. As these programs became part of education systems across the United States, stakeholders implemented them to achieve many goals—all of which framed kindergarten as a necessary and not supplemental service. For instance, some supporters saw these programs as a form of child rescue; others saw it as means to Americanize the influx of immigrants who were arriving in the United States; and many viewed these programs as form of preparation for elementary school. These programs steadily grew, because education and community stakeholders began to see more children as being unprepared for elementary school, and, thus, this construct of the deficient child infuses itself within the need for an expansion of early childhood services.

The idea of children following a normal developmental path emerged out of the work of child psychologists such as G. Stanley Hall, who began his child study experiments in Pauline Shaw’s charity kindergartens in Boston. Hall’s studies led him as well as many other psychologists to question what type of experiences should be taking place in kindergarten as well as in the home to prepare children for a successful life.

Day Nurseries

Prior to kindergarten or elementary school entry, the dominant understanding of children’s early childhood experiences was that their mothers were to raise them in their homes. The day nursery movement emerged as an intervention for mothers who had to seek employment to take care of their families so that they would not have to institutionalize their children. These nurseries emerged as the philanthropic projects of wealthy women who wanted to assist working poor and immigrant mothers in getting back on their feet so that they could take their rightful place in the home. Day nurseries emphasized patriotism and hygiene as part of their instruction and only sought governmental assistance for regulatory purposes to improve nursery program conditions. Even though these programs had less-than-appealing reputations, the need for their services far outstripped their availability. In most instances—particularly in the South, rural areas, and for African American families—kith and kin provided the majority of care for these families. Ironically, many of these working mothers struggled to find care for their own children while working for wealthier families as the caretakers of their children. (See Michel 1999 for a detailed history of the day nursery movement and the positioning of mothers and women in general within this and other debates over the role of government in child rearing and education.)

Nursery Schools

Academically, the increased interest in understanding child development by the work of theorists and researchers such as Hall, Gesell, Freud, Piaget, and others led to the growing child study movement among universities. For instance, the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation awarded significant sums of money to several colleges and universities to establish child study institutes. The institutes’ lab schools began the nursery school movement, and middle-class families became attracted to the notion that science can enhance their child’s development. Furthermore, this scientific emphasis on child development extended the view of ECE beyond the traditional academic notion of cognitive development that dominates elementary education. Early education included the child’s social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development. This expanded view of learning caused conflict between early childhood educators and their elementary school colleagues as these programs became part of the elementary school environment.

The Federal Government Becomes Part of Early Childhood Education

The onset of the Great Depression resulted in a collapse of the day nursery movement for working mothers, and a majority of the ECE programs that remained were supplemental nursery programs used by middle-class families. In 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) changed this by starting a federally funded nursery school program as a means of employing schoolteachers and school staff . The custodial care of children was a secondary goal. The program was incorporated into the Works Progress Administration in 1934, when FERA was terminated.

As the Great Depression ended and World War II began, the funding for this program dwindled. However, the need for women’s labor to support the war industry led to the Lanham Act, which funded over 3,000 child care centers to care for children whose mothers worked in defense-related industries.

When the Depression and the war ended, federal support for these custodial programs subsided, and mothers were to return home to care for their children. However, the kindergarten movement had come to be seen by education stakeholders as a muchneeded vehicle for preparing children for school. Kindergarten survived these two national crises, and, by the 1940s, it became a permanent fixture of many school systems across the United States.

Project Head Start

For the next 20 years, the federal government abstained from funding ECE programs until the implementation of Project Head Start in 1965. This project emerged from the Economic Opportunity Act and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act as a part of the Johnson Administration’s war on poverty.

This legislation shifted the role of the federal government in developing ECE and K–12 policy within the United States. Federal policymakers created legislation that defined the role of the federal government in ECE as a provider of intervention services that could alter the academic trajectory of particular populations of children. These policies identified the root cause of academic failure, which leads to economic failure, in the child’s home environment. By identifying educational attainment as the means by which this cycle of poverty can be broken, policymakers defined the central role of ECE as readying students for school. ECE became a tool for intervention.

As soon as the federal government took on these roles in ECE and K–12 education, controversy arose. For instance, the Nixon administration responded to Johnson’s Great Society education policies by creating the National Institute of Education, which investigated the return that society received for its investment in education. Furthermore, Nixon vetoed the Comprehensive Child Development Act of 1971, which was to expand the federal government’s funding of child care and education while creating a framework for child services. Additionally, studies such as the Westinghouse Learning House’s evaluation of Head Start in 1969 suggested that any gains in the IQs of students who participated in the program quickly faded, which raised concerns over the effectiveness of these government-funded programs.

Researchers responded to these critiques of Head Start by arguing that, while increases in IQ might not be sustainable, students who participated in such programs were more successful academically and socially as they continued through school than those students who did not receive these services. These longitudinal studies, which examined a number of early childhood programs other than Head Start, spawned the investment argument, which is outlined above.

This argument shifts the premise for funding ECE programs slightly. Rather than break the cycle of poverty for others, funding programs will save taxpayers money. Thus, this argument for ECE deemphasizes assisting families to be able to take care of their children at home, and, rather, it contends that experts in ECE can design and implement programs that prepare the child, and in some cases the family, for success in compulsory schooling and later life.

Standards for Early Childhood Education

The emphasis on student performance that emerged during the Reagan administration put pressure on early childhood educators to align their practices with K–12 education. While such pressure on ECE programs has been around since the 1920s, particularly for kindergarten programs (see Beatty 1995), organizations such as NAEYC began to produce position statements and documents that defined what empirical research identified to be appropriate teaching, learning, and assessment experiences for young children.

Although these empirically based responses deflected the pressures of accountability for children until later in their academic careers, recent federal and state standards-based accountability reforms have caused education stakeholders to again scrutinize what types of experiences students are having prior to their entry to elementary school. For instance, policymakers and early childhood stakeholders are debating the role of early learning standards, readiness assessments, and literacy and math instruction in early childhood programs.

Additional reforms that stakeholders are considering to improve children’s preparation for elementary schooling include requiring student participation in full-day kindergarten programs, expanding prekindergarten services, improving the quality of early childhood programs, increasing training requirements for ECE teachers, and aligning early childhood programs across the field as well as with the K–12 education system. (See Cryer and Clifford 2003 for discussions surrounding ECE policy.)

Whatever policies emerge, the recent history of education reform demonstrates that these reforms will be linked to increased accountability expectations, making the expansion of the field dependent on the ability of ECE programs to improve student performance.

An added question that is somewhat unique to ECE is who should be providing these services. For-profit centers have a long history in ECE and provide care for a significant population of children and their families. These providers include national and international companies (e.g., the Australian-based publicly traded for-profit child care corporation ABC Learning, which is the world’s largest provider of child care services and operates over 1,100 centers in the United States). Additionally, nonprofit and church-based centers provide a large portion of infant and toddler care for families. Thus, expanding or reforming early childhood services involves numerous stakeholders, and simply adding programs to the nation’s public schools or implementing unfunded mandates has the ability to upset many who support as well as provide care for young children and their families.

ECE has a long and unique history in the United States. Those who support the field have framed its need in numerous ways. Current advocates argue that ECE is a necessity for families in which the primary caregiver works outside the home, is a smart investment of public resources, or is a basic right for all children. Those who oppose its expansion contend that the government agencies should not be involved in child rearing, should not pay for additional social services, or should implement policies that encourage families to stay at home and take care of their children. Either way, the battle over ECE boils down to how stakeholders perceive the role of government agencies in financing the care and education of young children, and thus the debate will continue as long as there are children and families who need or desire out-of-home care.

Also check the list of 100 most popular argumentative research paper topics .

Bibliography:

  • Beatty, Barbara, Preschool Education in America: The Culture of Young Children from the Colonial Era to the Present. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.
  • Cryer, Debby, and Richard M. Cliff ord, eds., Early Education and Care in the USA. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing, 2003.
  • Farquhar, Sandy, and Peter Fitzsimmons, eds., Philosophy of Early Childhood Education: Transforming Narratives. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.
  • Fuller, Bruce, et al., Standardized Childhood: The Political and Cultural Struggle over Early Education. Stanford. CA: Stanford University Press, 2007.
  • Goffi n, Stacie G., and Valora Washington, Ready or Not: Leadership Choices in Early Care and Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 2007.
  • Michel, Sonya, Children’s Interests/Mothers’ Rights: The Shaping of America’s Child Care Policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.
  • Reynolds, A. J., S. Ou, and J. Topitzes, “Paths of Effects of Early Childhood Intervention on Educational Attainment and Delinquency: A Confirmatory Analysis of the Chicago Child-Parent Centers.” Child Development 75 (2004): 1299–1328.
  • Siegel, Charles, What’s Wrong with Day Care? Freeing Parents To Raise Their Own Children. New York: Teachers College Press, 2000.

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  • A Research Guide
  • Essay Topics

120 Education Essay Topics

Education essay topics: how to choose the perfect one, education argumentative essay topics:.

  • The impact of standardized testing on students’ learning outcomes
  • The effectiveness of online learning compared to traditional classroom education
  • The role of technology in enhancing education
  • The importance of teaching critical thinking skills in schools
  • The benefits and drawbacks of homeschooling
  • The impact of school uniforms on students’ academic performance and self-expression
  • The necessity of teaching financial literacy in schools
  • The influence of social media on students’ academic performance
  • The pros and cons of single-sex education
  • The significance of arts education in fostering creativity and innovation
  • The role of physical education in promoting a healthy lifestyle among students
  • The impact of inclusive education on students with disabilities
  • The effectiveness of sex education programs in schools
  • The importance of teaching cultural diversity in schools
  • The role of standardized curriculum in preparing students for future careers

Education Persuasive Essay Topics:

  • The importance of implementing comprehensive sex education in schools
  • The benefits of incorporating technology in the classroom
  • The advantages of year-round schooling
  • The need for inclusive education for students with disabilities
  • The benefits of arts education in fostering creativity and critical thinking
  • The importance of teaching media literacy to combat fake news
  • The necessity of implementing mandatory physical education classes
  • The advantages of teaching coding and computer programming in schools
  • The need for comprehensive mental health education in schools
  • The benefits of implementing bilingual education programs
  • The importance of teaching environmental education to promote sustainability
  • The necessity of incorporating mindfulness and meditation practices in schools
  • The advantages of teaching conflict resolution and empathy skills in schools
  • The need for comprehensive and inclusive LGBTQ+ education in schools

Education Compare and Contrast Essay Topics:

  • Traditional Education vs Online Education
  • Public Schools vs Private Schools
  • Homeschooling vs Traditional Schooling
  • Standardized Testing vs Alternative Assessment Methods
  • Single-Sex Education vs Co-education
  • Vocational Education vs Academic Education
  • Montessori Education vs Traditional Education
  • In-person Learning vs Distance Learning
  • Charter Schools vs Public Schools
  • Early Childhood Education vs Primary Education
  • Special Education Inclusion vs Special Education Separate Classes
  • Education in Developed Countries vs Education in Developing Countries
  • Education in Urban Areas vs Education in Rural Areas
  • Education in Public Universities vs Education in Private Universities
  • Education in the Past vs Education in the Present

Education Informative Essay Topics:

  • The impact of technology on education: Advantages and disadvantages
  • The importance of early childhood education in cognitive development
  • The benefits of inclusive education for students with special needs
  • The role of standardized testing in evaluating student performance
  • The effects of homeschooling on children’s social and academic development
  • The significance of financial literacy education in preparing students for the future
  • The impact of teacher-student relationships on academic achievement
  • The benefits of bilingual education in a globalized world
  • The role of arts education in fostering creativity and critical thinking skills
  • The challenges and benefits of online learning in higher education
  • The importance of sex education in schools for promoting healthy relationships and preventing teenage pregnancy
  • The impact of socioeconomic status on educational opportunities and outcomes
  • The benefits of physical education in promoting overall health and well-being
  • The role of character education in developing ethical and responsible citizens
  • The effects of school bullying on students’ mental health and academic performance

Education Cause Effect Essay Topics:

  • The impact of technology on student learning outcomes
  • The effects of standardized testing on student motivation and performance
  • The influence of parental involvement on student academic achievement
  • The consequences of inadequate funding for schools on educational quality
  • The relationship between teacher-student relationships and student engagement
  • The effects of early childhood education on long-term academic success
  • The impact of school bullying on student mental health and academic performance
  • The consequences of high student-to-teacher ratios on classroom learning
  • The relationship between socioeconomic status and educational attainment
  • The effects of inclusive education on students with disabilities
  • The influence of teacher quality on student achievement
  • The consequences of school dropout rates on future employment opportunities
  • The impact of school nutrition programs on student health and academic performance
  • The effects of school violence on student well-being and educational outcomes
  • The relationship between access to educational resources and educational inequality

Education Narrative Essay Topics:

  • The transformative power of education: A personal journey
  • Overcoming obstacles in pursuit of education: My story of resilience
  • The role of teachers in shaping my educational experience
  • Learning beyond the classroom: Lessons from real-life experiences
  • The impact of technology on education: A personal perspective
  • The importance of cultural diversity in education: A personal reflection
  • The influence of family on my educational journey
  • The challenges and rewards of homeschooling: A personal narrative
  • The power of mentorship in shaping my educational goals
  • The role of extracurricular activities in my overall education
  • The impact of studying abroad on my personal growth and education
  • The significance of inclusive education: A personal narrative
  • The value of lifelong learning: My continuous educational journey
  • The impact of standardized testing on my educational experience
  • The role of education in shaping my career aspirations

Education Opinion Essay Topics:

  • The benefits and drawbacks of online learning in the modern education system
  • The role of technology in enhancing classroom instruction
  • The effectiveness of homework in promoting student learning
  • The benefits and challenges of inclusive education for students with disabilities
  • The role of arts education in fostering creativity and innovation
  • The influence of socioeconomic status on educational opportunities and outcomes
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Human Development

Argumentation in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

Theoretical grounding, broad features of the reviewed sample of studies, main findings, summarizing discussion, concluding remarks, acknowledgments, statement of ethics, conflict of interest statement, author contributions, data availability statement.

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Jarmila Bubikova-Moan , Margareth Sandvik; Argumentation in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review. Human Development 28 December 2022; 66 (6): 397–413. https://doi.org/10.1159/000527293

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While scientific evidence on argumentation among preschool children is on the rise, it is dispersed over a number of different fields, which may obfuscate its visibility, merit, and potential. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the existing research and, as such, shed more concerted theoretical and empirical light on the origins as well as early development of the human capacity to argue. Based on 57 included studies, we show that it has been approached from numerous theoretical perspectives, with the dialogic view of argumentation and a productive eclecticism between argumentation, developmental, learning, and linguistic theories as the main theoretical denominators. The review also documents that young children’s argumentation displays a range of structural-discursive, socio-interactional, and developmental features, positioning them as argumentative agents in their own right. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of further theory building and their practical significance.

Argumentation and reasoning skills development in educational contexts has in recent years become a top education policy priority. The US framework for K-12 science education, for example, promotes the skill of argument from evidence as part and parcel of scientific and engineering practices that children are to engage in and develop throughout their schooling (National Research Council, 2012). Likewise, in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Future of Education and Skills 2030 conceptual learning framework, “reconciling tensions and dilemmas,” more specifically defined as weighing multiple opposing, contradictory, and even incompatible standpoints, developing arguments with well-supported positions, and finding viable solutions, is considered as one of the transformative competencies of the future (OECD, 2022, pp. 5–6).

This growing policy emphasis can be seen in parallel to mounting scientific evidence on the merits of engaging in argumentative discourse in educational contexts. Argumentation has been framed as one of the most important learning processes that contributes to an active construction of knowledge from early on (Mirza & Perret-Clermont, 2009; Perry & Dockett, 1998) and as a core ingredient in critical thinking (Davies, 2015; Siegel, 2010), deemed essential for a successful functioning in technologically advanced, information-dense, late modern democracies (Murphy et al., 2016).

Grounded in socio-constructivist and socio-cultural approaches to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978; Wertsch et al., 1995), much research on argumentation in the educational field has focused on school-aged children’s dialogic, collaborative knowledge construction during classroom learning activities (e.g., Driver et al., 2000; Mirza & Perret-Clermont, 2009; Rapanta & Felton, 2022; Schwarz & Baker, 2017). This is particularly true of older age groups, attending upper primary and secondary grades (e.g., Gillies & Khan, 2009; Kuhn et al., 2016; Kuhn & Crowell, 2011).

There is generally less research on the youngest age groups of preschool children who may not have been exposed to systematic instructional approaches aimed at honing their argumentative competence in a more targeted fashion. This may be for a variety of reasons of both conceptual and methodological nature (Schwarz & Baker, 2017). Furthermore, the existing research does not form a well-delineated body of scholarship. Rather, it seems dispersed across different scholastic fields, including argumentation theory and rhetoric, developmental psychology, linguistics as well as education, among others. This may obfuscate the visibility of the current status of knowledge and, by extension, also its theoretical and practical merit and potential. The aim of this systematic review was, therefore, to synthesize international empirical research on argumentation in preschool children and, as such, shed more concerted theoretical and empirical light on the origins as well as early development of the human capacity to argue. It is, however, of note that, rather than offering a historic panorama of developmental trends in children’s argumentation, we aim at providing a coherent conceptual description of the phenomenon across the set time frame in the form of a viable taxonomy, facilitated here by the adoption of meta-synthesis as our methodological approach. By implication, we also aim to contribute to further theory and practice building in the field. The two main research questions guiding this study were as follows: (a) how is argumentation in preschool children conceptually framed in international research literature? and (b) what characterizes argumentation in preschool children across different interactional settings?

In what follows, we will first ground the study theoretically by reviewing different definitions of argumentation and by providing an overview of the taxonomies that have been proposed to conceptualize this broad field. Upon providing details on our methodological choices, we will delve into presenting our findings based on a meta-synthesis of 57 individual studies identified in our search and deemed as within the set eligibility criteria. We will discuss the identified patterns against the broader canvas of research on young children’s development in formal and informal contexts, draw some theoretical and practical implications thereof, and suggest avenues for further research.

Conceptualizing Argumentation

Argumentation is a diffuse and multifaceted concept with numerous conceptualizations in circulation. Tseronis and Forceville (2017) provide a succinct review of some of the main distinctions made in research on argumentation, including O’Keefe’s (1977) distinction between argumentation as a product and as a process. The former refers to the actual act of communication between parties during which a disagreement or a conflict about an issue arises. In its simplest form, it consists of a claim and a reason for the claim. In fact, as the authors point out, the terms argument and claim are often used interchangeably. Argumentation as a process, on the other hand, is the interactional and communicative act that parties enter into about the argument that is being put forward and defended. As Tseronis and Forceville note, while this broad conceptualization is far from undisputed, it is commonly used in research, not least because of its apparent simplicity. It also underscores a long-established point in scholarship on argumentation in that disagreement, opposition, or conflict are at the core of argumentative discourse and can be regarded as the very minimum for a discursive act to merit the label argumentative (see on this, e.g., Gilbert, 2009). However, as Maynard (1985) points out with a specific reference to children’s arguments, the concept of initial opposition, framed as a multimodal antecedent arguable event, does not, in itself, necessarily constitute an argument and can be seen mostly as a necessary but not sufficient condition for an argument to arise.

In contemporary definitions, much emphasis is placed on the centrality of dialogue in argumentation. Here, argumentative discourse is seen as firmly planted in the situated context of exchange between parties (Schwarz & Baker, 2017; van Eemeren, 2018). Drawing on previous scholarship within argumentation studies and education, Schwarz and Baker (2017), for example, propose a dialogic theory of argumentation in education at the heart of which is the so-called deliberative argumentation. This is defined as “a kind of dialogue that integrates rigorous reasoning and accountability towards the other” (p. 230). It is seen as dialectic and dialogic in that it assumes both collaboration and inter-subjectivity. It is also productive in terms of learning outcomes it may stimulate.

A recent systematic review of research on instructional approaches to learning to argue (LTA) via dialogue (Rapanta & Felton, 2022) sheds light on the broader patterns in which dialogue across educational classroom settings and levels may foster children’s and young people’s ability to formulate and defend their points of view and structure their argumentation in scientifically valid ways. In the review, an argumentative dialogue is conceptualized as a classroom activity either specifically targeting argumentation skills or leading to argumentation nonintentionally through the promotion of “dialogic norms” (Rapanta & Felton, 2022, p. 481). These two distinct dialogue forms are labeled high- or low-structured, respectively. When mapped onto this analytical distinction, studies identified and systematized in the review are shown to represent a continuum: the low-structured end includes studies targeting mostly whole-class, student-driven, or student-dominant sensemaking, with dialogue being the primary goal and argumentation the nonintentional value added of the dialogic activity; the other, high-structured end comprises studies focusing on mostly small group or one-to-one deliberative dialogue, understood as a dialectic, discursive exchange of differences of opinion with “persuasive deliberation” as a distinct goal. As the authors point out, this latter form may be seen as corresponding to Schwarz and Baker’s (2017) concept of deliberative argumentation. As this suggests, in Rapanta and Felton’s (2022) review, argumentation and dialogue are closely bound, with (argumentative or LTA) dialogue as a tool to promote argumentation in classroom settings, intentionally or nonintentionally, featuring as the focal concept.

There is also a host of related concepts which complicate the theoretical landscape further. One of the most closely related ones is reasoning which can be seen as part of, and is sometimes used interchangeably with, argumentation. Different definitions of reasoning exist. For example, Walton (1990) sees reasoning as something that may or may not occur in the context of a purposive or nonpurposive argument. This again may or may not occur in a larger context of exchange which can be both dialogic and nondialogic and where reasoning represents an essentially inferential endeavor or “the (actual) process of inferring conclusions from statements” (Walton, 1990, p. 401). Inference, reasoning, and argumentation are on this view closely bound.

Relatedly, emphasizing its social dimension, Mercier and Sperber (2011) have developed an argumentative theory of reasoning where reasoning is seen as being of an evolutionary nature and as serving primarily, though not exclusively, argumentative ends. Like Walton, they too see reasoning as an essentially inferential process. At the center, there is a conscious, as opposed to intuitive, reflective effort at providing and assessing reasons for conclusions that are being drawn and that are meant to be persuasive. They propose further that reasoning is meant to aid in the process of constructing one’s own arguments and in evaluating those of others in different interactional settings and across different age groups. As such, reasoning and, by implication, argumentation are not reserved to adult discourse only but extended to children’s discourse as well. Drawing on evidence from developmental psychology and related fields, Mercier (2011) argues that children display emerging reasoning and argumentation competence, engage in as well as benefit from social reasoning and commit similar argumentation fallacies as adults.

Other theoretical constructs applied in early childhood education and development research, such as inferential thinking (Collins, 2016) or sustained shared thinking (Siraj et al., 2015), can also be regarded as related to argumentation and reasoning, in that they either take as a vantage point the process of inferring a conclusion from a statement or by acknowledging educationally productive dialogues around different and potentially opposing views as central in children’s language and cognitive development. Nonetheless, exactly how they map onto argumentation as a theoretical construct has, to our knowledge, not been interrogated in research in any depth.

Approaches to Studying Argumentation

Much like argumentation itself, there have been numerous attempts at conceptualizing the various approaches to studying argumentation. Gilbert (2009), for example, draws attention to the distinction between dialectic and rhetoric approaches which corresponds to what the author refers to as the “ convince/persuade dichotomy” (p. 4). Gilbert argues that to convince is often equated with the use of reason and logic while to persuade suggests an appeal to emotions vis-à-vis an audience. Linking this distinction to the Aristotelian subdivision of rhetoric into logos , ethos , and pathos , Gilbert argues further that these have developed into distinct fields with traditionally little cross-fertilization: (a) formal logic (logos) with its emphasis on the structures of argumentation, the concept of formal validity and syllogism as an ideal form of argument; (b) informal logic, which integrated the concept of ethos in its study of fallacious argumentation, and (c) rhetoric with a focus on pathos or emotionality, deserving traditionally the least attention by argumentation scholars.

In subsequent scholarship, one finds variations of this typology. Tseronis and Forceville (2017), for example, offer a model based on a three-pronged distinction between: (a) logical approaches , focused primarily on logical relations between propositions; (b) dialectic approaches where argumentation is studied as an exchange adjudicated against an ideal (normative) standard of argumentative reasonableness; and (c) rhetorical approaches where attention is directed at the effectiveness of argumentation.

Based on a comprehensive historical overview over major contemporary theoretical models on argumentation, Schwarz and Baker (2017) propose a slightly altered taxonomy with relevance for educational contexts. It is framed in terms of two sets of approaches functioning on a two-dimensional plane. The first dimension distinguishes between discursive and structural approaches, with the former being primarily concerned with the descriptive workings of language and other semiotic modalities in argumentative interactions, and the latter focusing on how argumentative discourse functions in terms of a set of pre-defined structural elements which may or may not have a normative foundation. The second dimension makes a crucial distinction between monologic and dialogic approaches. In the former, the focus is primarily on one single party in the act of argumentation, even though other parties may be present or their presence may at least be assumed, as is the case with speeches or written texts. In the latter, argumentation is conceived of as being of a quintessentially interactional nature that always involves and is shaped by more than just one single voice in “a multiparty process of negotiation of meaning ” (Schwarz & Baker, 2017, p. 74). On our understanding of the model, this distinction is then of an analytical rather than theoretical nature, given that argumentation is presented as always predicated on the explicit or implicit expression of an opposition or a counter-standpoint. Importantly also, Schwarz and Baker (2017) briefly note that the axes should not be seen as exclusionary but rather as gradual.

Combined cross-dimensionally, the model is exemplified by four approaches, representing major contributions to contemporary argumentation theory. While any detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this paper, they can be summarized as follows: on the monological-structural plane, Schwarz and Baker (2017) place Toulmin’s model of argument (1958), given its primary focus on a single arguer and the distinctly structural workings of their argumentation in terms of a set of pre-defined elements. The monological-discursive plane is represented by Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca’s (1973) New Rhetoric, as it targets the discursive techniques of structuring argumentative discourse rather than the structure of that discourse itself. Given its primary interest in the audience at which this discourse is directed by the speaker and the efficiency with which the utilized technique may or may not persuade the audience to accept the speaker’s standpoint, it is placed on the monological plane. The dialogical plane is represented by Plantin’s (2005) theorizing and van Eemeren and Grootendorst’s pragma-dialectic model of argumentation (van Eemeren & Grootendorst, 1984, 1992; van Eemeren, 2018) with Plantin occupying the discursive and pragma-dialectics the structural position. As Schwarz and Baker (2017) point out, Plantin’s discursive theory of argumentation is predicated on the idea of a “confrontation of discourses” (p. 74) and how a question that arises thereof is debated through justificatory discourse and counter-discourse. While having a distinctly dialectic vantage point, the pragma-dialectic approach, on the other hand, sees argumentation as a set of argumentative moves that discursive parties conduct as part of a critical discussion in a series of stages in order to resolve a difference of opinion on the merit (Table  1 ).

Approaches to argumentation (reproduced from Schwarz & Baker, 2017, p. 68)

 Approaches to argumentation (reproduced from Schwarz & Baker, 2017, p. 68)

In this review, we have taken the reviewed theorizing on argumentation and approaches to argumentation, particularly as conceptualized in educational contexts by Schwarz and Baker (2017), as a vantage point to see its potential fit with the current body of knowledge on argumentation in early childhood but also as a springboard to further theorizing in this emerging field.

We adopted meta-synthesis as our methodological approach. It belongs to the broader family of qualitative systematic syntheses and has as its overarching purpose to provide a description of a given phenomenon, here argumentation in early childhood, based on a systematic and transparent review of an existing body of research (Saini & Shlonsky, 2012). In conducting a meta-synthesis, one aims at the extractions of central themes and concepts which are compared and contrasted across studies and at offering a synthesis of key outcomes in the form of conceptual taxonomies. Importantly, a meta-synthesis is neither aggregative nor interpretative, but rather integrative. This means that one attempts to work with concepts and findings as they are being used in the identified primary studies, interrogating their similarities and differences critically and synthesizing them into an integrated body of new knowledge (Saini & Shlonsky, 2012).

Central in the approach is a rigorous application of specific methodological steps which include a selection of relevant research databases, specification of a search strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria as well as a strategy for synthesizing identified studies. As with systematic reviews in general, systematicity and transparency are imperative. However, unlike in quantitative reviews, aiming at comprehensiveness of primary source coverage is not necessarily appropriate in qualitative reviews (Petticrew & Roberts, 2006). Instead, much like in qualitative methodology in general, the principle of saturation is key. As such, a search strategy in a qualitative literature review is often guided by and demonstrates the following three principles: (a) identifying major schools of thought while being alert to dissenting and minority views, (b) searching broadly across relevant disciplines, and (c) combining electronic and hand searches to ensure that key work is not excluded due to deficiencies in bibliographic indexing or coverage gaps in individual databases (Petticrew & Roberts, 2006). Below we therefore detail each of these steps as well as necessary methodological considerations and decisions made along the way.

Search Strategy

Given the transdisciplinary nature of argumentation, as argued above, we have opted to perform our search by pursuing several search channels. First, we selected two international research databases that assemble social scientific research within education, psychology, and related fields and conducted searches therein. These were (a) ERIC – Educational Resources Information Center and (b) PsychINFO. To validate these searches, we conducted an additional relevance-based search in Google Scholar following the same procedure as applied in ERIC and PsychINFO as well as individual searches for the work of key authors. To ensure relevance, we also selected and reviewed four journals we considered as thematically central through an electronic search function offered on their digital platforms. These were (a) Argumentation: An International Journal of Reasoning , (b) Argumentation in Context , (c) Argumentation and Advocacy , and (d) Informal Logic .

While it is also a common practice to review reference lists of thematically relevant systematic reviews, no such review was located. During each search, we applied the two following truncated keywords combined through the Boolean operator AND as follows: (argument* AND child*). We also reviewed combinations based on what we saw as either synonyms or closely related concepts. For “argument,” these were “reasoning” and “inference,” while for “child” these were “preschooler” and “toddler.” While, as laid out above, there is a host of other concepts which could be regarded as potentially related to or overlapping with argumentation in early childhood, such as Siraj and colleagues’ (2015) sustained shared thinking, Rapanta and Felton’s (2022) (low-structured) sensemaking, or the concept of (educational) dialogue, our aim was to map out the use of the concept of argumentation per se and, hence, we did not search for studies based on these related concepts.

Inclusion Criteria

We started off targeting studies of children in the age group 0–6 years. We expected that most studies would be located in either home or preschool as institutional contexts. However, age at compulsory school entry can vary between countries. Additionally, a number of the identified studies had a longitudinal and/or comparative design. As such, they were located in both home/preschool and early grades of school. Vigilant to the potential importance of such studies in capturing developmental trends in the early years and in need of a cut-off point, we therefore set the upper age limit at 8 which complies with UNESCO’s (2022) definition of early childhood education. Studies with samples of school children only were excluded, while studies targeting mixed age groups were assessed for inclusion on a case-by-case basis. This resulted in a handful of studies where the oldest participating children, in most cases older siblings, were 9 or, in school settings, grade 4, if age was not specified by the authors.

Publication Period

While we expected that most studies would be published within roughly the last two decades, all studies published since 1970 and up to the present were included so as to capture potential historical research trends.

We set no restrictions on the geographical location of studies.

Language of Reporting

We included only studies in English. While this decision was partly due to our shared linguistic competence and may potentially have led to an exclusion of important publications in other languages, we considered it justifiable given our aim of thematic and conceptual saturation rather than comprehensiveness.

Study Design

We included only peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative empirical studies published in digitally available scientific journals. Books, book chapters, scientific reports, conference papers, as well as master and PhD thesis were excluded. This decision was partly guided by pragmatic reasons related to issues of digital access, and while it may have led to the exclusion of important innovations in the field, we assumed that recent key findings would simultaneously be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal publications, potentially captured through our search.

Study Quality

While the issue of scientific quality of studies included in systematic reviews is an important one, it is also far from controversial (see on this, Bubikova-Moan et al., 2019). Given our decision to include peer-reviewed studies only, guaranteeing a certain degree of quality assurance in itself, we considered it sufficient for our purposes to assess an overall coherence between research aims, methods employed, and reported findings in each study. While qualitative assessment rubrics are available (see, e.g., CASP, 2019), we did not consider their employment as imperative for reasons given above.

Review Strategy

The database search, described above, led to the identification of altogether 1,051 individual studies. Our ensuing review strategy consisted of primarily three steps: (a) an initial systematic screening of all study titles and abstracts, leading to the exclusion of 853 studies that did not meet our eligibility criteria, primarily that of thematic focus and/or children’s age; (b) a full-text review of 180 studies that remained upon the removal of 18 duplicates; this included an extended data extraction and a quality appraisal of methodological soundness according to the set criteria, as described above, leading to the exclusion of further 123 studies, first and foremost due to a misfit with the age criterion; and, finally, (c) an in-depth analysis of all 57 included studies. The last step included a content analysis that allowed us to identify major themes and outcomes, systematize these, and arrive at conceptual taxonomies. Aiming at an in-depth data extraction, steps (b) and (c) were conducted with the aid of an Excel spreadsheet, considered essential for keeping a detailed, transparent, and easily accessible record trail of all key information and decisions made along the way. By coding major themes vis-à-vis both of our research questions across the included studies, we could trace patterns in the data corpus in a rigorous and systematic manner upon the completion of step (c). The first author coded the entire sample of included studies, arriving at a preliminary conceptual taxonomy. At this stage of the analytical process, the first author conducted a validation coding on a random 15% of the sample with the second author. In line with validation procedures pursued in qualitative research (Creswell & Miller, 2000), rather than aiming at calculating interrater agreement, the validation coding round provided an opportunity for peer debriefing and reflexivity that led to further refinement and a finalization of our conceptual taxonomy. In addition to keeping a detailed audit of all our steps, as described here, we considered this satisfactory in ensuring analytical soundness. The entire review process is visualized in Figure 1 . It is of note that one additional study was identified by hand search upon the completion of all steps in the review round, as described above. It was assessed following the same review strategy and, since it met our eligibility criteria, added to the sample. Rather than necessitating an adjustment of our conceptual taxonomy, this additional step validated it. In the figure, this study appears as part of the process and is included in the total of 1,051 studies.

 Flowchart of the review strategy.

Flowchart of the review strategy.

Methodological Design and Publication-Related Features

The identified sample of studies bears witness to a wide range of methodological approaches that have been employed in studying argumentation in the youngest age groups. There is a clear preference for applying qualitative methodological designs, with more than a half of the sample falling into this category. In these studies, video observations were the most frequently adopted data collection method. Furthermore, about a third of the sample adopted quantitative methodological designs, including experimental, quasi-experimental, or, in a few cases, longitudinal designs. The remaining studies adopted mixed methods designs, combining mostly, but not exclusively, longitudinal qualitative observational methods with other methods such as interviews as well as cross-sectional data collections on specific argumentation-related outcome measures.

In terms of the publication period, an overwhelming majority of the sample was published after the year 2000 with a significant publication activity increase in roughly the last decade. Based on the provided information on the geographical setting of the data collection, most studies were conducted in European countries, followed by North and South American countries, middle- and far-eastern Asian countries, or in a cross-continental combination of geographical locations. See Table  2 for a numerical overview.

Adopted methodological designs, publication period, and geographical location of the included studies

 Adopted methodological designs, publication period, and geographical location of the included studies

Participant Features and Structures

In terms of the participating children’s age, the included studies range from involving children as young as 1 month and up to 9 years of age. The majority of studies have participants in mixed age groups or in the age bracket 3–6 years. A few studies do not provide specific information on children’s age but, given the study setting, it can be assumed that in all cases they involved children in kindergarten and/or early school grades.

The sample as a whole has looked into a range of settings, with the home environment and its close neighborhood as well as experimental and quasi-experimental study settings as the most prevalent ones. Kindergartens were represented in a quarter of studies. The remaining studies combined home and kindergarten or kindergarten and early school settings.

Lastly, we were interested to see what participant structures were interrogated, focusing in particular on the choice of adult and peer involvement. We note that in the majority of the included studies, there was adult involvement either in the form of active participation in play or other child-adult activities or, alternatively, as a function of the experimental or quasi-experimental methodological designs of the study. The studies pursued mostly group participant structures, here defined as larger than dyads, followed by dyadic structures or combinations of dyads and groups. In one case, the study focus was on individual child writing. See Table  3 for a numerical overview.

Children’s age, study settings, participant structures and adult involvement

 Children’s age, study settings, participant structures and adult involvement

Framing Argumentation

Our analysis shows that, when it comes to framing argumentation as a theoretical concept, there are several common denominators of the corpus as a whole. First, the sample displays a variable degree of specificity in the way argumentation is conceptualized or theorized, ranging from highly specific and theoretically elaborated positions to more diffuse and less theoretically specific positions. Following Schwarz and Baker’s (2017) overarching, two-pronged discursive-structural dimension, our analysis revealed the following more detailed patterns.

In studies where children’s argumentation was analyzed with the aid of pre-defined structural elements and/or relations between these and hence meriting Schwarz and Baker’s (2017) label structural, we identified four distinct approaches. The majority of studies adopted as their main theoretical lens either the pragma-dialectic theory of argumentation (e.g., Bova, 2015a–c; Bova & Arcidiacono, 2013b, 2014, 2018; Convertini, 2021a,b; Greco et al., 2018) or, with a variable degree of elaboration, Mercier and Sperber’s argumentative theory of reasoning (e.g., Domberg et al., 2018; Köymen et al., 2014, 2020a,b; Mammen et al., 2019; Mascaro et al., 2019; Mercier et al., 2014, 2018). A handful of studies drew also on Toulmin’s (1958) theorizing (e.g., Kosko & Zimmerman, 2019; Köymen et al., 2016; Mammen et al., 2018). The last subcategory comprised studies where theoretical positions were not elaborated beyond a specific interest in identifying the basic building blocks of arguments and their characteristics, such as distinctions between types of initial oppositions and types of justifications (e.g., Dunn & Munn, 1987; Tesla & Dunn, 1992). It is of note that studies in our sample may also represent more nuanced theoretical positions within these broader categories, as is, for example, the case with several studies working within the pragma-dialectic tradition and specifically applying Rigotti and Greco’s (2019) Argumentum Model of Topics, an approach developed to aid with the reconstruction of implicit inferential reasoning (e.g., Convertini, 2021a; Greco et al., 2018).

In studies with a distinct focus on the interactional, situated, and, often, sequential patterning of children’s argumentative discourse, categorized as Schwarz and Baker’s (2017) discursive approaches, we detected as the common vantage point an interest in the oppositional nature of children’s argumentation in most studies. A notable nuancing in this regard was provided by Hannken-Illjes & Bose (2018, 2019) who specifically broadened the argumentative vantage point to include both opposition/dissent and cooperativity. Also, in many of these studies, the oppositional nature of argumentation was not further elaborated explicitly but was explored in depth in line with sequential, interactional, or conversation-analytic approaches (e.g., Arcidiacono & Perret-Clermont, 2009; Arendt, 2019; Arendt & Ehrlich, 2020; Bova & Arcidiacono, 2013a; Dovigo, 2016; Ehrlich, 2011, 2019; Eisenberg & Garvey, 1981; Howe & McWilliam, 2001; Shiro et al., 2019). In some cases, more specific argumentation-theoretical and rhetorical positions were adopted (e.g., Bose & Hannken-Illjes, 2020; Hannken-Illjes & Bose, 2018, 2019).

Second, in terms of Schwarz and Baker’s (2017) monologic-dialogic dimension, we note a near-exclusive reliance on the dialogic view of argumentation. In most studies, this was made explicitly clear in the way study authors presented their theoretical and analytical grounding, including studies that drew on discursive approaches to argumentation (e.g., Arendt, 2019; Ehrlich, 2019; Hannken-Illjes & Bose, 2018, 2019; Shiro et al., 2019) as well as studies that pursued structural ends in line with established dialogic theories of argumentation, such as pragma-dialectics (e.g., Bova, 2015a–c; Bova & Arcidiacono, 2013b, 2018; Convertini, 2021a,b; Greco et al., 2018). However, the sample also comprises studies, where the dialogic view was not explicitly thematized or laid out. These were studies where the oppositional nature of argumentation was taken as a vantage point and where an a priori orchestration of more than a single voice in an argumentative exchange could only be assumed. Although these studies could be seen as having the dialogic perspective, at least in part, implicitly weaved in their theoretical texture, they may be described as oscillating between a monologic and dialogic view of argumentation at best. This subcategory is represented primarily by some of the earlier studies in our sample, conducted primarily in the 1970s through to the 1990s (e.g., Dunn & Munn, 1987; Przetacznikowa, 1971; Slomkowski & Dunn, 1992; Tesla & Dunn, 1992).

Third, the included studies displayed a productive eclecticism between argumentation theory and other theorizing, primarily within developmental psychology, the learning sciences, and linguistics. Furthermore, the theoretical pool was represented by different levels of theorizing, including more overarching, meta-theoretical perspectives as well as more specific, lower level theorizing within and across the above subfields. The former, meta-level theories most often included Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theorizing, particularly Piaget’s work on the role of conflict in development and his work on the development of moral reasoning (e.g., Howe & McWilliam, 2001; Mammen et al., 2019) as well as socio-cultural developmental perspectives, rooted in Vygotskian theorizing, most notably his work on the role of language in cognitive development (e.g., Arendt, 2019; Ehrlich, 2019; Ehrlich & Blum-Kulka, 2010) and in Dewey’s experiential learning (Arendt, 2019). The latter, lower level theorizing, was represented by scholarship on issues such as learning designs within science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) research (e.g., Convertini, 2021a, 2021b). A number of studies drew also on language socialization perspectives, more specifically in terms of family interactional research (e.g., Bova, 2015c; Bova & Arcidiacono, 2013a,b, 2015, 2018). Another, more specifically pronounced theoretical dimension was linguistic and discourse-theoretical, particularly as applied to child language development. It was represented by conceptual grounding in as diverse perspectives as systemic-functional grammar in combination with Peircean semiotics (Kosko & Zimmerman, 2019), interactional scholarship on peer talk and child-adult talk (e.g., Ehrlich, 2011, 2019), exploratory talk and sustained shared thinking (Dovigo, 2016), and the more overarching Bakhtinian lens on language acquisition (de Vasconcelos & Leitão, 2016).

Features of Children’s Argumentation

The identified studies bear witness to a wide range of distinct features of young children’s argumentative discourse. We have categorized these as either (a) structural-discursive features, (b) features relating specifically to socio-interactional aspects of children’s argumentation, and (c) developmental features reported in studies with a comparative, longitudinal, or cross-sectional design on different aspects of the first two categories. As this suggests, the categories and subcategories are not discreet, since one and the same study may have pursued more than one single analytical end and, as such, may have been placed under several headings and subheadings, such as structural-discursive and developmental. We elaborate on and exemplify each category, with their corresponding subcategories, below. For additional clarity, the entire taxonomy is also visualized in Figure 2 .

 Taxonomy of features of children’s argumentation.

Taxonomy of features of children’s argumentation.

Structural-Discursive Features

More than a half of the identified studies reported on various structural-discursive features, further subcategorized as relating to one of the following three dimensions: (a) children’s argument construction, (b) children’s argument evaluation, and (c) other meta-features, concerning primarily sources and functions of children’s argumentation. In general, the sample showcases a broad range of these features, attesting to the versatility and heterogeneity of children’s argumentation as well as to children’s capacities as arguers and argumentative agents.

The first dimension predominates in the sample. It comprises findings on children’s use of various linguistic, discursive and argumentative elements, reasoning strategies as well as specific patterns of their use. Przetacz­nikowa’s study (1971), for example, drew early attention to the dominance of situational and functional reasoning in preschool children’s argumentative discourse concerning manipulative and constructional tasks. Pontecorvo & Arcidiacono (2010) on the other hand, document children’s variable use of different argumentative strategies, such as contrafactual reasoning, hypothesizing, and categorization, when they engage in disputes about narratives. The study shows that some of these strategies, such as rhetorical ones, can be transferred across different interactional contexts. Several other studies have interrogated specific types of argumentation schemes in children’s argumentative discourse. Convertini & Arcidiacono (2021) for example, provide empirical evidence on the predominance of causal argumentation in children’s play-based activities with scientific content. Interrogating arguments from authority, Bova’s (2015a, 2015b, 2015c) studies underscore that in child-adult argumentative discourse, it is adults, rather than other children, that represent sources of expertise. Zooming specifically in on the degree of children’s adaptation of their conflict resolution strategies and how it may affect the outcome of argumentative episodes, Eisenberg & Garvey (1981) show that the least adaptive strategies are likely to result in a termination of argumentative episodes, while insistence and nonresponse be reciprocated as such by their interactional partners. More adaptive strategies of reason-giving may lead to concession. Studies also document that children may draw on multimodal resources to put forward different structural elements of arguments, including standpoints, reasons, and conclusions in order to drive their reasoning forward (Convertini & Arcidiacono, 2021; Sumpter & Hedefalk, 2015).

Several studies in the sample pay specific attention to children’s justifications. They attest to children’s early, nonverbal sensitivity to the role of evidence and opponents’ informational access in argumentation (Mascaro et al., 2019) as well as children’s budding competence to differentiate hypothesis from evidence (Koksal-Tuncer & Sodian, 2018). That children’s use of evidence displays both complexity and variation is underscored by Orsolini (1993) and Dunn & Munn (1987). Looking at 3-year-old children, the latter study, for example, nuances the types of justifications children may use as ranging from emotional justifications, to references to social rules and material consequences of different courses of action.

Researchers have also mapped out the functioning of a range of specific linguistic and discursive elements in children’s argumentative discourse. One such element, explored in several studies, is the use of repetitions as an argumentative resource (Arendt, 2019; Arendt & Ehrlich, 2020) and as, in fact, the most frequent strategy, along with insistence, pursued by children vis-à-vis their opponents (Eisenberg, 1987). Rocci et al.’s (2020) study on children’s employment of adversative connectives ( aber, mais, ma – “but” ) in their counterarguments documents its functional versatility, ranging from connecting previous actions to the propositional content of arguments, refuting but also externalizing inner dialogue. Studies by Ehrlich (2019) as well as Ehrlich & Blum-Kulka (2010) explore the use of oral and paradigmatic features in children’s argumentation, showcasing among other things how they may function in establishing criteria of argument relevance, certainty, and acceptance (Ehrlich, 2019). Bova & Arcidiacono’s (2013a) study on children’s why questions in child-adult discourse shows that these serve mostly explanatory rather than argumentative purposes. Investigating children’s use of evaluative and evidential language markers in their stance-taking in peer confrontational discourse, Shiro et al. (2019) found a high occurrence of references to intention and obligation, in the latter case expressed through the use of various deontic expressions, as well as a high degree of assertiveness expressed by the children through negative polarity.

The second dimension concerns children’s argument evaluation, explored experimentally in only two individual studies in our sample (Castelain et al., 2018; Mercier et al., 2018). Both confirm that children display sensitivity to information that may be provided in arguments by their opponents. Mercier et al.’s (2018) findings also offer evidence that children’s capacity to evaluate their opponent’s weak and strong arguments may be affected by linguistic markers in different languages and, hence, be in part linguistically conditioned.

The third dimension comprises findings on what we have termed as meta-features of children’s argumentation. These branch further into two thematic subcategories. First, several studies were preoccupied with interrogating and reporting on the specific functions argumentation may have in children’s discourse. These ranged from an epistemic function, where the establishment of validity rather than simply conflict resolution was explored through children’s activation of multimodal means of communication (Hannken-Illjes & Bose, 2018) or through the use of paradigmatic discursive resources, such as verification or analogy (Ehrlich & Blum-Kulka, 2010). In addition, children’s argumentation was also shown to have a distinct socialization function, for example, in family mealtime exchanges (Bova & Arcidiacono, 2015). A further nuancing of the social function of children’s argumentation was specifically offered by Rytel (1996) who drew attention to its interactional conflict resolution rather than merely content resolution dimension.

In addition to the functions of children’s argumentation, several studies explored explicitly the sources of disagreement that may unleash children’s argumentative exchanges. Findings confirmed that there are numerous issues that may lead to argumentation, including children’s requests (Bova & Arcidiacono, 2013b, 2015), specific issues such as food and behavioral norms (Bova & Arcidiacono, 2015, 2018), or plans and intentions rather than factual information and truth assertions (Sprott, 1992). Importantly, however, while children may not always be the main initiators of argumentative interactions (Bova & Arcidiacono, 2013b, 2015), they are also shown to display argumentative agency by raising discussion issues that matter to them (Schär & Greco, 2018).

Socio-Interactional Features

Nearly two thirds of the sample reported on findings concerning socio-interactional aspects of children’s argumentation, relating primarily to how different contextual features may affect the analyzed argumentative exchanges. Interrogating their nature and prominence, our analysis led to a more nuanced two-pronged subcategorization into (a) the role of the interactional partners and (b) the role of other contextual features. On the whole, the included studies point clearly toward children’s great sensitivity to interactional aspects of context when they engage in argumentative discourse.

Zooming in on the first, most clearly pronounced dimension, the included studies bear concerted witness to children’s sensitivity to the identity, power, and status of their interactional partners. It also asserts their capacities to adjust and accommodate their argumentative strategies and moves accordingly (Arcidiacono & Perret-Clermont, 2009; Eisenberg & Garvey, 1981; Slomkowski & Dunn, 1992). Studies interrogating specifically child-adult argumentative exchanges report, among other things, on children’s sensitivity to adults’ interactional involvement and leadership (Dovigo, 2016; Vasconcelos & Leitão, 2016), underscoring adults’ crucial role in scaffolding and guiding children’s development. Also, Bova & Arcidiacono’s (2013b, 2015, 2018) studies on family mealtime exchanges confirm that age differences as well as differences in competence and roles affect child-adult argumentative discourse, with the adult often taking the lead role in initiating argumentation and by being seen as an authority therein by the child. These studies also corroborate that the types of adults’ and children’s arguments have a close correspondence, a finding also reported with a specific reference to mothers’ and children’s justifications in an earlier study by Dunn & Munn (1987). Interestingly, Mammen et al.’s (2019) study shows that it is not only children who display great sensitivity in acting and interacting as arguers with adults; adults too adjust the way they may challenge children of different ages in their argumentative exchanges, in this particular study manifested in their mutual discussions about picture book stories on moral dilemmas.

Studies on specifically peer interactions attest to similar sensitivity children display toward other children in argumentation and how their argumentative exchanges may provide a platform for a collaborative construction and negotiation of power and status within children’s peer cultures (Meyer, 1992). Additionally, scholars have underscored the key role argumentative peer exchanges may play in fostering a range of skills, including social, cognitive, and linguistic (Arendt, 2019; Ehrlich & Blum-Kulka, 2010; Köymen et al., 2014; Shiro et al., 2019).

The reported findings also specifically thematize the functional and discursive differences between peer and child-adult argumentation. Eisenberg (1987) points out that in terms of argumentation strategies, children display less adaptability and more aggressive argumentative behavior with peers than in argumentative interactions with adults. Ehrlich (2011) documents that peer argumentation displays a high degree of contextualized talk, offering opportunities for building and nurturing interpersonal relations and solidarity. Child-adult talk, on the other hand, was in Ehrlich’s study characterized as decontextualized talk, displaying features associated with school literacy. Looking specifically at the duration of peer and child-adult argumentative discussions, Mammen et al. (2019) provide scientific evidence on their differences, with peer discussions being of a shorter duration. Importantly, researchers have also thematized the misalignments between children and adults in their mutual argumentative exchanges, for example, in terms of implicit premises (Greco et al., 2018) but also in terms of their interpretative worlds (Iannaccone et al., 2019). As the authors underscore, this may lead to misunderstandings as well as underestimation of children’s capacities and agency as arguers.

Moving on to the second, less clearly pronounced dimension, the sample shows that also other features of context, such as the nature of the instructional task (Kosko & Zimmerman, 2019), the specific type of interactional setting (Ehrlich, 2019; Orsolini, 1993; Pontecorvo & Arcidiacono, 2010) but also methodological aspects concerning the study design and choice of data collection methods (Arcidiacono & Perret-Clermont, 2009) may affect what argumentative resources children may activate and how they will be utilized in their argumentative discussions. Furthermore, studies have also shown that the very nature of the interactional framing of children’s argumentative discourse may result in different argumentative activities. Hannken-Illjes & Bose (2019) underscore this very point in their study of peer argumentation established multimodally as either cooperative or agonistic. They show that cooperative situations display interactional synchronicity while uncooperative ones bear witness to the opposite. A correspondence between the frequency of arguments and the degree of cooperativity is also corroborated in Domberg et al.’s (2018) experimental study. Investigating specifically the influence of group competition on children’s argumentative behavior in a subsequent study, Domberg et al. (2021) offer evidence that it may be inconsistent and subject to the task and its nature.

Developmental Features

Studies in our sample also shed light on a range of structural-discursive and socio-interactional features of children’s argumentation in a comparative light through the employment of comparison age groups. We have subcategorized the relevant findings as either thematizing (a) the developing complexity, variation, and sophistication of children’s argumentation and (b) the frequency of children’s use of argumentation or its specific elements. On the whole, the sample attests to a clear developmental trajectory in terms of both the complexity and frequency with which children engage in argumentative discourse.

In terms of the first subcategory, the developmental tendency is reported on aspects concerning both argument construction and argument evaluation. Studies interrogating specifically the use of various argumentative strategies show that children’s competence to offer a more varied range of perspectives on conflictual issues, as opposed to solely offering an oppositive standpoint, grows with age (Rytel, 1996). Furthermore, children become more skilled in identifying and producing relevant and valid counterarguments with age, although the skill can be fostered even in very young children through training (Köymen et al., 2020b). With time, children’s argumentative strategies also become more complex (Arcidiacono & Bova, 2015) as well as more varied and more strategically applied (Domberg et al., 2018). Studies looking at children’s mathematical reasoning strategies also attest to an increasing sophistication (Kosko & Zimmerman, 2019; Krummheuer, 2013).

Studies thematizing specifically children’s justifications and their use of evidence report that some aspects may show a developmental tendency, such as children’s capacity to adjudicate the quality of justifications and to apply them more correctly and consistently (Mammen et al., 2018). Also, children’s reasoning based on perceptual and verbal evidence may grow in sophistication and variation with age (Przetacznikowa, 1971). Sprott (1992) reports age differences in children’s use of justifications in different disputes, showing a greater engagement by older children in factual disputes as opposed to more personal disputes. Nonetheless, studies also report no significant age differences in terms of children’s sensitivity to adjusting the informativeness of their justifications based on shared common ground (Köymen et al., 2016) or in their use of direct evidence (Köymen et al., 2020a).

In terms of comparative findings on socio-emotional aspects of children’s argumentation, studies show growing social sensitivity to reasoning, such as children’s increasing persuasion skills in order to reach an agreement (Köymen et al., 2014), older children’s preference to signal dominance when evaluating arguments (Mercier et al., 2014), and their preference to use argumentation for self-interest promotion rather than reaching an agreement (Tesla & Dunn, 1992). However, studies also report no age differences when it comes to constructing more balanced arguments in cooperative settings or when offering different argument positions (Rytel, 1996). Furthermore, children show increasing sensitivity to the quality of their opponents’ argument (Domberg et al., 2019; Mercier et al., 2014), such as in preferring strong (perceptual) rather than weak (circular) arguments as they grow older.

Lastly, the sample also attests to the growing frequency of children’s arguments with age. This concerns both production of reasons to justify claims (Domberg et al., 2021), the use of indirect evidence under certain conditions (Köymen et al., 2020a), the more explicit use of warrants and justifications as well as children’s increasing tendency to reach mutual agreement (Köymen et al., 2014), or express conflicting positions in disputes (Rytel, 1996). That an increasing frequency in children’s argument construction may be a function of context confirm studies investigating argumentation in peer play (e.g., Arendt, 2019) and in specifically cooperative experimental group settings, where a greater rate of arguments was observed across age groups (Domberg et al., 2018). As Mammen et al.’s (2019) study shows, frequency may also be related to the identity of children’s interactional partners rather than children’s increasing age per se.

Based on a meta-synthesis of 57 individual empirical studies, our review offers a systematic insight on a range of aspects concerning argumentation in the youngest age groups. Showcasing a range of methodological designs adopted over the last five decades of research, the study systematically documents an increasing scientific interest in exploring this budding field across different continents, national contexts, interactional settings, and participant structures. While these descriptive features are necessarily a reflection of our methodological choices and, as such, cannot be taken to provide a complete or authoritative picture of the field, the review does, in our view, shed light on a number of salient tendencies and patterns. With necessary caution, we note that the field displays great methodological, thematic, and conceptual heterogeneity that we see as both productive and necessary, particularly if we are to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of what it takes to argue in the early years.

More specifically, with reference to our first research question, we note that the existing scholarship on young children’s argumentation is profoundly interdisciplinary, drawing on different traditions within argumentation theory as well as a range of other scholastic fields, including developmental psychology, education, linguistics, and discourse studies as the most prominent ones. As such, the review brings systematic scientific evidence on board regarding our initial assumption on the dispersion of studies across different scholastic areas. The construction of any overarching conceptual taxonomy of such a broad and heterogeneous field necessitates a certain degree of simplification. In this endeavor, Schwarz and Baker’s (2017) two-dimensional taxonomy offered a productive springboard to a more nuanced exploration of conceptual patterns in the sample.

In terms of the monologic-dialogic dimension, we found the dialogic view explicitly or implicitly present in most of the included studies. In fact, these were in some cases hard to disentangle and positions were found to be oscillating rather than clearly delineated. This in itself underscores the point that argumentation as a specific form of discourse is per definition predicated on the presence of more than one voice. Indeed, as in other meaning-making processes, polyphony or heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) is weaved in its very theoretical texture. Hence, the monologic view represents at best an analytical distinction, not least in the field of argumentation in the early years.

In terms of the structural-discursive dimension, the included studies can be seen as following either more distinctly structural or discursive aims. While some draw on theoretically elaborated positions, on a broad level represented by pragma-dialectics (van Eemeren, 2018), the argumentative theory of reasoning (Mercier & Sperber, 2011) and, to a lesser degree, Toulmin’s (1958) argumentation model, others operate with the basic structural elements of standpoint and justification/reason as inherent in the concept. Moreover, these broader categories may themselves branch into more nuanced approaches to investigate specific features of children’s argumentation, such as children’s implicit reasoning (Convertini, 2021a; Greco et al., 2018) through the application of the Argumentum Model of Topics approach (Rigotti & Greco, 2019). This then bears witness to a considerable theoretical variation within the field. We note further that the common denominator of the sample as a whole is a view of opposition, disagreement, or a difference of opinion as a defining minimal feature of children’s argumentation. We will argue that this is the case even in studies that propose to see cooperativity as representing a possible initial argumentative framing (e.g., Hannken-Illjes & Bose, 2018, 2019), since opposition is, on our reading, not denied but rather presupposed here as well. Hence, given that the structural aspect, subsuming the oppositional antecedent, is inherent in all argumentation, one can argue that, within the field of argumentation in the early years, the structural-discursive dimension of Schwarz and Baker’s (2017) model represents a continuum, stretching from more to less structural specificity along, primarily, the dialogic dimension.

With reference to our second research question, our review provides a systematic meta-synthesis of scientific evidence on a number of distinct features of young children’s argumentative discourse. First, it bears witness to a breadth of capacities and competencies that very young children may activate not only to resolve disagreement but also to arrive at solutions that are commonly shared and valid in their peer cultures. Building on the now long-established insights from within the sociology of childhood (James et al., 1998; James & Prout, 1997), this positions them as productive arguers and argumentative agents in their own right. In addition, our findings also point toward the importance of argumentation in socializing and initiating children into specific ways of thinking across home, kindergarten, and early school contexts. Building on and broadening Ehrlich & Blum-Kulka’s (2010) concept of peer talk as a double-opportunity space , we therefore propose to see children’s argumentation as a multi-opportunity space in which their linguistic, socio-emotional, and cognitive skills as well as their epistemic understanding can be productively nourished and fostered across different settings and participant structures.

Second, the review points consistently toward children’s utmost sensitivity to the interactional context of exchange. It underscores the role of both peer play and peer talk as a key platform for understanding argumentation in the youngest age groups but also the quintessential role of adults, such as teachers and parents, in fostering children’s capacities as arguers and critical thinkers. It also highlights differences between these conditions and underscores their variable significance for continued growth. However, children’s contextual sensitivity does not end with the interactional partner but extends to other contextual features such as the nature of the task they engage in and that may trigger argumentation, the employed methodological design features but also features of the broader contextual setting. While lending further support to a firmly established insight in early childhood scholarship on the key role of context in children’s learning and development (NAYEC, 2022), it also corroborates Arcidiacono and Perret-Clermont’s (2009) observation on the methodological limitations of earlier scholarship that, insufficiently attentive to this essential nature of very young children’s argumentation, may have led to the underestimation of their argumentative capacities. Additionally, it underscores the continued challenge of investigating preschoolers’ argumentation in scientifically valid ways, calling among other things for researcher vigilance and reflexivity throughout all stages of the research process.

Third, the review reveals clear developmental patterns in children’s argumentation in terms of its complexity, sophistication, variability, and frequency. However, once again, rather than inviting a view of children as argumentative becomings on the way to adult competence, we propose to see these findings as key to understanding the very origins and development of the human capacity to argue. Not only is this knowledge essential for a productive bridging between home, preschool, and school communities of practice, it propels to salience the continued need for locating attention and support in young children’s lived worlds (Dyson, 2013) and in line with developmentally appropriate pedagogical approaches (Barbarin & Wasik, 2011; NAYEC, 2022; Samuelsson & Carlsson, 2008).

While this review provides a systematic insight into the growing knowledge foundation on argumentation in the youngest age group, we see a distinct need for further research. One area of much promise is children’s multimodal argumentation, thematized in our sample through a handful of studies only. Given children’s deeply multimodal and situated way of being and participating in social life, it may open not only for important practical insights with implications for early childhood parenting and professional practice, but also new theoretical advances in the field of argumentation in general and multimodal argumentation in particular. Likewise, given the growing presence of digital tools in children’s everyday lives, studying how very young children potentially make use of digital artifacts as they initiate and advance arguments and negotiate standpoints while engaging in digital play-based and other activities seems to be as yet a largely unexplored territory.

By extension, we also call for a continued cross-fertilization between theoretical approaches as well as a scientifically rigorous interrogation of potential connections and overlaps between very young children’s argumentation and related concepts that were not specifically targeted in this review, such as sustained shared thinking (Siraj et al., 2015), inferential thinking (Collins, 2016), or the even broader concepts of exploratory talk (Mercer & Wegerif, 1998) and low-structured sensemaking, employed in Rapanta & Felton’s (2022) review to describe argumentation activity in early school grades. Rather than assuming the logico-rational conceptualization of argumentation as the only valid vantage point, rendering children’s argumentation a priori as mostly fallacious or deficient and hence not meriting the label in any positive sense, such pursuits may add a new layer to the ongoing conceptual debate within argumentation studies on what forms of argument qualify as such and why (see, e.g., Birdsell & Groarke, 1996; Bubikova-Moan, 2021; Tindale, 2017; Tseronis & Forceville, 2017). In our view, a continued exploration of these and other relevant issues through a sustained scientific effort will advance not only our understanding of the multifaceted nature of argumentation as a quintessential form of human communication but also how the early capacities to argue develop and can be nourished in developmentally sensitive ways so that children can grow to become rigorous arguers and critical thinkers of tomorrow.

We would like to thank our colleagues in the international Kin­der im Gespräch research network for their inspiring comments and suggestions during an earlier stage of the study production process. We would also like to thank our two anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of our work and their constructive and inspiring suggestions on how to improve the original manuscript.

Given that this study is a meta-synthesis of relevant empirical studies, no ethics approval on research subject participation was required.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

The first author has led and contributed to all stages of the study design and production, including all database searches, manuscript screening, and full-text review, as well as the analytical and manuscript production process. The second author has contributed in conceptual and methodological discussions, the full-text review, the analytical validation, and final manuscript production process.

The empirical studies included in this review can be accessed online or as hard-copy manuscripts in the relevant journals.

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386 Childhood Topics and Examples

🏆 best topics about childhood, 👍 good childhood title for essay, 💡 interesting childhood title ideas, 📌 simple & easy titles about childhood, ✍ childhood title ideas, 🎓 most interesting childhood topics to write about, ❓ growing up essay titles and questions.

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  • Generation Gap: Childhood, Adulthood, Old Age At the same period, the younger generation says about the impact of the modern tendencies, changes of the way of life that give an opportunity to claim that the younger generation is more advanced.
  • Impressions of an Indian Childhood It is worth mentioning that the nineteenth century was a period of intensive upheaval of American Indian tribes, which was caused by the danger of disappearance of oral traditions because of the fragmentation of Indian […]
  • Early Childhood Classroom Layouts Based on project constructivism, the environment must be able to offer an environment where children can exercise creativity and learn from the environment presented to them. In addition, the children must be able to feel […]
  • Childhood Obesity: The Precede-Proceed Model Obesity is a rather common health concern in the US, and both scholars and healthcare practitioners have dedicated many efforts to identifying the causes of the disease and finding solutions to it.
  • Creative Arts in Early Childhood Education In turn, the essentiality of the creative arts in the early childhood education have to be depicted to highlight its necessity, and the benefits have to be analyzed.
  • Childhood Obesity: Causes/Solutions Therefore, failure of the government to take precautionary measures such as controlling the foods served to children, introduction of BMI checking to schoolchildren, and planning of anti-obesity campaigns amongst others will automatically threaten the health […]
  • The Effective Early Childhood Educator Effective early childhood educators are the backbone to successful early childhood education. Effective early childhood educators must be able to anticipate and provide the necessary emotional and educational support to their students.
  • Early Childhood Development: Implementing Cognitive, Behavioral, and Social Theories Child development theories explain the ways children grow and change, providing a framework for learning strategies.
  • Problem of Childhood Bullying in Modern Society To begin with, the family which is the basic and the most important unit in the society as well as the primary socializing agent plays a major role in shaping behavior of children include bullying.
  • Moral Development in Early Childhood The only point to be poorly addressed in this discussion is the options for assessing values in young children and the worth of this task.
  • Early Childhood Studies: Role of Social Workers Over the course of time, the idea of social work was developing and soon transformed into a necessary help to those members of the human society who were in need due to the new conditions […]
  • Middle Childhood and Adolescent Development Given the environment that surrounds them, their ideologies, and their characters, adolescents usually face a number of pressures in the process of development and transition into adulthood.
  • Impacts of Fast Food on Childhood Eating Habits The author’s claim that lack of nutritional information on fast food packaging is a major cause of obesity among children and teenagers is not true.
  • Early Childhood Education: Reflection and Research Introduction The school I was attached to was (give the name) and is located in (give area: street and town name or city name). It is a small childcare center set up last year by (give her name) who owns the school. She did not have enough experience in the care of young children and […]
  • Doris Kearns Goodwin’s Childhood in the 1950s It was difficult to compare her with any of her friends in the fifties as she was completely different person. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on how different Doris’ life was from […]
  • Community Resources in Early Childhood Education and Communal Living Quality childcare and early education services play a significant role in determining the young children’s healthy development in Canada.
  • Childhood Disorders: Causes, Prevention and Treatment It also discusses the symptoms associated with these disorders and the methods of treatment including social interventions. Abnormal working of the neurotransmitters or abnormalities in the brain leads to abnormal mental functioning and development.
  • The Alliance for Childhood and Computers in Education Of course, there are certain benefits of computers and the abilities children may get, however, it is necessary to remember about the limits and pay enough attention to active life, healthy food, and real communication […]
  • Developing Language in Early Childhood On the other hand, it will give an overview of the various aspects that address the language acquirement in the early childhood, as well as the factors that influence the language development in young children.
  • Perception of Childhood and Youth Through History The advent of industrialization led to the employment of many young people. The aristocracy and the bourgeoisies took their children to schools as part of the transition into adulthood.
  • Health Promotion for Childhood Obesity by Nazaret The study described in the article spans three years and focuses on the effects of a gamified approach to weight loss in children suffering from obesity.
  • The Problem of Childhood Depression Thus, it is essential to explore the reasons for the disease and possible ways to treat depression in kids. In kids, the prevention of depression is fundamental to understanding the cause of the poor mood […]
  • Child Development in Non-Western Cultures In the LANCY DAVID book, the main theme regards how the modern westerners perceive and handle their children in a different way compared to the annals of culture.
  • Middle Childhood and Adolescence Periods Observation The first participant is a boy of 7, and the following series of questions will be offered to him: Do you like watching the outside world and nature changes?
  • The NAEYC Early Childhood Program: Quality Evaluation With the help of this checklist, educators review the program’s ability to engage parents in the education process and facilitate communication between the staff and families.
  • Creativity and Development in Early Childhood In this scheme the first one, the creative person, is defined by the biological, psychological, sociological and cultural factors, which means that the surroundings where the child grows up are what shapes them as a […]
  • Social Impact of Stress in Childhood Stress in childhood can profoundly affect the cognitive and social development of a person. They can have a life-long impact on the behavior and identify of a person.
  • Causes of Developmental Delays in Early Childhood The review of the literature is focused on the causes of developmental delays in early childhood. The findings of the study indicate that gestation age is a factor that can be used to predict the […]
  • ECE512: Early Childhood Curriculum Thus, it is necessary to take into account the audience of the curriculum, the place and the circumstances of its holding, and what goals the educators expect to achieve.
  • Health Promotion Model in Childhood Obesity Medicine This theory will create a safe space for the patient and staff and improve the relationship and understanding of each other’s needs.
  • Aspects of Childhood Diseases In my opinion, to some factors that may be contributing to an increased incidence of childhood allergies and asthma belong the state of the environment and people’s lack of responsibility for the health of others.
  • Early Childhood Memories Impact on Artists’ Journey The reason for childhood memories to have such profound importance for the development of one’s artistic style and attributes can be explained by the acquisition of the executive function that occurs during early childhood.
  • Examining the Expression of Childhood Nostalgia with the Help of Minimalistic Forms The use of primary colors, thick brush strokes, and slightly blurred lines help to create the sense of a dreamlike setting that reflects the nature of childhood memories with their sense of vagueness perfectly.
  • Culturally Responsive Practices in Early Childhood Education Thus, there are many opportunities to apply your knowledge of your pupils’ background but the thing that makes it important is your ability to communicate with children in a more effective way and prevent the […]
  • Observation: Early Childhood Classroom The activities included playing some toys, playing with plasticine, and listening to the teacher playing the guitar. For instance, when the girls were playing with plasticine, the teacher asked some questions that helped the learners […]
  • MMPI Test in Determining Women Who Were Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse Furthermore, to conduct a successful psychological assessment, a complete medical assessment should be included in the process so that the psychologists performing the test ascertain that the participants’ symptoms are not subject to ailments or […]
  • Approaches Used in Early Childhood Education in the 20th Century The concept of early childhood education began at the beginning of the 20th century. There are two main approaches that are used in early childhood education in the 20th century i.e.the Kindergarten model and the […]
  • Childhood, Adolescence, Young Adulthood Psychology Any intervention that can be used in the prevention of child abuse should focus on the causes of the same and the needs of children who are more prone to abuse.
  • Causes and Development of Sociopathic Tendencies in Early Childhood That Would Be Carried Into Adulthood As such, it is the duty of the parents to seek professional help whenever they observe antisocial tendencies in their children. The characteristics of a sociopath have been highlighted and explanations as to why children […]
  • Educational Management in Early Childhood Education However, it is important to point out that the major concern of contemporary educators is development of standards in the area concerned with children.
  • Designing the Curriculum for Early Childhood Education It is important to ensure that the curriculum is organized in such a manner that the learners are able to follow the instructional content.
  • A Nutrition Guide for Early Childhood The high energy requirements of children must be met in time to promote growth and development. This can be accomplished by including iron-rich foods in the diet and teaching children the importance of including them […]
  • Cognitive, Psychosocial, and Physical Development During Childhood This essay evaluates various aspects of childhood development, the effects of home context on neonatal development, the best practices for new parents, and how the involvement of a child’s father contributes towards the child’s advancement.
  • Influence of Childhood Trauma on Adult Personality The reviewed works of Hampson et al.and Merritt study the connection between latent and active trauma experienced at a young age with adult traits, health problems, and perception of the world.
  • Childhood Obesity as a Serious Public Health Problem Cooperation between medical experts, researchers, and parents is recommended to understand the basics of obesity progress in children today. In this project, the goal is to combine several preventive interventions and understand if they could […]
  • Childhood Learning in a Digital World Continued use of technological gadgets makes children be conversant with the digital devices. Knowledge of the intellectual capabilities of children facilitates the development of computer applications that fit children’s learning style.
  • Early Childhood Lesson Plan The majority of the exercises for the writing and reading skills should be represented, so I will suggest the “Who, What, When, Where and Why” activity.
  • Perspectives of Childhood and Authors’ Views on Childhood In this context, we can see that when children are described as being innocent, they are in effect displayed as entities that are free from evil, that is not guilty of wrongdoing, and unspoiled by […]
  • Bonnin’s “Impressions of an Indian Childhood” In conclusion, Bonnin’s “Impressions of an Indian Childhood” belongs to the canon of a college survey course of American writers for a number of reasons.
  • Say “Stop” to Childhood Obesity: Logic Model The company is related to the priority population since it aims at reducing the rates of childhood obesity among Hispanic children.
  • Leadership in the Early Childhood Field This is the case because early childhood professionals, teachers, and institutional leaders are required to promote desirable behaviors that can support the needs of the targeted chidlren. I strongly believe that my leadership competencies have […]
  • Effects of Childhood Experiences on Self-Destructive Behavior DHS is commonly known to cause future suicidal attempts, what dominates this kind of behavior includes being social-economical disadvantaged, gender researchers found out the female gender are the most affected, having psychiatric disorders, adverse childhood, […]
  • Childhood Friendship and Psychology Based on their research, they have founded a theory, according to which it is assumed that the children consider close relationship, appraisals, and sharing common interests as something very important to them and on the […]
  • Identification, Discussion and Analysis of the Nature of Childhood In the early years of the 17th century, the interpretation of the nature of childhood significantly changed because it was at this period that childhood was first perceived as a separate developmental stage of human […]
  • Childhood Obesity Problem The purpose of the project is to do a survey on the prevalence of obesity and the intervention strategies of preventing the disease in children.
  • Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams The injury became a brick wall in the quest to fulfill my childhood dreams. He also shares his experiences and successes with the world as a way of inspiring people to fulfill their dreams.
  • Comparative Analysis of Early Childhood Education Strategies The two study articles identified are, ‘How to develop sense of direction’ by Mary Evans and the ‘Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Netherlands’ by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.
  • Early Childhood Intervention in Minnesota: Unlocking Potential What is early childhood intervention? To accomplish these schools are part of the interagency with community and county agencies.
  • Parenting Strategies for Early Childhood Development As the case study of a single mother, Aayla, and her children, Sasha and Cayley, shows quite graphically, there is a strong need to help the mother reconsider her parenting approach and use the strategies […]
  • Inclusion in Early Childhood Education: Socio-Economic Factors and Interventions In regard to the issues of validity and biases, the research had no regional segmentation. Inclusion should be developed to equalize the presence of students and develop their abilities in a holistic manner.
  • Early Childhood Care and Education for Disabled Children in Germany This paper discusses some of the initiatives put in place by the Federal government of Germany to deliver better early childhood development and cater to the educational needs of disabled children.
  • State and Federal Policies on Early Childhood Education in the US This analytical paper attempts to review the impacts of the state and federal policies on early childhood education in the US. What are the impacts of the state and federal policies on the funding of […]
  • Childhood Development: Language and Non-Verbal Cognitive Abilities The consensus is that a healthy meal routine provides children with important nutrition and energy to support their growth and development.
  • COVID-19 & Early Childhood Cognitive Development Children who play and have the opportunity to completely involve themselves in their activities grow more intelligent and sophisticated. Both attention span and memory abilities are improved when children have the chance to play for […]
  • Parenting Practices and Theories in Early Childhood While modern parenting practices and thoughts do not specify precisely how to interact with children through the ages of 6-11, they suggest that parents can develop knowledge about children’s development process.
  • Friendship and Peer Networking in Middle Childhood Peer networking and friendship have a great impact on the development of a child and their overall well-being. Students in elementary need an opportunity to play and network with their peers.
  • Childhood Obesity and Nutrition in the United States In this article, the author analyzes how people in the Northeastern United States discussed and valued the concept of ‘option’ in the context of reducing childhood obesity.
  • Early Childhood Development: Fostering Cognitive Growth Sleep and nutrition are integral to a child’s cognitive growth. Caregivers should therefore regulate screen time to ensure nutrition and sleep Sleep is a vital factor affecting a child’s cognitive and language development.
  • Development and Childhood: The Key Issues Thus, an individual learns the world by interacting with the environment and studying the world. This is explained by the fact that a reading individual can process large amounts of information, quickly learn and adapt […]
  • Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences Both a child and his caregiver should undergo the screening process; then, the therapist evaluates the information and diagnoses the number of ACEs the number of criteria present in the specific case.
  • Early Childhood Education: Key Issues PBL learning is a suitable teaching method as it directly involves students in their learning. Describes willingness to interact and raise their hand in class.
  • Financial Difficulties in Childhood and Adult Depression in Europe The authors found that the existence of closer ties between the catalyst of depression and the person suffering from depression leads to worse consequences.
  • Childhood Obesity: Effects and Complications The understanding of the pathogenesis and development of this health condition is now enough and detailed, but the issues of prevention and treatment remain insufficient.
  • Childhood Obesity: Causes and Prevention The article “perceptions of low-income mothers about the causes and ways to prevent overweight in children,” written by Danford, Schultz, Rosenblum, Miller, and Lumeng, focused on the causes and ways to prevent overweight in children.
  • Social Constructs of Childhood UNICEF is the branch of the United Nations that deals with issues affecting children and conducts oversight of how the rights of children are observed in their countries.
  • Childhood Trauma Long-Term Psychological Outcomes Moreover, ethical considerations are to be implemented during study conduction, which will limit certain challenger correlated with the lack of focus on privacy, confidentiality, and consent.
  • The Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity The study by Mahajan et al.will be engaged to identify the prevalence of obese children in a particular region to confirm the relevance of the intervention presented in the PICOT question.
  • “Childhood and Adolescent Obesity”: Article Review In the article “Childhood and adolescent obesity: A review,” the authors examine the different treatment options for obesity and argue that current medication is the most effective approach to addressing this issue.
  • Childhood Obesity: Review and Recommendations The main focus of the research articles was on the cluster randomized-controlled trials of the interventions for a specified timeline between the years 1990 to 2020.
  • Early Childhood Financial Support and Poverty The mentioned problem is a direct example of such a correlation: the general poverty level and the well-being of adults are connected with the early children’s material support.
  • Environmental Psychology: The Impact of Interior Spaces on Childhood Development Nevertheless, with regards to children and their physical and cognitive development, environmental psychology addresses how experiences and exposures to various socio-environmental components affect children’s brain structure and their ability to control their emotions and behaviors.
  • Childhood Depression in Sub-Saharan Africa According to Sterling et al, depression in early childhood places a significant load on individuals, relatives, and society by increasing hospitalization and fatality and negatively impacting the quality of life during periods of severe depression.
  • Advanced Childhood Experiences and Adult Health Due to the Dunedin Study starting in the early 70s and the knowledge of the existing since the 90s, the investigation’s definitions of retrospective and prospective adverse childhood experiences were somewhat necessarily varying.
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences: Literature Review Assignment However, it is logical that ACE screening and communication with young patients can increase the chances of identifying dysfunctional family life patterns or children’s poor quality of life and connecting families to the right resources.
  • Impact of Childhood Trauma on Person At the same time, in the overwhelming majority of cases, the lifestyle, the appropriate environment, and the atmosphere can create conditions for the depletion of internal reserves necessary to survive the bitterness of loss.
  • Gender and Racial Differences Understanding in Childhood It is extremely important to talk to young children about racial differences correctly to avoid the appearance of prejudices and misunderstandings.
  • National Occupational Standards for Early Childhood Educators For example, both Section A in the National Occupational Standards and the first standard of the college of ECE are both focused on the importance of child development and well-being.
  • Biological Embedding of Childhood Adversity by Berens et al. The article contains an analysis of the adverse childhood experience associated with the deterioration of human health in the aftermath. Violation of the regulation of glucocorticoids contributes to the formation of oncogenic tumor cells, which […]
  • The Problem of Childhood Obesity in New York City Overweight and its complications are found in adults and children, and the number of cases increases each year. The leading causes of obesity in children are genetic factors, lack of physical activity, and eating disorders.
  • Childhood Obesity: Prevention and Management Often attributed to a combination of hereditary problems and an unhealthy lifestyle, it is considered to be one of the leading causes of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases amongst youth.
  • Diet Quality and Late Childhood Development The analytics of the children with low diet quality brain functioning shows the regression leading to the mental health deviation. Thus, the dieting quality is an essential factor in developing the physical and psychological health […]
  • Effects of Future Advancement on Childhood Obesity With the current advancement in genetics, scientists will in the future be able to exclude genes that cause childhood obesity. High amounts of calories have been the cause of childhood obesity.
  • Childhood Ear Infection and Determinants of Health However, in childhood and adolescents, the risk factors are meningitis and diverse infections, accumulation of fluid in the ear, and chronic ear infections.
  • Studying the Childhood Obesity Problem The study’s design is considered quasi-experimental, as the authors included the results of a survey of physicians in the conclusions of the study.
  • Analysis of Childhood Obesity Problem The government will have to channel a considerable amount of taxpayers’ money to programs that aid in creating awareness to the most affected social class on childhood obesity and designing related rehabilitation programs.
  • Preventing Childhood Exposure to Addiction-Forming Factors The implementation of the method relied on the use of advanced questionnaire that provided the researchers with sufficient data to reflect and address the children’s inclination toward any form of addiction. Evidently, the role of […]
  • Childhood Obesity in Context of Dietetics The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature on the topic of childhood obesity, analyze this problem through the field of dietetics and nutrition, and point out gaps and conflicting details in […]
  • The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA): Aims and Advantages For example, people who are in the United States under this program can contribute to the fight against coronavirus, being students of medical and educational institutions.
  • Aggressive Disorders in Childhood This is only a small part of the requests that the method of doll therapy and art therapy in particular works with.
  • Early Childhood Behavioral Intervention in Primary Care The goal of the study was to learn more about parents’ preferences for the content and approach of mental health counseling in pediatric primary care.
  • Spiritual Development in Childhood While it might be challenging to explain faith to a child, it is necessary to create a basis for it early on.
  • Alice Walker’s Beauty: Accident From Childhood As such, group membership is likely to have both negative and positive effects on members and the group as a whole.
  • Children’s Literature and the Definition of Childhood More importantly, it helps parents in having a better understanding of their children and how to make the best out of them.
  • Childhood Caries: Research Discussion For example, Ezer, Swoboda, and Farkouh in their study on early childhood caries revealed that ECC has become a serious issue as far as the health of children and infants is concerned.
  • Educational Models in Early Childhood Education This presentation will delve into early childhood education models and apply this knowledge to the needs of people in San Dimas.
  • Repressed Memory in Childhood Experiences The suffering often affects a child’s psychological coping capacity in any respect, and one of the only ways of dealing with it is to force the memory out of conscious perception.
  • Professionals in Early Childhood Special Education Key sections of this document highlight the inclusion/exclusion criteria, coding processes, data analysis methods, findings of the literature search, limitations of the review, and the implications of the findings.
  • The Issue of Childhood Obesity The thesis that further research is intended to validate is that educational programs for parents and their children could help slow down the spreading of the issue of childhood obesity and provide stakeholders with additional […]
  • Classroom Design in Early Childhood Education Children need to be taught to understand that they cannot mock or otherwise mistreat others based on their background or other characteristics.
  • Young Man With a Troubled Childhood Case Study Analysis One is that I am against being gay at a young age and it was wrong for Jude’s friend from the BK to introduce him to a gay friend.
  • Different Theories on Play – Play Advocacy in Early Childhood Education He made several emphases on the role of play as a crucial factor in the further development of a child. The theory stands on the hypothesis that a child has much knowledge about the world, […]
  • The Effect of Childhood Bilingualism on Episodic and Semantic One of the main points of the study work is to implement memory tasks similar in advantage and thematic background for two groups of children living in a multinational society.
  • Childhood Obesity and Parental Education The thesis is as follows: parents should cooperate with local organizations to receive and provide their children with education on healthy living and the dangers of obesity because they are responsible for their children’s diet.
  • Messages in “The Cranes Are Flying” and “Ivan’s Childhood” Films The directors of these two films decided to change the focus from the war to the effects of conflicts on specific individuals in the movie.
  • Childhood Dental Problems: Antibiotic and Analgesic Self-Medication Practices People from disadvantaged backgrounds were more likely to medicate their children, usually with antibiotics and analgesics due to their ability to alleviate pain.
  • Resource Collection on Early Childhood Education To get the right telephone number and name of the agency one can call the information operator from their country for information. The other way is to call the Red Cross agency and ask for […]
  • Childhood and Adolescence Psychology One of the examples given about the effects of cultural differences in the definition of intelligence is between the Taiwanese and the Americans.
  • Childhood Obesity, Diabetes and Heart Problems Based on the data given in the introduction it can be seen that childhood obesity is a real problem within the country and as such it is believed that through proper education children will be […]
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences With Incarcerated Parents The Method of Data Collection: Mixed: survey and secondary data will both be utilized. The Research Design: First, there will be a survey of families in which there are incarcerated parents.
  • Non- and Medical Interventions to Childhood Obesity At the end of the study, the hypothesis will be tested. The researcher will apply the variables during data collection and further in the analysis of the study.
  • Addressing Childhood Obesity The first barrier that is faced in the implementation of a new public health approach is in relation to the members of community in which the new intervention is being introduced.
  • Reinforcing Nutrition in Schools to Reduce Diabetes and Childhood Obesity For example, the 2010 report says that the rates of childhood obesity have peaked greatly compared to the previous decades: “Obesity has doubled in Maryland over the past 20 years, and nearly one-third of youth […]
  • Implementing a Permanent Exercise Regimen in Schools to Decrease Childhood Obesity According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the level of obesity in children doubled in the recent 30 years.
  • Childhood Pedestrian Injuries and Deaths This study shows that increasing cases of childhood pedestrian deaths and injuries are major sources of concern for the public health sector in Oakland, California.
  • Pedestrian Childhood Injuries in the US In the discussions of the study by Schieber and Vegega, the research is designed to employ the utilization of the results of the recommendation of a conference on a “panel to prevent pedestrian injuries” held […]
  • Reducing Childhood Pedestrian Injuries The main significance of this study is to address some of the ways in which childhood pedestrian safety can be reduced in society to minimize the number of lives lost on the roads each year […]
  • Childhood Development: Naturalistic Assessment The five year old child in the school going age group was free and interactive with the rest of the peers.
  • Childhood Obesity: Literature, Policy and Implications for Practice This study whose results was a wakeup call to the nurses to teach and create awareness on childhood obesity, showed that some parents were not aware of the role of physical activity in curbing childhood […]
  • Reducing Childhood Obesity: Implementation and Evaluation Plans One of the solutions to the problem of childhood obesity is the proposed plan which is aimed at increasing community awareness regarding the problem, encouraging the members of the community to participate in the plan, […]
  • Reducing Childhood Obesity In this case, this paper aims at reviewing the external and internal validity of the research carried out on reduction of child obesity.
  • Mother’s Perception on Childhood Obesity in Libya Based on this, the objectives of the study are: To find out mothers of obese children’s perception about the causes of obesity in their children.
  • Childhood Development and Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular diseases are not as prevalent among children as they are among adults; however, a number of factors that children are exposed to during their development predispose them to the diseases in adulthood.
  • Family Relationship, Childhood Delinquency, Criminality In regard to the relationship between the effect of various factors involved in a child’s upbringing and the likelihood of becoming a criminal during adulthood, varied findings were made.
  • Childhood Obesity as an Issue in Public Health The paper will also touch on the prevalence of the health challenges in statistical terms, how childhood obesity relates to communities, the financial impact of childhood obesity, and the goals and objectives for the future.
  • Epidemiology Discussions: Childhood Obesity Disease Obesity is a serious disease among children of Chicago. As a rule, it is measured by the use of a Body Mass Index.
  • Children Health. Childhood Obesity Obesity is “a BMI 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex”. The mainstays of treatment for childhood obesity are a focus on diet and physical activity.
  • Childhood Bronchial Asthma: Process & Outcome Measures The evidence that is used to support the adoption of this measure is the guideline on clinical practice, as well as the procedure of formal consensus.
  • The Management of Childhood Obesity From the key elements of this theory, the challenges posed by childhood obesity can indeed be expounded and addressed. One of the social issues that the theory can explore is obesity.
  • Childhood Obesity Prevention: Collaborative Education Program The main responsibility of the nursing fraternity is to launch an education program that can sensitize parents, children and caregivers in regards to the prevention of obesity.
  • Disseminating Evidence: Childhood Obesity The attendees at the meeting will also publish the proposed solutions and results of the research study. It is also vital to mention that researchers of the study will be expecting feedback after the convention.
  • Developing an Evaluation Plan: Prevent Childhood Obesity It is crucial to mention that the plan was based on the views of all stakeholders who took part in the research program.
  • Childhood Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has continued to increase among children suffering from obesity. There has been a significant increase in the number of children suffering from T2DM.
  • “Stakeholder Engagement in the Department” Department of Education and Early Childhood Development The practice will benefit both the organization and its stakeholders. The stakeholders will also ensure their organization is on the right track.
  • The Problem of Childhood Obesity in Florida For instance, modification of meals given to children at school and at home will lead increase the number of schools that offer healthy meals as stated in the objectives of the program.
  • Conflict Scripts and Styles Learnt in Childhood Once the conflict becomes violent, it becomes hard for the people to enjoy the opportunities to shape the future, as the situation would be worse.
  • Childhood Obesity: The New Epidemic The school acted as a representative of the other elementary schools in the country and the findings and recommendations are therefore applicable to other elementary schools.
  • The Studies of Childhood Obesity
  • Hmong Healing Practices Used for Common Childhood Illnesses
  • The Constructs of Childhood in Afghanistan
  • The Problem of the Childhood Obesity
  • Primary Prevention of Childhood Obesity Guideline
  • The Basics of Good Nutrition in Childhood
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Mental Well-Being: Evidenced-Based Practice
  • The Problem of Childhood Poverty
  • Elimination of Religious Exemptions to Childhood Vaccines in New Jersey
  • Childhood Obesity Intervention and Its Effectiveness
  • Investigating a Cultural Practice: Early Childhood Education Through the Lens of the Latino Culture
  • The Problem of Childhood Obesity
  • Childhood Mental Disorders Factors
  • The Problem of the Childhood Obesity in Modern Society
  • Childhood Comparison in Andersen Stories
  • Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risk in San Salvador
  • How Insiders and Outsiders Affect Childhood Lives
  • Fluency in Acquired Childhood Aphasia
  • Aboriginal Peoples Studies: School and Work
  • Process of Researching in Childhood
  • Brain Development in Adolescence and Childhood
  • Childhood Obesity and Related Program Evaluation
  • Early Childhood Philosophy of Learning
  • Pharmacological Therapies in Treating Childhood Behavioral Disorders
  • ‘Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams’ by Randy Pausch
  • Television Plus Junk Foods Equal Childhood Obesity
  • “An American Childhood” Book by Annie Dillard
  • Exceptional Child in Early Childhood Settings
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences Cause Depression
  • Childhood Obesity: Problems and Issues
  • Can Early Childhood Intervention Prevent Delinquency?
  • Observational Approaches in Childhood Education
  • A Berlin Childhood by Walter Benjamin
  • The Concept of “Childhood” in Relation to Current Government Policies on Children
  • Advertising and Childhood Obesity
  • The Treatment of Childhood in Victorian Literature
  • Childhood Disorders: Shyness Explained
  • Advertising as a Current Issue in Childhood Obesity
  • Childhood Obesity: Prevention Methods
  • School Lunches Addressing Childhood Obesity
  • Early Childhood Education Assessment Tools
  • Professionalism in the Early Childhood Environment
  • Antibiotic and Analgesic Self-Medication Practices Among Parents for Childhood Problems
  • Engaging Families in Early Childhood Learning
  • Federal Immigration Policy: Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
  • Adverse Childhood Events: Maria’s Case
  • Maria Montessori: Impact on Modern Early Childhood Education
  • Childhood Obesity, Its Causes and Proposed Solutions
  • Lifespan Development and Learning Disabilities in Childhood
  • Childhood Obesity in Health Science Interview
  • Instructional and Behavioral Support in Early Childhood
  • Safe Early Childhood Learning Environments Analysis
  • Early Childhood Learning Centers and Public Funding
  • Childhood Obesity and the United States’ Sustainability
  • Childhood Diseases and Vaccination Issues
  • Elizabeth Palmer Paebody and Childhood Education
  • Early Childhood Education Methodology
  • Exploring Early Childhood
  • Middle Childhood and Adolescence Development
  • Bias and Discrimination in Early Childhood Care Centers
  • Childhood Behavior and High School Graduation
  • Kinship Concept for Childhood Social Worker
  • Childhood Fantasies in “Monsters” by Anna Quindlen
  • Childhood Definition Reflecting Cultural Changes
  • Assistive Technology in Early Childhood Education
  • Early Childhood Political and Pedagogical Landscape
  • Childhood During the Revolution and War Years
  • Responsible Advertising to Reduce Childhood Obesity
  • Childhood Sexual Abuse and False Memories
  • Psychiatry: Childhood Bipolar High-Risk Study
  • Early Childhood in Family Environment
  • Marketing Early Childhood Programs
  • Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
  • Childhood Obesity and Its Causes in the US
  • Fast-Food Marketing and Childhood Obesity in the USA
  • American Military Early Childhood Care System
  • Childhood Obesity and Food Culture in Schools
  • Sports Programs and Their Role in Childhood
  • Family and Childhood Sociology and Changes
  • Childhood Obesity Advocacy Campaign
  • Childhood and Adult Obesity
  • Google Trends Analysis of Childhood Obesity
  • Devic’s Disease in Childhood
  • Childhood Psychological Abuse
  • Inclusion Aspect in the Modern Early Childhood Education
  • Queer Theory in Early Childhood Gender Equity
  • Socialization in Early Childhood Center
  • Childhood Experience Resulting in Adult Deviance
  • Early Childhood Special Education: Engaging Students
  • The Birth of Childhood by Ann Gibbons
  • Early Childhood Classrooms Observation
  • Speech-Language Therapy in Early Childhood
  • Afghani Childhood in “The Kite Runner” by Hosseini
  • Access and Equity in Early Childhood Classrooms
  • Master’s Degree of Arts in Early Childhood Education
  • Emotional Regulation in Early Childhood
  • Childhood Obesity Prevention by Yakima Community
  • Childhood Obesity Policy Actions
  • Capellaville Early Childhood Family Education: School Readiness
  • Early Childhood Education and Administration
  • Early Childhood Education Centre in New Zealand
  • Inclusion in Early Childhood Education
  • Suffolk’s Early Childhood Development Program
  • Life-Span Development With Childhood Obesity
  • Childhood Obesity: Obamacare and Canada’s Policies
  • Childhood Trauma, Its Effects and Therapeutic Process
  • The History of Childhood in a Global Context
  • Childhood Abuse as a Cause of Personality Disorder
  • Early Childhood Education Governance and Phases
  • Childhood Bullying and Adulthood Suicide Connection
  • Patterns of Knowing in Nursing: Childhood Obesity
  • Early Childhood Special Education
  • Childhood and Five Stages of Loss
  • The World of Childhood and Media Influence
  • Little Scholars Center’s Early Childhood Program
  • Childhood Memories in Doyle’s, Griffin’s, Foer’s Works
  • Learning a Foreign Language in Childhood
  • Childhood Obesity in Present Day Society
  • Childhood Obesity Prevention in Present Day Society
  • Childhood Developmental Stages in Psychology
  • Early Childhood Learning Centre in Zayed University
  • Literature – Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood by Marjane Satrapi
  • Early Childhood Classroom Strategies
  • Sociocultural Issues in Early Childhood
  • Childhood Obesity Causes and Outcomes
  • Sustainability’s and Childhood Obesity’ Relations
  • Early Childhood Socialization
  • Healthcare: Childhood Asthma and the Risk Factors in Australia
  • Childhood Obesity’s Adverse Effects
  • Addressing the Issues of Childhood Obesity
  • Undocumented Childhood in the United States
  • Middle Childhood Student. Study on Concentration
  • Childhood Obesity and Nutrition
  • The Use of Interactive Whiteboards in Guided Inquiry-Based Learning in Early Childhood Education
  • Effects of Childhood Experiences on Self Injurious Behavior in Adulthood
  • Childhood Obesity Scientific Studies
  • Childhood Obesity as a Serious Health Problem of the World
  • Cognition and Development in Early Childhood
  • Effects of Technology on Childhood Obesity
  • Hispanic Childhood Poverty in the United States
  • Childhood Traumatic Grief and Effective Treatment
  • Childhood Obesity in the United States
  • Childhood Obesity and Advertising
  • Childhood Assumptions in Conflict Resolution
  • Childhood Obesity in Developing Countries – A Global Health Issue
  • Early Childhood Education and Development in the US
  • Childhood and Development
  • Division for Early Childhood
  • Issues in Early Childhood Policy and Pedagogy. Reading Journal Submission
  • Democratic Space Is Relevant in Early Childhood Education
  • Childhood Schizophrenia: Causes and Management of This Mental Disorder
  • Childhood Education by Filler, J & Xu, Y
  • Childhood Obesity
  • Relationship Between Childhood Understanding or Construction and Child Intervention
  • Childhood SES and Obesity
  • The Socio Economic Implications of Childhood Obesity and Control Strategies
  • Childhood Evolution and History
  • Early Childhood Education and Special Education
  • Childhood Obesity as Big Problem in the Contemporary Society
  • Childhood Obesity’ and Poor Health Indicators’ Connection
  • American Culture and Childhood
  • Cold Virus Strain Linked to Childhood Obesity
  • Parents Attitude Towards the Importance of Childhood Nutrition
  • Childhood in the Multimedia Age
  • Interesting Findings on the Brain Development in the Childhood
  • Childhood Depression & Bi-Polar Disorder
  • The Sociology of Religion: Childhood Indoctrination
  • Childhood Traumatic Grief
  • Importance of the Childhood Inoculations
  • Concept of Childhood Emotions in Psychology
  • Social Relationships in Childhood
  • Abuse in Childhood Common Among Alcohol Addicts
  • Teaching Philosophy in Early Childhood
  • Eliezer’s Lost Childhood and the Image in the Mirror
  • Quality Early Childhood Education in Preventing High School Dropouts
  • A Child and Society; the Role of the Society in Enhancing Sustainable Development Through Childhood Education
  • The Childhood Obesity in Toledo, Ohio: Problem and Possible Solutions
  • Emotional Exhibition in Children
  • Childhood Obesity in the Contemporary American Society
  • Matter of Childhood Obesity
  • Concept of Childhood Depression
  • Causes and Solutions of Childhood Obesity
  • Effective Practices in Early Childhood Education
  • The Problem of Obesity in Childhood
  • Computers & Preschool Children: Why They Are Required in Early Childhood Centers
  • Poverty and Its Effects on Childhood Education
  • Childhood Obesity and Cold Virus
  • Childhood Development and Sexual Behavior
  • Staff Manual to Guide the Early Childhood Education Worker
  • Childhood Obesity: Factors and Effects
  • Early Childhood Program
  • Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse
  • Early Childhood Observation
  • The Reggio Emilia and Montessori Approaches Used in Early Childhood Education in the 20th Century
  • Childhood Obesity: A Major Concern for Children’s Health in the United States
  • In the Eye of a Boy: Back Into the Childhood
  • How Childhood Trauma Leads to BPD
  • ‘Sociometric Stability and the Behavioral Correlates of Peer Acceptance in Early Childhood’
  • How Are Fast Food Advertising and Childhood Obesity Related?
  • Can Breastfeeding Prevent Childhood Obesity?
  • How Do Charles Dickens and Harper Lee Present the Experience of Childhood?
  • Can Getting Enough Vitamin D During Pregnancy Reduce the Risk of Getting Asthma in Childhood?
  • How Do Child Abuse and Neglect Affect Childhood?
  • Can Intensive Early Childhood Intervention Programs Eliminate Income-Based Cognitive and Achievement Gaps?
  • How Do Childhood Experiences Affect Our Adult Nature?
  • Did Childhood Not Exist During the Medieval Period?
  • How Does Culture Affect Childhood Development?
  • Can the Major Public Works Policy Buffer Negative Shocks in Early Childhood?
  • How Did Adolf Hitler’s Childhood Impact the Holocaust?
  • Can the Target Set for Reducing Childhood Overweight and Obesity Be Met?
  • How Does America Address Childhood Obesity?
  • What Are the Benefits Of Early Childhood Education?
  • How Does Childhood Obesity Affect Children’s Success in Elementary Schools?
  • What Are Three Significant Influences That Shaped Maya Lins’s Childhood?
  • How Does Transcendentalism Influence Childhood?
  • What Are the Difference Between Childhood and Adulthood?
  • How Does William Blake Portray Children and Childhood in His Poetry?
  • Why Is Early Childhood Education Important?
  • How Can Early Childhood Programs Help Close the Achievement Gaps in Public?
  • Why Has Childhood Obesity Become a Paramount Problem in the United States?
  • How Does Early Childhood Trauma Effect the Ability to Learn in a Traditional Educational Setting?
  • How Did Erik Erikson Describe the Social and Emotional Development in Childhood?
  • How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?
  • How Do Poets Describe the Ending of Childhood Innocence?
  • How Should Childhood Depression and Anxiety Be Treated/Dealt With?
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178 Childhood Education Research Topics & Essay Examples

📝 childhood education research papers examples, 🎓 simple research topics about childhood education, 👍 good childhood education essay topics to write about, ⭐ interesting topics to write about childhood education, 🏆 best childhood education essay titles, ❓ childhood education research questions.

  • Learning Fractions Through Gameplay Researchers of the game-based learning offer a framework that evaluates the games’ support of formal studies, focusing on inquiry, communication, construction, and expression.
  • Child Development and Education: Physical Exercise Human development refers to the process of growing to maturity. A child needs to have good physical activities, in order to develop to a healthy adult.
  • Environment in Early Childhood Education The paper reviews the history of early education and argues that the context and environment is the key strategy applied to the modern education of young children.
  • Curricular Issues in Early Childhood Education In the unit, “Curricular Issues,” Paciorek asserts that teachers have a role to inspire, encourage and influence children in the learning process.
  • Early Childhood Education Standards and Practices The purpose of developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood education is to address the issues of individual ways of children's development.
  • Child Advocacy in Education Children constitute some of the most vulnerable groups in society. The main aim of this paper is to address child advocacy in relation to education issues that concern children.
  • Early Childhood Education: Studies Review Studies on early childhood education have been conducted in various countries. This paper reviews three studies that were conducted in Germany, Netherlands and the USA.
  • Early Childhood Profession in Australia This report analyses the state of early childhood profession in Australia. Numerous features characterise early childhood profession.
  • Philosophy of Children Education A teacher to be aware of diverse learning styles to establish a style of learning for every learner and devise appropriate instructional strategies.
  • Educational Leadership for Children's Needs The present issues in early childhood education management and leadership prove that educational leaders need to pay more attention to the quality of leadership.
  • Intervention for Young Children with Learning Disabilities This paper discusses strategies that teachers could use to educate children with learning disabilities and how the Response to Intervention could support their educational outcomes.
  • Maria Montessori and Her Three Education Theories Maria Montessori transformed early childhood education through her theories of early childhood education. Scholars consider Montessori to be among the earliest educators.
  • Quality Early Childhood Program Comprehensive services are the component that improves the care given to the children within the educational facility.
  • Early Childhood Education: Leadership and Management Being a teacher means taking on a number of diverse roles. A teacher is a leader who should have the ability to manage children's talents and capabilities.
  • Early Childhood Political and Pedagogical Landscape In New Zealand the government fails to hire qualified teachers in pre-school centres and child minding facilities. This condition can affect the quality of education for children.
  • Extracurricular Activities for the Middle Childhood Ages Extracurricular activities are essential for children aged 6-10 as they begin to connect more with society, make friends, and enjoy being a part of a group.
  • The Educational Process in Early Childhood The use of a method including all types of indicators will signify the precise results of the conducted study and contribute to the development of educational strategies.
  • Ethical Dilemmas in Early Childhood Education One of the core ideas of ethics in early childhood education is that both a child's and a family's interests are essential in children's development.
  • Maria Montessori: Education as an Aid to Life In the current essay, the question of how education is an aid to life, according to Maria Montessori, is addressed.
  • The Process of Children’s Education: Parents’ Participation The purpose of this study is to reveal the benefits and disadvantages of the parent’s participation in the process of children’s education.
  • Literacy Development for Preschoolers The article focuses on the importance of early literacy development in preschoolers and methods that will help teachers in this.
  • Montessori Method: Human Tendencies and Inner Needs The Montessori method relies on the intrinsic desire to learn that can be encouraged in a purposefully built environment without interference from adults.
  • The Child Assessment Cycle in Education The purpose of this paper is to describe the child assessment cycle and related teacher responsibilities and explain how the child assessment cycle benefits students.
  • Early Childhood Education Children growing in proper care and correct guidance in their childhood education are more successful in their interactions with others, popular and more at ease in life.
  • The Curriculum at the Child Education Center The curriculum at the Child Education Center is both academic and co-curriculum based and this means that we value both the academic performance and talents of the children.
  • Censorship in Children’s Educational Materials It can be suggested that school materials need to be censored to some extent, and this point of view is going to be analyzed further.
  • Montessori Method in the Modern Times The Montessori method of education offers an alternative to traditional instructional principles, these days it is returning to the modern scientific scope.
  • Quality Early Childhood Education Program The educators, supervisors and caregivers involved into work with children are to be properly trained and master the practice of teaching including all techniques and methods.
  • Adult Education in the United States This paper uses the case of the United States to address the increasing desires and demands of adult education in contemporary times.
  • Importance of Conducting Effective Child Sex Education This essay will discuss the significance of conducting effective child sex education, and it will also discuss factors that have hampered the effectiveness of child sex education.
  • Adolescents and Disengagement from Education One out of ten teenagers between sixteen and eighteen years old is either disengaged in education, professional training, or even employment.
  • The United Arab Emirates Early Education Policy The UAE Early Education Policy will help to update the educational system so that students could acquire the necessary skills in a more efficient manner.
  • Current Issues in Primary Education. Need for a “Guardian” Through media outlets, such as the “Guardian” and the “Times”, commentators can voice their criticisms of design for the future of education in the United Kingdom.
  • Aspects of the Child’s Development and Education The paper states that parental involvement can be understood as the family’s participation in different aspects of their child’s development and education.
  • Play-Based Philosophy for Early Childhood Education Play-based educational programs use games as a context for learning, where preschoolers can explore, discover, solve problems, and experiment in playful and imaginative ways.
  • Overcoming Stereotypes in Early Childhood Education Overcoming stereotypes in early childhood education is essential for raising children who would recognize all people around them as equals and treat them with respect.
  • The Meaning of Early Childhood Educator Encouraging early childhood development is vital for assisting a child in gaining the knowledge and skills appropriate for their age at a later stage of their life.
  • Communication with Children within Education Communication and interaction with all stakeholders are the keys to success in any field of activity. This principle also applies to education, including the teaching of children.
  • Early Childhood Educator: Pedagogical Mission and Approach An early childhood educator is an important figure in a child’s life. Aside from providing knowledge, one should facilitate child's socialization and transmit universal values.
  • Early Education in California The outcome of the assessment has a direct influence on the development of programs, their financing, and overall continuation.
  • Children with Disabilities: Educational Programs Children with disabilities need a special approach to learning that requires equipped classes, teachers who will take into account the physical characteristics of the disabled.
  • The Concept Map of Childhood Education This paper aims to construct a concept map that provides an overview of the most important theories and approaches in the field of early childhood education.
  • Ideal Educational Experience: The Role of Primary School Teachers’ Attitudes Primary school is an important stage in the life of every child. In primary school, children begin to learn more consciously to communicate with each other.
  • Examination of Major Effects of Poverty on Children's Education Quality education is a necessary part of a growing individual’s life, allowing them to obtain access to unique possibilities and secure a successful path.
  • The Early Childhood Education Early Childhood Education is an internationally recognized research and professional institute for children's development.
  • Leadership in the Context of Early Childhood Education The teacher played a leadership role in motivating and coordinating a team of colleagues, acquiring information about the community, and researching children's educational needs.
  • Assessments in Early Childhood Education This essay provides insight into various assessments and methods required to focus on the whole child. The classroom assessments should be organized.
  • Potential Setting Modifications for Children Education The first setting modification that can be applied is the introduction of visual aids for some tasks. The second would be to introduce equipment aids, most importantly a walker.
  • Enhancing Vocabulary in Childhood: Article Summary This summary is based on the literature review article “Closing the Vocabulary Gap? A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices” by Christ and Wang.
  • Childhood Education: The Montessori Approach and the Reggio Emilia Theory This research paper examines the problem of childhood education, using the Montessori approach and the Reggio Emilia theory.
  • Special Education for Children with Mental Disorders Problems of learning and school adaptation of children and adolescents with mental disorders are most urgent in modern social psychiatry.
  • The Osmo Genius Starter Kit: Turkish Early Childhood Education Curriculum The Osmo Genius starter kit is a learning system that integrates physical play with the digital world. This tool is manufactured for elementary school-aged children.
  • Family Participation in a Child’s Education This paper claims that family participation has positive influences on children’s learning, including boosting academic achievement and better attendance rates.
  • Personal Code of Ethics for Early Childhood Educator A code of ethics is important for people not only as individuals but as professionals as well. It represents moral, religious, and cultural upbringing.
  • Planning and Teaching in a Preschool Setting The teacher's job is to plan learning activities that begin with the development of learning objectives and continue through implementation and evaluation in a preschool setting.
  • Aspects of Childhood Learning The paper states that playful learning activities can help children and teachers exceed standards since they are properly engaged in activities.
  • Reggio Emilia’s Approaches to Children’s Education The task of educating infants and toddlers is a complex initiative that requires adopting appropriate frameworks for better results.
  • Diversity in Early Childhood Education The increasing diversity in early childhood education settings requires teachers to become competent in inclusive teaching practice, and challenge biases to promote social justice.
  • Creating a Personal Philosophy of Early Childhood Education The role of a preschool teacher is to provide intellectual and moral development and encouragement of children’s ideas to reveal potential talents and abilities.
  • Early Child Education: Developing Effective Learning Methods The paper describes how to develop strong relationships with young learners. It shows how teachers should develop relationships through shared experiences.
  • The Pedagogical Technique of Montessori This essay is a theoretical synthesis of the critical ideas of Maria Montessori's pedagogical practice and the identification of her philosophy.
  • Stem Education by Mathematics Teachers in Saudi Primary Schools The paper aims to outline the rationale for assessing STEM in Saudi primary education with a specific focus on mathematics teachers.
  • Preschool Education in China and Japan Preschool education in China serves several purposes, from child care to educational preparation. Meanwhile, the Japanese preschool system is more directed toward socialization.
  • Diversity in Early Childhood School Setting In today's multicultural society, classrooms all over the globe are becoming diverse. This means that schools now admit increased numbers of children from diverse cultures.
  • Early Childhood Educators' Influence on Society This paper is a reflection on Early Childhood educators regarding their societal role, standing, and their influence in society.
  • Childhood Education and Learning Theory One of the primary purposes that teachers should pursue is to provide the best possible education to one’s students.
  • Educating the Whole Child Approach Description Educating the Whole Child is a relatively new approach to education that centers on the education environment and its influence on children's overall development.
  • History of Inclusion in Early Childhood Education Creating schools with special needs was the first step to their inclusion into society, followed by integration: allowing them to visit a regular school.
  • Childhood Practices and Allowances The purpose of childhood practice is to provide a foundation for kids' cognitive and social growth that will continue throughout their lives.
  • Dialogue and Its Importance in Children’s Education The most important matter in children’s education is dialogue. Furthermore, communication should be done in a respectful manner.
  • Early Children’s Development and Learning: Philosophy Statement This paper contains a brief description of the philosophy statement regarding early children’s development and learning.
  • The College of Early Childhood Educators The importance of the early childhood educator's involvement in the well-being, learning, and development of children cannot be overstated.
  • Childhood Education Programs and Improvements to Them This paper reviews two articles that examine the data about childhood education programs and suggest improvements to schools.
  • Development of the Pedagogical Leadership An important aspect of pedagogical leadership is the factor of teacher interaction with the main participants of the educational process.
  • Stress in Early Childhood Education Early childhood education is crucial to the child's mental development, and the movie "No Small Matter" reveals curious insights into the topic.
  • Developing Emergent Literacy in Children Emergent literacy is the basis for the further development of abilities; therefore, it should be given proper attention.
  • Characteristics of Effective Early Childhood Teachers “Twelve Characteristics of Effective Early Childhood Teachers” explains the phenomenological attributes of each quality, ranging from passion to a sense of humor.
  • Discussing Child Learning Strategies The article analyzes two videos reviewed are the "Visually Impaired" and "Understanding Hearing Impairments" clips.
  • Praise and Encouragement in Early Childhood Education The article discusses approaching the children in school-based activities in class, which includes giving credit where it deserves by improving a child's potential.
  • Early Childhood Education in India Today's preschool education system in India is designed so that parents can rest assured of their children who have been trained in such groups.
  • Quality Physical Education and Obesity in US Children For the public and often the students themselves, physical education in schools is rarely taken seriously, viewed as largely a ‘filler’ subject to meet government requirements.
  • Comparison of the Two Early Childhood Educational Institutions in Hong Kong This paper examines the educational and administrative management aspects of two kindergartens in Hong Kong: HKYWCA Athena and The Salvation Army Shui Chuen O Kindergarten.
  • Importance of Early Childhood Study Early childhood is a great determiner of a person's future character and behavior, as children learn a lot because they can easily understand each other through games.
  • Research in the Field of Childhood Literacy This paper contains an annotated bibliography of the two articles devoted to the topics of childhood literacy and education.
  • Children's Skills Development and Education Decent behavior, operational interaction with others, and articulating individual needs are essential constituents of children's skills.
  • Teaching Strategies for Middle Childhood Development Stages Tutors have the most significant part to play in the middle childhood development stage. They should choose and practice relevant strategies.
  • Best Practices in Early Childhood Education This paper discusses best practices in the field of early childhood education, which are based on developmentally appropriate practice (DAP).
  • “The Kindergarten Program”: Visible Learning in Early Childhood Education Visible learning is particularly significant since children learn from experience and should be exposed to real-life situations.
  • How Fun and Playing Helps Kids Learn The topic of childhood development via playing will be examined in depth in this study, which will cover various aspects of the topic.
  • Early Childhood Education Programs Comparison Relying on the two videos on Early Childhood Education Programs, this paper compares various programs that are critical for the proper development of children.
  • Early Childhood Education: Pedagogical Skills Understanding each child as a unique individual with their own psychological characteristics and structure of thinking seems to be a necessary competence of any children's teacher.
  • Stages of Learning to Spell in Children Learning conventional spelling goes beyond the dry memorization of thousands of words, it is best attained by pragmatic activities.
  • Family-Centered Programs in Early Childhood Classroom Family-centered programs for early childhood education have become popular across the United States due to their inherent benefits.
  • Indigenous Early Learning and Child Care Framework Community-level indigenous governments have participated in framework development, resulting in the identification of service gaps these communities find important.
  • Montessori Education System, Its History, Pros and Cons For decades, the Montessori method has revolutionized education within various institutions in more than one hundred countries worldwide.
  • Educational Practices for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder This paper aims to analyze Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and find ways to change educational practices to meet the needs of students with ADHD.
  • K-12 Education Change in Educating Young People During the COVID-19 Pandemic This paper is an annotated bibliography of the articles devoted to the K-12 education change in light of the experience of educating young people during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Learning in Special Education Needs School This paper will explore four important areas of development in SEN and the importance of inclusion, diversity, and accessibility in SEN schools.
  • Role of Adults and Educators in the Education Process Adults and educators play a central role in the education process. They direct the process of inquiry and the desire to learn everything around children.
  • The Montessori Method and Its Benefits The Montessori Method of education is an influential teaching method to ensure that students are equipped with the best practical skills in the learning process.
  • Integrating Children Into Society: The Role of Education As a social institution, the school is responsible for integrating children into society. Higher education is also very important for a person to shape their role in society.
  • The Rationale for Completion of a Bachelor’s Degree in Education Studies "Educational Studies" is a course designed to earn a non-license teaching degree while majoring and minoring in education.
  • Interview: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle-Late Childhood The teacher was willing to provide additional insights about physical, socioemotional, and cognitive development during middle to late childhood.
  • Formal Education and Child Benchmarks This paper looks to dissect a child's cognitive, behavioral, and relational benchmarks at 18 years and relate them to the story of Success academy.
  • Language Rationale: Montessori Education Curriculum An analysis of the language rationale in the Montessori education curriculum shows that learning occurs through spoken language, writing, and reading.
  • Parental Engagement into Children’s Education Parental engagement in children’s studies has a positive impact on the children’s academic achievements and contributes to higher results in school.
  • An Inquiry Into Form and Its Importance in Early Childhood Education The creative process uses various tools to help students better understand the world around them and how they perceive it.
  • Early Childhood Education Aspects Early childhood is considered the most crucial time of child development because it is a period of fast physical and mental development.
  • The Outdoor Learning Benefits and Effectiveness The work aims to show that outdoor learning, when used correctly, has great potential towards improving the children's educational experience as a whole.
  • Outdoor Learning Influence on Young Children Outdoor learning and the incorporation of more open approaches to early education are highly beneficial to the development of young children.
  • Early Childhood Education: Teaching Methods Early childhood educators rely on different teaching methods and solutions to delivering learning instructions, some of which might not produce the best results.
  • Student Behaviour in Early Childhood Settings In the development of children, problems often occur in the form of deviations from generally accepted social age expectations.
  • No Homework Policy in Primary Schools of Abu Dhabi In the UAE, debates regarding the ban on homework are emerging after a ministry decision to scrap homework at several public schools in Abu Dhabi and Dubai.
  • Twenty-First Century Childhood Education Personal Philosophy
  • Early Childhood Education: Impact on Cognitive and Social Development
  • Past Origins and Philosophical Concepts of Childhood Education
  • Newzealand Childhood Education Services
  • Childhood Education and Parental Involvement Enhancement
  • Autonomy Within the Childhood Education Field
  • Analysing the Popular Problems in Child Education
  • Factors That Influence Childhood Education Programs
  • How Food Insecurity Affects Children’s Education Food insecurity can also be harmful to academic performance. As a result, a poorly-educated individual has low income and continue suffering from world hunger.
  • High-Quality Program for Childhood Education
  • Proper Childhood Education and Racism
  • Childhood Education for Children From Low Income
  • Health, Safety, and Nutrition in Childhood Education
  • Sex Roles and Gender Bias in Childhood Education
  • Childhood Education and Multicultural Literature
  • Early Childhood Education: Improving Listening Skills
  • Childhood Education: Vision, Mission, and Philosophy
  • Early Childhood Education, Literacy Development
  • Childhood Education: Impact on Cognitive and Social Development
  • Technology Benefits in Early Childhood Education Despite the doubts about the use of technology in early education, it should be integrated into the curriculum to provide young students with more opportunities to learn easily.
  • Teacher: Childhood Education and Family Involvement
  • Childhood Education and Development Act of 1989
  • Classroom Management for Childhood Education
  • Nursing and Childhood Education
  • Childhood Education and Special Education
  • Social Work and Childhood Education
  • Childhood Education, Economic Development, and the Business Community
  • Integrating Art Into Childhood Education
  • Social Equity and Childhood Education
  • Workplace, Childcare and Childhood Education
  • Childhood Education, Delinquency, and Life
  • Learning Through Structured Play During Childhood Education
  • Playful Learning and Pedagogies Within Childhood Education
  • Childhood Education and Social Inequalities
  • Brain Development and Childhood Education
  • China Child Development: Childhood Education in Yunnan
  • Good Communication Skills Are Essential for Childhood Education
  • Early Childhood Education: Development of Manipulative Skills
  • Childhood Education and Developmental Delays
  • Leadership and Administration in Child Education
  • Comprehensive Proposal for Development of a Childhood Education
  • What Are the Benefits Of Childhood Education?
  • How Does Childhood Education Set the Stage for the Future of Academic Education?
  • What Are the Basic Concepts of Child Education?
  • What Are the Current Issues and Trends in Child Education Assessment?
  • How the Prevailing National Political Situation Is Affecting Childhood Education?
  • What Are the Children’s Education and Curriculum Standards?
  • How Has Children’s Education Changed in the Past and the Present?
  • What Is the Relationship Between the Economy and Children’s Education?
  • What Are the Popular Technologies in Children’s Education?
  • What Is the Most Popular Childhood Education Curriculum?
  • Does the Turkish Childhood Education Program Is Cultural?
  • What Is the Philosophy of Child Education?
  • How To Improve Boys’ Achievement in Children’s Education?
  • What Is the Importance of Music and Movement in Children’s Education?
  • Education for Sustainability Within Childhood Education in Aotearoa New Zealand?
  • What Is the Difference Between Multicultural Education and Children’s Education?
  • Famous Child Education Theorists and What Are Their Theories?
  • Fending off Fadeout: How Do We Sustain the Gains of Childhood Education?
  • Why Is Childhood Education Important?
  • What Are the Indicators of Education and Child Care?
  • How Does the Demographic Fluctuation Affect Children’s Education in Iran?
  • Who Bears the Cost of Childhood Education and How Does It Affect Enrolment?
  • What Are the Education Programs for Children and Youth?

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ChalkyPapers. (2024, May 9). 178 Childhood Education Research Topics & Essay Examples. https://chalkypapers.com/topics/childhood-education-research-topics/

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IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics: Exam Format, Common Topics and Preparation Tips

Gaining skills in IELTS Writing Task 2 is essential for both showing your ability to articulate ideas and arguments clearly and for getting the desired score on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). Writing Task 2, one of the hardest exam components, requires a thorough comprehension of its structure, knowledge of frequent subjects, and skillful preparation techniques.

In this article, we will explain the exam style, explore typical issues candidates face, and provide important preparation recommendations.

Table of Content

IELTS Writing Task 2 Format

1. structure, 2. word count and timing, 3. question types, common ielts writing task 2 topics, ielts writing task 2 preparation tips, strategies for ielts writing task 2, ielts writing task 2 topics- faqs, what is the word count requirement for ielts writing task 2, how much time should i allocate for writing task 2, what are the common topics in ielts writing task 2, how can i prepare for writing task 2, what are the types of essays in writing task 2, what are the assessment criteria for writing task 2, how can i improve my performance in writing task 2.

IELTS Writing Task 2 presents test-takers with a platform to showcase their ability to articulate arguments, express opinions, and present ideas coherently and logically. Understanding the structure of this task, along with its timing and question types, is fundamental to performing well on the exam.

  • Introduction: Introduce the topic and provide an overview of the main points or arguments that will be discussed in the essay.
  • Body Paragraphs: Develop the main points or arguments introduced in the introduction. Each paragraph should focus on a single idea and provide supporting evidence or examples.
  • Conclusion: Summarize the main points discussed in the essay and restate the thesis statement or main argument.
  • Test-takers are required to write an essay with a minimum word count of 250 words.
  • The recommended time allocation for Writing Task 2 is 40 minutes.
  • Opinion/Argumentative Essays : Candidates may be asked to express their opinion on a given topic, present arguments, and support their viewpoint with examples or evidence.
  • Problem-Solution Essays: Test-takers are required to identify a problem, propose solutions, and justify their recommendations.
  • Advantages and Disadvantages Essays : This type of essay requires candidates to discuss the pros and cons of a given issue or situation.

The following are just a few examples of the common topics that candidates may encounter in IELTS Writing Task 2. It’s important for test-takers to familiarize themselves with these topics and practice writing essays on them to improve their performance on the exam:

Preparation for the IELTS Writing Task 2 is essential to ensure success on the exam. Here are some effective strategies and tips to help you prepare:

  • Understand the Task: Familiarize yourself with the format and requirements of Writing Task 2. Understand the types of essays you may encounter, such as opinion essays, discussion essays, problem-solution essays, etc.
  • Practice Regularly: Practice writing essays regularly to improve your writing skills and familiarize yourself with various topics and question types. Allocate time to write essays under timed conditions to simulate the exam environment.
  • Expand Your Vocabulary: Enhance your vocabulary by learning new words and phrases related to common IELTS topics. Practice using these words in your writing to demonstrate lexical resource.
  • Develop Ideas: Practice brainstorming and generating ideas for essay topics. Learn how to develop coherent arguments and support them with examples, evidence, and relevant details.
  • Structure Your Essays: Learn how to structure your essays effectively, including writing clear introductions, developing coherent body paragraphs, and crafting concise conclusions. Use paragraphing to organize your ideas logically.
  • Practice Time Management: Allocate time wisely during the exam to ensure that you complete both Writing Task 1 and Writing Task 2 within the specified time frame. Practice managing your time effectively during practice essays to improve your efficiency.
  • Review and Revise: Take time to review and revise your essays after writing them. Check for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors, and make revisions to improve clarity, coherence, and cohesion.
  • Seek Feedback: Receive feedback on your essays from teachers, tutors, or peers. Identify areas for improvement and work on addressing them in subsequent practice sessions.
  • Use Sample Essays : Analyze sample essays to understand what constitutes a high-scoring essay. Pay attention to the language, structure, and argumentation used in these essays and incorporate similar techniques into your own writing.
  • Stay Updated: Stay informed about current events and global issues as they often form the basis of essay topics in the IELTS exam. Read newspapers, magazines, and online articles to broaden your knowledge and understanding of various topics.

Here are some specific strategies that will be beneficial for IELTS Writing Task 2:

  • Plan Your Essay: Take a few minutes to plan your essay before you start writing. Outline your main points and supporting details for each paragraph. A well-structured plan will help you organize your ideas and maintain coherence throughout your essay.
  • Introduction: Start with a clear and concise introduction that introduces the topic and presents your main thesis or argument.
  • Body Paragraphs : Develop your main points in separate paragraphs, with each paragraph focusing on a single idea or argument. Provide supporting evidence, examples, or explanations to back up your points.
  • Conclusion: Summarize your main points and restate your thesis or argument in the conclusion. Avoid introducing new information in the conclusion.
  • Use Formal Language : Maintain a formal tone and use appropriate vocabulary and grammar. Avoid slang, contractions, and overly informal language. Demonstrate a range of vocabulary and grammatical structures to showcase your language proficiency.
  • Address All Parts of the Question: Make sure you address all parts of the task prompt in your essay. If there are multiple questions or instructions, ensure that your essay covers each one adequately.
  • Provide Examples and Evidence: Support your arguments with relevant examples, evidence, or personal experiences. Use specific details to illustrate your points and make your arguments more persuasive.
  • Check for Grammar and Spelling: Leave some time at the end to review and edit your essay for grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors. Ensure that your sentences are clear, concise, and free of mistakes.
  • Practice Writing Essays: Practice writing essays on a variety of topics under timed conditions. Analyze sample essays and seek feedback from teachers, tutors, or peers to identify areas for improvement and refine your writing skills.

In conclusion, one of the most important steps in passing the IELTS exam is to become proficient in Writing Task 2. To achieve a good grade, you must understand the exam format, become familiar with prevalent themes, and use efficient study techniques. Through a thorough analysis of the exam structure, covering everything from word count to question kinds, applicants can more effectively manage the requirements of their task. Also, exploring prevalent subjects like technology, education, and the environment gives test-takers the knowledge they need to address a variety of essay themes. Moreover, optimizing performance requires careful preparation, which includes consistent practice, vocabulary expansion, and time management techniques. Ultimately, candidates can face IELTS Writing Task 2 with confidence and raise their chances of passing by putting these techniques into practice and putting effort into their preparation.

Also Check: How to prepare for IELTS? IELTS Exam Pattern 2024: Section-wise IELTS Exam Paper Pattern, Question Types How to Apply for IELTS 2024| Step-By-Step Guide TOEFL 2024 Preparation Time: Check Month-wise Plan and Week-wise Plan
The minimum word count for Writing Task 2 is 250 words.
It is recommended to spend 40 minutes on Task 2.
Common topics include education, environment, technology, health, and social issues.
Effective preparation involves regular practice, vocabulary enhancement, and time management skills.
Essays may include opinion essays, discussion essays, problem-solution essays, and more.
Task response, coherence and cohesion, lexical resource, and grammatical range and accuracy are the key criteria.
Practice under timed conditions, analyze sample essays, and seek feedback to refine your skills.

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

This article is part of the research topic.

Education for the Future: Learning and Teaching for Sustainable Development in Education

Blending Pedagogy: Equipping Student Teachers to Foster Transversal Competencies in Future-oriented Education Provisionally Accepted

  • 1 Department of Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland

The final, formatted version of the article will be published soon.

Blended teaching and learning, combining online and face-to-face instruction, and shared reflection are gaining in popularity worldwide and present evolving challenges in the field of teacher training and education. There is also a growing need to focus on transversal competencies such as critical thinking and collaboration. This study is positioned at the intersection of blended education and transversal competencies in the context of a blended ECEC teacher-training program (1000+) at the University of Helsinki. Blended education is a novel approach to training teachers, and there is a desire to explore how such an approach supports the acquisition of transversal competencies and whether the associated methods offer something essential for the development of teacher training. The aim is to explore what transversal competencies this teacher-training program supports for future teachers, and how students reflect on their learning experiences. The data consist of documents from teacher-education curricula and essays from the students on the 1000+ program. They were content-analyzed from a scoping perspective. Students' experiences of studying enhanced the achievement of generic goals in teacher education, such as to develop critical and reflective thinking, interaction competence, collaboration skills, and independent and collective expertise. We highlight the importance of teacher development in preparing for education in the future during the teacher training. Emphasizing professional development, we challenge the conventional teaching paradigm by introducing a holistic approach.

Keywords: blended teacher training, Transversal competencies, future of education, Teacher Education, early childhood education

Received: 19 Jan 2024; Accepted: 15 May 2024.

Copyright: © 2024 Niemi, Kangas and Köngäs. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Laura H. Niemi, Department of Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, 00014, Uusimaa, Finland

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