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Describe the digestion of a starchy meal along the human alimentary canal. S (13 mks) Answer-Starch in food is first broken down in the mouth by action of teeth/ chewing; This increases the surface area exposed enzyme action; saliva contains salivary amylase which breaks down some starch to maltose; saliva has a slightly alkaline pH which is optimum for the enzyme; The food moves down to the oespophagus and stomach; where the acidic pH, due presence of dilute Hcl, prevents further action of salivary amylase; In the duodenum, pancreatic amylase continues digestion of starch to maltose; Pancreatic amylase is produced in the pancrease; and enters the duodenum through pancreatic ducts; the acidic chyme is neutralized by the sodium bicarbonate in bile/ pancreatic juice; Maltose digestion continues in the ileum; whose walls secrete succus entericus/ intestinal juice; which contains enzyme maltase; which breaks down maltose to glucose; (Max 13 marks) (b) Describe the process of urea formation. (7marks) answer Excess amino acids / proteins; are transported to the liver 2. (a) Describe how gaseous exchange occurs in terrestrial plants. (13 marks) Answer Gaseous exchange takes place in a spongy mesophyl During the day air diffuses into large air spaces of spongy mesophyll; through stomata; the Carbon (IV) Oxide in the air diffuses into Photosynthetic cells; in solution form; during photosynthesis Carbon (iv) Oxide is used while oxygen is produced. Oxygen diffuses out of the leaf; through stomata; During the night; air diffuses into the air spaces (of spongy mesophyll), the air dissolves into film of moisture; then oxygen diffuses into the cells; and is used in respiration during which carbon (iv) oxide is produced, the Carbon (iv) Oxide diffuses out of the leaf; through stomata; due to concentration/diffusion gradient; Gaseous exchange takes place through epidermis (of young leaves and stems); epidermis of the root carries out gaseous exchange with air in the soil; some plants have pneumatophores/breathing roots; in which gaseous exchange occurs through lenticels; (found in

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Writing an Essay About Biology

Biology, a core STEM subject in college, is widely recognized by students for its difficulty, stemming from its vast scope and the intricate details of living organisms and ecosystems. This complexity often leads to struggles, as students grapple with understanding concepts ranging from molecular biology to large-scale ecological interactions. However, there is a solution to these academic challenges: Papersowl, an educational platform, provides essential support for students facing difficulties in biology. Papersowl helps students navigate through the complexities, offering tailored biology homework help that enables them to understand, engage with, and excel in this demanding yet fascinating field of study.

Biology essays require a deep understanding of the natural world and an ability to convey complex biological processes and theories effectively. Here’s a guide to help you craft a comprehensive and insightful essay on a biology topic:

Understanding the Essay Topic

Begin by thoroughly understanding the specific biology topic you're dealing with. Biology encompasses a vast array of subjects, from molecular biology and genetics to ecology and evolution. Identify whether your essay should explore a specific biological process, discuss a theoretical aspect, analyze a biological problem, or evaluate the impact of a biological study.

Conducting In-Depth Research

Research is a critical component of a biology essay. Utilize reputable sources such as academic journals, biology textbooks, and scientific publications. Look for current research findings, experiments, and case studies that align with your topic. Taking detailed notes on relevant biological processes, findings, and theories is essential.

Developing a Clear Thesis Statement

Your thesis statement should succinctly convey the main argument or purpose of your essay. This might be an assertion about a biological principle, the significance of a research finding, or an argument concerning environmental policies. Make sure your thesis is specific, focused, and directly related to the biology topic you are discussing.

Planning the Essay Structure

Organize your essay logically and coherently. Start with an introduction that introduces the topic and presents your thesis statement. In the body, structure your main points into separate paragraphs, each focusing on a specific aspect or argument. Support your points with examples, scientific data, and explanations. Conclude by summarizing your main arguments and restating your thesis in the context of the information presented.

Writing the Essay

Use clear and precise language. Biology can involve complex terminology and concepts, so it's important to explain them clearly. Avoid unnecessary jargon, but when specific terms are required, define them to ensure clarity. Present your arguments logically, backing them with evidence from your research. Be analytical and critical, especially when discussing biological models, theories, or controversies.

Incorporating Scientific Data and Examples

Biology essays often include scientific data, diagrams, and graphs. Ensure that these elements are accurately presented and relevant to your argument. Use real-world examples and case studies to illustrate your points and demonstrate how they apply to your thesis.

Citing Your Sources

Proper citation is crucial in a biology essay, especially when referring to data, theories, or experiments from other researchers. Use an appropriate citation style (such as APA, MLA, or Chicago) and consistently cite all your sources, including figures and diagrams.

Editing and Proofreading

Review your essay for clarity, coherence, and logical flow. Check for accuracy in your biological descriptions and ensure that your analysis is comprehensive. Proofread for grammar, spelling, and formatting errors. Having someone else read your essay can be helpful, as they might catch mistakes or unclear sections you overlooked.

Writing an essay about biology involves understanding complex life sciences concepts and effectively communicating them in a structured and insightful manner. By methodically researching your topic, organizing your essay logically, and presenting your arguments with clarity and precision, you can create a compelling biology essay that showcases your understanding and insights into this diverse and fascinating field.

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Free Biology Essay Examples & Writing Tips

Don’t know what to write about in your essay on biology? Looking for good biology essay examples for inspiration? This article has all you need!

A biology essay is a type of academic paper that focuses on a particular topic of biology. It can discuss animal life, cycles in biology, or a botanic subject. You will need to demonstrate your critical thinking skills and provide relevant evidence to support your perspective.

On this page, you will find examples of biology essays. You will also find here tips and topics prepared by our experts . They can assist you in nailing your short or extended essay.

Areas of Research for Biology Essays

If you’ve been assigned to write a biology essay, you probably know which area of research you have to choose. However, it might be beneficial to explore other available scopes. It’s useful for both interdisciplinary study and the cases when you are free to pick your area of research. In this section, let’s figure out what you can study in biology.

Here are biological areas of research you should be familiar with:

  • Cancer Biology studies this type of disease to prevent, detect, diagnose and cure it. The ultimate goal of such biologists is to eliminate cancer.
  • Cell Biology is a branch that studies the structure, function, and behavior of cells. Here, biologists study healthy and sick cells to produce vaccines, medication, etc.
  • Biochemistry is an application of chemistry to the study of biological processes on cell and molecular levels. It is a cross-discipline between chemistry and biology. The focus is on the chemical processes of living organisms.
  • Computation Biology is a study of biological data that develops algorithms and models to understand biological systems. Here, scientists either work for institutions or research for private enterprises.
  • Genetics is an area that focuses on the study of genes and genetic variations for health benefits. It looks at the way DNA affects certain diseases.
  • Human Disease is an area within which scientists study different diseases. The field covers cancer, developmental disorders, disease genes, etc.
  • Immunology is a branch of biology that focuses on immunity. Immunologists look at the way the body responds to viruses as a way to protect the organism.
  • Microbiology studies all living organisms that are too small for our eye to see. It includes bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms.
  • Neurobiology is the study of the nervous system. Biologists examine the way the brain works and look into brain illnesses.
  • Stem Cell and Developmental Biology seeks to examine how the processes behind stem cell’s ability transform cells. The biologists in this area use the power of stem cells to model human illnesses.

Essay on Biology: Writing Tips

Want to know how to start a biology essay? Wondering about the best way to write your essay on biology? Then check out the following tips.

When you’re writing about biology, pay attention to the following features:

  • Introduction . Just as in any other form of academic writing, the first section of your paper introduces the subject. Here, explain why your ideas are relevant to biology as a science.
  • Thesis Statement. The final one or two sentences of the first paragraph should include your original hypothesis and experiment. You will be proving them in the main body. You do not have to include the results as the reader will encounter them later. If you’re struggling with this part, try our thesis generator .
  • Main Body. In this part, write about all the experiments in detail. Often, teachers require to include visual aid to prove your point. For Zoology, Anatomy, Botany, it is pretty easy to find some photos and illustrations.
  • Conclusion. Here, restate your thesis. Reemphasize the most critical aspects described in the main body. You can do it by using our summarizing tool . The goal of this last paragraph is to leave an everlasting impression on the reader.

Thank you for reading our article. We hope you found it helpful. Share it with your class peers who also study biology. Additionally, have a look at the biological essay examples below.

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Vertical stratification.

Tips on How to Write a Biology Essay: Learn from the Example of Jellyfish Essay

Tips on How to Write a Biology Essay

How to Write a Biology Essay

In this article, we will guide you on how to write a perfect biology essay from scratch. You’ll find various tips to help you excel in writing your essay and creating a paper worth the highest grades. We also prepared a jellyfish essay example for you, so it can be easier to enhance all the specifics and structure of this kind of paper.

What is Biology Essay

A biology essay is a student-written work where you present arguments and ideas about a particular biological topic. The essay on biology can take different forms like argumentative, cause-and-effect, descriptive, detailed analysis, or ‘how-to’ instruction, depending on the professor’s guidelines and writer’s preferences. 

A descriptive paper can explain a biological subject, while an argumentative one provides evidence to support a point of view. It’s up to you to choose which type is more suitable for the topic you’re writing about. The most common type is a cause-and-effect essay explaining an event’s reasons and consequences. 

How to Craft a Perfect Essay About Biology

Writing is an art form that requires time and effort. But if you prefer someone else to write the paper for you, you can just text the experts, ‘ do my homework for me ,’ and consider it done. 

Here is the step by step instruction to organize the process for desired results. 

How to Craft a Perfect Essay About Biology

Choose Your Biology Essay Topic

To get a good grade:

  • make your paper informative and enjoyable by choosing a topic you wish to explore. 
  • Use a brainstorming technique to generate 30-50 options for biology essay topics and research to create a shortlist. 
  • Keep a notebook to jot down your ideas.

Choose a Question for Research

When writing a biology essay, use a scientific approach by selecting a research question related to your topic. Always avoid overly complex or apparent questions. You can also text our profs ‘ write my research paper ,’ and it can be done in a blink.

Create an Outline

Always have a clear plan when writing biology essays while starting a paper. Use a 5-paragraph structure with an outline to keep your main idea and arguments organized. Use any format that works best for you and adjust as needed. Discard any ideas that don’t fit your research question.

Use a Strong Thesis Statement

The introduction should end with a strong thesis statement synthesizing the overall essay, conveying the research question and your point of view. The paper is ineffective without a clear thesis, as readers may not understand your position.

Use Citation and References

Include a list of references in your academic papers, such as biology essays, to avoid plagiarism and provide data sources. Use the appropriate citation style, like APA or CSE, and consult a guide for requirements.

biology essays download

How to Structure a Biology Essay

Ensure your essay has an attention-grabbing introduction, a detailed body, and a solid conclusion with distinct sections. Use around seven paragraphs for the main body, adjusting as needed for the required word count.

Biology Essay Introduction

In the introduction of your essay about biology, showcase your expertise by providing a brief background of the topic and stating the essay’s objective. For a research paper, explain why the study is relevant. Make sure the reader understands the essence of your subject.

The body section of your essay on biology should focus on supporting and defending your thesis statement. To achieve this, make a list of essential points to cover and address each one step by step. Starting a new paragraph for each point ensures neatness and a continuous flow. 

In conclusion, restate your thesis statement and summarize supporting points to solidify your arguments. Avoid introducing new concepts, and leave a lasting impression on your instructor.

Jellyfish Essay - Example of a Biology Essay About a Fascinating Creature of the Ocean

Jellyfish, also known as jellies, are incredible creatures of the ocean. They’re members of the phylum Cnidaria, including corals and sea anemones. You can find jellyfish in every ocean around the globe, from the surface to the depths of the sea. 

Do you know what shape the jellyfish body has?! It’s one of their most unique features. Their bell-shaped body comprises a soft, jelly-like substance called mesoglea, found between two cellular layers. The outer layer of cells, the epidermis, is thin and flexible, while the inner layer, the gastrodermis, contains the jellyfish’s digestive system. At the bottom of the bell is the mouth, surrounded by tentacles armed with stinging cells called nematocysts. 

The jellyfish tentacles consist of venom-filled sacs, which can be potentially dangerous and life-threatening. Considering the severity of its sting, researchers have gathered information on how to treat it effectively. Use thick clothing, tweezers, sticks, or gloves to alleviate the sting. It’s crucial to avoid touching the sting with bare skin since the venom can cause severe harm. Always dispose of the tool used for removing the sting to prevent re-stinging. 

Jellyfish are creatures that feed on small fish and other tiny marine organisms. They capture their prey using the tentacles and bring it to their mouth. Once the food is inside the jellyfish, it’s broken down by digestive enzymes and absorbed into the gastrovascular cavity. 

An exciting thing about jelly is its life cycle. They go through several stages of development, starting as a tiny, free-swimming larva and then growing into a polyp. The polyp stage is stationary, and the jellyfish attaches itself to a surface using a sticky pad. During this stage, the jellyfish reproduces asexually, creating clones of itself. These clones then break off from the polyp and develop into the familiar bell-shaped body of the adult jellyfish. 

Jellyfish play an essential role in the ocean’s ecosystem too. They’re a food source for many marine creatures, including sea turtles and some fish species. They also help to control the population of tiny marine animals by feeding on them, and their waste products contribute to the nutrient cycle in the ocean.

However, jellyfish populations can sometimes explode and become a nuisance. This phenomenon mostly occurs when their natural predators are eliminated from the ecosystem or when water conditions, like temperature and salinity, are conducive for jellyfish growth. In cases where jellyfish populations reach excessive levels, they can clog fishing nets and interfere with other human activities in the ocean.

Jellyfish really are stunning creatures of the ocean. They’re diverse, with many different species, and are essential to the marine ecosystem. While they can sometimes become a nuisance, they’re vital to the ocean’s food web and nutrient cycle. Studying jellyfish can give us a greater understanding of the complex and interconnected systems that make up our oceans.

Practical Tips for Creating Perfect Academic Papers

Developing writing skills is crucial for your academic success regardless of your major. Check out these tips we provided for improving your writing. But if you aren't fond of writing, you can easily hand it to professionals by saying, ‘ do homework for me .’

Search for Samples or Examples

To improve your writing, analyze examples of well-written biology essays or research papers. Although not all online samples are perfect, they can still provide insights into what works and what doesn’t. However, avoid plagiarism and ensure your paper is original by presenting fresh ideas and a unique perspective. 

Read Whenever You Can

Develop your writing skills by reading widely and extensively. Look for biology papers in scientific journals, websites, or books. Don’t forget to take notes on interesting points that you can use in your papers later.

Practice Makes Perfect

Don’t expect to write a perfect paper on your first try, so take every opportunity to practice your writing. Find a mentor if needed and use online resources to learn from your mistakes and improve your skills.

Always Organize Your Writing Process

Organize your work process instead of waiting for inspiration by defining stages, scheduling time for each task, and eliminating distractions. Don’t wait for mood to write an essay about biology; use different strategies to overcome writer’s block.

Proofread and Get Other Feedback

It’s hard to assess your own work accurately. Seek feedback from peers or instructors to identify strengths and weaknesses to improve upon. Don’t wait for your professor’s feedback to know if your biology essay is good. 

Interesting Biology Essay Topics from Our Experts to Practice Your Writing

In this paragraph, we listed different biology essay topics from which you can choose your preferred one and practice writing to excel in your academic papers.

  • A jellyfish - my favorite creature
  • Facts about animal behavior
  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Chemical Ecology
  • Impacts of air pollution
  • Acid Rain’s impact on wildlife
  • The greenhouse effect
  • Causes of global warming
  • Effects of climate change on nature
  • Ways to avoid water pollution

These are interesting topics and also some of the most significant environmental problems. Choose the one you like and practice.

Final Thoughts

This article provides tips that will definitely make your writing process easier and more effective. Adjust these tips while writing your biology paper and structure it as we did in the jellyfish essay example. But if you still prefer a professional to do it for you, contact us by writing ‘ do my research paper ,’ and our experts will handle it.

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Biology KCSE Essay Questions and Answers Paper 2; Over 1,000


  a). Describe how insect pollinated flowers are adapted to pollination ( KCSE1995)

  • Progesterone
  • Luteinizinghormone
  • Describe how excretion takes place in: ( KCSE1995)
  • MammalianKidneys
  • Greenplants
  • a).Explainhowthemammalianskinisadaptedtoperformitsfunctions (20marks; KCSE 1996)

b). Describe how new plants arise by asexual reproduction (20 marks; KCSE 1996)

  • a). What is parasitism? (KCSE1997)

b). Describe how the tapeworm is adapted to a parasitic mode of life (KCSE 1997)

  • a). What is meant by the term digestion? (KCSE1997 )

b). Describe how the mammalian small intestine is adapted to its function (KCSE 1997)

  • Discuss the various evidences, which show that evolution has taken place (20 marks; KCSE 1998)
  • Explain how the mammalian intestines are adapted to perform their function (20 marks; KCSE 1998)
  • a). Describethe:
  • Process of inhalation in mammals ( KCSE 1999)
  • Mechanisms of opening and closing of stomata in plants (KCSE1999)

b). Explain how the various activities of man have caused pollution of air (20 marks; KCSE 1999)

  • a). Describe the role of hormones in the human menstrual cycle (20 marks; KCSE2000)

b). How are leaves of mesophytes suited to their functions (20 marks; KCSE 2000)

  • a). State the functions of the following parts of the mammalian ear; (KCSE2001)
  • Tympanicmembrane
  • Eustachiantube
  • Earossicles

b). Describe how semicircular canals perform their functions (KCSE 2001 )

  • a). Describe the process of fertilization in a flowering plant ( KCSE2001)

b). State the change that take place in a flower after fertilization ( KCSE 2001)

  • a). Describe the role of hormones in the growth and development of plants (20 marks; KCSE 2002)
  • a). Name three types of skeletons found in multicellular animals ( KCSE2002)

b). Describe how the cervical, lumbar and sacral vertebrae are suited to their functions

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(KCSE 2002)

  • a). Describe the functions of the various parts of the human eye (20 marks; KCSE2003)

                                                                                                                                         1 | P a ge

(b). Describe how fruits and seeds are suited to their modes of dispersal (20 marks; KCSE 2003)

  • a). How is the mammalian skin adapted to its functions? (20 marks; KCSE2004)

b). Explain how a biotic factors affect plants (20 marks; KCSE 2004)

  • a). Describe how gaseous exchange takes place in terrestrial plants (20 marks; KCSE2005)

b). How is the human eye adapted to its function? (20 marks; KCSE 2005)

  • a). Describe how human kidney functions (20 marks; KCSE2006)

b).Describehowwatermovesfromthesoiltotheleavesinatree (20marks; KCSE2006)

  • a). Describe the structure and functions of the various parts of the human ear (20 marks; KCSE 2007 )

b). Describe causes and methods of controlling water pollution (20 marks; KCSE 2007 )

  • Describe the nitrogen cycle (20 marks; KCSE2008)
  • a). State four characteristics of gaseous exchangesurfaces

b). Describe the mechanism of gaseous exchange in a mammal (16 marks; KCSE 2008)

  • a). How are flowers adapted to wind and insect pollination? (20 marks; KCSE2009 )

b). Describe the role of the liver in homeostasis in the human body (20 marks; KCSE2009)

  • a). Describe the process of fertilization in flowering plants (20 marks; KCSE2010)

b). Describe how a finned fish such as tilapia moves in water (20 marks; KCSE 2010)

  • a). Describe the exoskeleton and its function in insects (13 marks; KCSE2011)

b). Describe how accommodation in the human eye is brought about when focusing on a near object (7 marks; KCSE 2011)

  • Using a relevant example in each case, describe simple and conditional reflex action (20 marks; KCSE2012)
  • a).Usingarelevantexample,describehowanallergicreactionoccursinahumanbeing

(10 marks; KCSE 2012)


  • a). Describe the process of blood clotting in human beings (10 marks; KCSE2013 )

b).Howarerespiratorysurfacesinmammalsadaptedtotheirfunctions? (10marks; KCSE 2013)

  • Describe the role of the following organs in excretion andhomeostasis
  • The liver (10 marks; KCSE2013)
  • The skin during hot environmental conditions (10 marks; KCSE2013 )
  • a). Explain how each of the following factors affect the rate ofphotosynthesis:
  • Temperature (2 marks; KCSE2014)
  • Chlorophyll concentration (2 marks; KCSE2014 )

b). Describe the process of carbohydrate digestion in human beings (16 marks; KCSE2014)

  • a). How does excretion take place in plants (4 marks; KCSE2014)

b). Describe the role of the human skin in homeostasis (16 marks; KCSE 2014)

  • a).Explainthevariouswaysinwhichseedsandfruitsareadaptedtodispersal (20marks; KCSE 2015)

b). How is a mammalian heart structurally adapted to its function? (20 marks; KCSE2015)

                                                                                                                                         2 | P a ge

  • (a).Usingarelevantexampleineachcase,describesimpleandconditionalreflexaction

(20 marks; KCSE 2016)

b). Describe how the mammalian heart is structurally adapted to its function (20 marks; KCSE 2016)

  • a ) Explain the importance of protecting the forest ecosystem with reference to the following (20 marks; KCSE 2017 )
  • a) Climate change
  • b) Biodiversity


d)Water conservation

  • e) Pollution
  • b) Describe how a mammalian eye is structurally adapted to its functions (20 marks)
  • a) Describe the mode reproduction in a named fungus (5 marks)
  • b) Describe the roles of hormones in the menstrual cycle (15 marks; KCSE 2018 )
  • a) Giving examples, describe the following among organisms (20marks; KCSE 2019 )
  • Predator-prey relationship
  • b) Explain the effect of increased physical activity on the following organ system (20 marks)
  • a)(i)Explain the role of the liver in blood regulation (3 marks ; KCSE 2020)
  • Describe how a mammalian heart is adapted to its functions (17 marks)
  • b) (i) Explain how the presence of chloroplast in guard cell affect the opening of the stomata (5marks)

(ii) Describe how various environmental factors affect the rate of photosynthesis (15marks)

  • a) (i) Explain the role of placenta during pregnancy(10 marks) ( KCSE 2021)
  • ii) Explain features and mechanisms that hinder self pollination and self fertilization(10 marks)

b)( i) Describe how xylem is structurally adapted to its functions  (5marks)

(ii) Describe the functions of mammalian blood in the human body(15 marks)

  • a i) Describe how plants eliminate waste products(8 marks; KCSE2022 )

ii)Describe the structure and function of mammalian nephron (12marks)

  • b) i. Describe five tropic responses and their survival values (15marks)

ii)Describe how mammalian heartbeat is controlled                (5mks)

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  • How small intestines are adopted to their functions

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KCSE 2023 Biology Essay Questions and Answers (KCSE 2023 Prediction Questions)

Here are KCSES 2022/2023 Biology Essay Questions and Answers (KCSE 2022 Prediction Questions). Content: 31 pages with 60 questions and answers.

BIOLOGY (231/2) Revision Questions (Essays): Expected Responses

Q1. Explain the various ways in which a typical cell is adapted to its functions

   Has a cell membrane; with pores; that regulates substances entering and leaving the cell; cytoplasm; contain sugars and salts; for maintaining its osmotic pressure; also has a liquid medium; for all biochemical reactions; nucleus; contain chromosomes having hereditary material; and controls all the activities of the cell; ribosomes; are sites for protein synthesis; golgi bodies/apparatus; for secretion of hormones and enzymes; formation of lysosomes; lysosomes; contain lytic enzymes for breaking down worn-out organelles; secretory vesicles; formed from golgi apparatus for secreting substances; smooth endoplasmic reticulum; synthesizes and transports lipids; rough endoplasmic reticulum; transport proteins; nucleolus; controls the activities of the nucleus; produces ribosomes; mitochondria; form sites for energy production; centrioles; formation of cilia and flagella; forms spindle fibres used in cell division; plant sap vacuoles; store salts and other dissolved substances; controls osmotic pressure and turgidity of cells; food vacuoles involved in digestion of engulfed food; chloroplasts; form sites for photosynthesis in plant cells;  Max. 20 mks

Q2. Explain how the various specialized cells are modified to carry out their functions in plants and animals

   Animal cells: Sperm cell; has acrosome containing lytic enzymes; that digest the egg membranes for penetration during fertilization; has a long tail; containing numerous mitochondria; to generate maximum energy for propulsion/swimming in the vaginal fluid after ejaculation; Red blood cells; are flattened, circular/spherical biconcave in shape; to increase the surface area for packaging of haemoglobin; has haemoglobin; that combines with respiratory gases; for transport to and from body tissues; White blood cells; are amoeboid in shape hence able to change shape; to engulf pathogens through phagocytosis; lymphocytes produce antibodies to fight pathogens; Nerve cell; has extensions/dentrites; to receive and send information for sensation; Ciliated epithelial cells; have cilia for propulsion of mucus that traps dust and micro-organisms in the respiratory tract; Muscle cells; elongated, striated and contractile; to bring about movement; Plant cells: Guard cells; bean-shaped; to regulate the size of the stomata allowing gaseous exchange; and control water loss; has chloroplasts with chlorophyll; for photosynthesis; Root hair cell; elongated; thin-walled; with dense cytoplasm for absorption of water and mineral salts; Epidermal cell; thin; for protection of inner tissues from mechanical and micro-organism attack; Palisade cell; contains numerous chloroplasts with chlorophyll; for photosynthesis; elongated; to increase surface area for trapping maximum amounts of light energy; Meristematic cell; thin-walled; with dense cytoplasm; for primary and secondary growth; Max. 20 mks

Q3. Describe how the mammalian body protects itself against infections

   Pathogenic microbes are found on the skin, respiratory tract, mouth, vagina and the intestinal tract; the skin; has a keratinised and waterproof cornified outer layer; that provides a mechanical barrier to microbes/prevents entry of microbes; sebaceous gland; produces sebum; which has antiseptic properties; the respiratory tract; produce mucus secretions that trap dust; cilia sweep/waft/propel the microbes to the pharynx for swallowing or to be coughed out; reflex actions of coughing/sneezing/vomiting help remove foreign materials from the respiratory tract/digestive tract; lysozymes/enzymes in saliva/nasal secretions/tears; digest walls of bacteria destroying them; gastric secretions such as hydrochloric acid lowers the pH in the stomach killing micro-organisms; clotting of blood; prevents entry of microbes after damage of blood vessels; phagocytosis; by phagocytes engulf and destroy microbes and other foreign bodies; lymphocytes are stimulated to produce antibodies; by proteins present in microbes protecting the body; antibodies destroy/kill micro-organisms through various ways: agglutinins; bind to pathogens making them clump together; killing them; Lysins; bind to pathogens and make them burst or disintegrate; opsonins; bind to pathogens making them easily recognized hence be engulfed/destroyed by other lymphocytes; anti-toxins; bind and neutralize toxins produced by micro-organisms; vagina is acidic; hence making it not conducive for growth and reproduction of micro-organisms; Max: 20 mks

Q4. How are the leaves of higher plants adapted to their functions?

    Broad and flattened lamina; to increase surface area; for absorption of light; thin blade; to reduce distance for diffusion of gases and penetration of light waves; transparent epidermis and cuticle; to allow light to penetrate to tissues; cuticle layer absent on stomata; to allow for gaseous exchange; one-cell thick epidermal layer; to reduce the distance over which sunlight penetrates; palisade cells have numerous chloroplasts containing chlorophyll; to trap maximum amounts of light energy; have stomata on the epidermis; to allow for gaseous exchange; and control of water loss through transpiration; palisade layer have elongated cells located at right angles to the leaf surface; for maximum absorption of light energy; spongy mesophyll; consists of spherical and loosely-packed cells; to create air spaces; which communicate with the atmosphere through stomata; for purposes of gaseous exchange and control of water loss; veins have conducting tissues: xylem; for movement of water and dissolved mineral salts; phloem; for translocation of manufactured food; Max. 20 mks

Q5.  Explain how the various teeth adapt mammals for nutrition

   Incisor; sharp; chisel-shaped; for biting; and cutting food; one root for support in the jaw bone; Canines; long; sharp; pointed; for holding prey; piercing; and tearing flesh from prey; single root; for support in the jaw bone; Premolars; large/wide; to increase surface area for grinding food; highly cusped; to increase surface area for grinding food; two roots; for firm support/anchorage in the jaw bone; molars; large/wide; to increase surface area for grinding food; highly cusped; to increase surface area for grinding food; Max. 20 mks

Q6. Describe what happens to a meal of oily beans and maize from the time of ingestion up to the time of absorption

   In the mouth; starch in maize; is digested by salivary amylase/ptyalin/diastase into maltose; food is chewed and mixed by teeth and the tongue; rolled into boluses by peristalsis; it enters into the stomach via the cardiac sphincter; in the stomach, gastric juice containing pepsinogen that is activated to pepsin; digests proteins in the beans; into shorter peptides; food is churned and allowed into the duodenum; via the pyloric sphincter muscle; in the duodenum; bile juice secreted by the gall bladder; emulsifies the oils in the beans into tiny oil droplets; pancreatic juice; secreted by the pancrease; contains pancreatic amylase; that digests starch to maltose; pancreatic lipase; that digests the oil in the beans to fatty acids and glycerol; trypsin; digests proteins into shorter peptides;  food enters into the ileum; where succus entericus is secreted; it contains maltase enzyme; that digests the maltose into glucose; that is absorbed; peptidase; digests peptides into amino acids; lipase digests the remaining lipids (oil) into fatty acids and glycerol; which is absorbed through the lacteals of the villi; Max. 20 mks

Q7. How are the small intestines in mammals adapted to their functions?

Small intestines consists of the duodenum and the ileum; most digestion of food occurs in the duodenum; bile from the gall bladder of the liver is secreted through the bile ducts; and it is used to emulsify fats/break fat particles into tiny droplets; to increase the surface area for enzyme action; the pancreas secretes pancreatic juice to the duodenum; the juice contains pancreatic amylase; that helps to breakdown the remaining starch into maltose; trypsin; (that is secreted in its inactive form, trypsinogen , and activated by enterokinase enzyme); hydrolyses proteins into shorter peptides; pancreatic lipase; converts lipids into fatty acids and glycerol; sodium hydrogen carbonate is also produced; to neutralize the acidic chyme from the stomach; and provide a suitable alkaline medium for pancreatic and other intestinal enzymes; the ileum is long; and narrow; to increase the surface area for complete digestion of food; and maximum absorption of digested food; highly-coiled; to reduce speed of food flow; for maximum digestion; and absorption; presence of villi; and microvilli; to increase surface area; for maximum absorption; dense network of capillaries; to transport blood; for efficient transport of absorbed food; presence of lacteals in the villi; for absorption of fatty acids and glycerol molecules; presence of enzymes: Lipase; for digestion of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol; maltase; for digestion of maltose to glucose molecules; peptidase; for breakdown of peptides into amino acids; sucrase; for digestion of sucrose into glucose and fructose; lactase; for digestion of lactose into glucose and galactose; goblet cells; produce mucus; to lubricate the walls of the ileum; for smooth flow of food; coats the walls of ileum to prevent digestion by peptidase enzyme; Max. 20 mks

Q8. Outline and explain the various homeostatic functions of the liver in mammals

   Deamination; process of removal of an amino group from an amino acid molecule; the process gets rid of excess amino acids in the body; as the body is not able to store them; the amino group enters the ornithine cycle; where it is combined with carbon (IV) oxideto form urea; which is excreted in urine through the kidney; Heat production; many metabolic activities take place in the liver; releasing heat energy; that is distributed by the blood to other parts of the body; this helps in thermoregulation; Storage of vitamins and mineral salts; Vitamins A, B, D, E and K; are stored in the liver; worn-out red blood cells, are broken down to yield iron; which is stored in the liver in form of ferritin; this is used later in case of shortage; Formation of red blood cells; occurs in the liver of the foetus; the liver also breaks down old/exhausted red blood cells; leading to formation of more in the bone marrow to replace the worn-out cells; to enhance oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide distribution; Regulation of blood sugar level; liver cells convert excess glucose into glycogen and fats under the influence of insulin hormone; the stored glycogen is however converted back to glucose; when glucose levels are low; by the liver cells; under the influence of glucagon hormone; Regulation of plasma proteins; plasma proteins such as prothrombin and fibrinogen are manufactured in the liver using the amino acids found in the liver; they play a major role in blood clotting; that prevents excessive blood loss and infection at the injured area; other plasma proteins produced by the liver such as serum and albumen; contribute to the maintenance of osmotic pressure in the body; non-essential amino acids are also synthesized by the liver; for use by the body; Storage of blood; the liver is highly vascularised; hence it is capable of holding a large volume of blood when the blood vessels dilate during hot conditions; when the temperatures are low, the blood vessels constrict under the influence of the endocrine and nervous systems; hence less blood is stored in the liver; this contributes to thermoregulation; Detoxification; this is the process where harmful compounds such as drugs and poisons; are converted to less toxic compounds in the liver; toxicity is caused by medication, drugs and microorganisms; the toxic compounds are later excreted in urine; detoxification prevents the accumulation of toxins in body cells; which could lead to death or malfunctioning of the body cells; Max. 20 mks

Q9. Explain why the following conditions are necessary for photosynthesis

  • Carbon (IV) Oxide

Required in the dark stage of photosynthesis; it combines with the hydrogen ion from the light stage; to form glucose, proteins and lipids; low concentrations reduces the rate of production of energy and food; while high concentrations leads to an increase in the amount of energy and food formed;

It is used to break down water molecules (through photolysis); into hydrogen ions, oxygen and energy; the energy and hydrogen ions formed are used in the dark stage;

  • Chlorophyll

Green pigment that traps light energy from the sun; that is used in photolysis of water molecules;

  • Suitable temperature and pH

Temperature affects the enzymes involved in photosynthesis; suitable/optimum temperatures activate enzymes; for maximum production of food; while extremely low temperatures inactivate enzymes; leading to less or no production of food; high temperatures denature enzymes; stopping the process of photosynthesis; photosynthetic enzymes work well in low pH; so the rate is high; while higher pH reduces enzyme activity; lowering the rate of photosynthesis;

Forms a medium for the chemical reactions; it is split to yield hydrogen ions, oxygen and energy for use in the dark stage; solvent for the materials used in photosynthesis; Max. 20 mks

Q10. How is the ileum adapted to its functions?

      Long; and narrow; to increase the surface area for complete digestion of food; and maximum absorption of digested food; highly-coiled; to reduce speed of food flow; for maximum digestion; and absorption; presence of villi; and microvilli; to increase surface area; for maximum absorption; dense network of capillaries; to transport blood; for efficient transport of absorbed food; presence of lacteals; for absorption of fatty acids and glycerol molecules; presence of enzymes: Lipase; for digestion of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol; maltase; for digestion of maltose to glucose molecules; peptidase; for breakdown of peptides into amino acids; sucrase; for digestion of sucrose into glucose and fructose; lactase; for digestion of lactose into glucose and galactose; goblet cells; produce mucus; to lubricate the walls of the ileum; for smooth flow of food; coats the walls of ileum to prevent digestion by peptidase enzyme; Max. 20 mks

Q11. a) What is homeostasis?

         (Mechanisms of) control and maintenance of a constant internal environment regardless of the external conditions; 2 mks

  • b) Name any three factors that must be maintained constant in mammalian bodies

          Temperature; Water; Salt or ion content; Carbon (IV) oxide; Glucose; amino acids; Max. 3 mks

  • c) Explain how endotherms respond to heat and cold conditions in their environment

         Heat/hot conditions: Increased sweating; to lose heat through latent heat of vaporization; dilation of arterioles under the skin; to bring more blood to the skin surface to lose heat to the atmosphere; decreased body metabolism; to reduce heat generation; erector pili muscles relax; making hair follicles to relax hence hair lies flat on skin, no air is trapped; to lose heat; slow/reduced muscular activity due to slow metabolism; to reduce heat production; panting to expose tongue and mouth; to release heat; moving to shades to avoid direct heat; aestivation; to escape the extreme heat; flapping of ears to create currents to carry away heat; Cold conditions: stamping of feet; to generate heat; basking in the sun to gain heat directly; less production of sweat; to reduce water loss through latent heat of vaporization; vasoconstriction of arterioles; hence less blood flow to the skin surface to reduce heat loss; increased metabolism through release of more thyroxine hormone; to generate heat; erector pili muscles contract; pulling hair follicles hence hair is raised; to trap a layer of moist air; to prevent heat loss; shivering/rapid contraction of muscles; to yield heat to warm body; Max. 15 mks

Q12. Describe the route taken by water from the soil up to the evaporating surface of a plant

      Water is drawn into the root hair cells by osmosis; due to the presence of dissolved substances in the cell sap of root hairs, the concentration of cell sap is greater than that of the surrounding solution in the soil/concentration gradient; this exerts a higher osmotic pressure, thus drawing the water molecules across the cell wall and cell membrane into the root hair cells; more water drawn into the root hair cells dilutes the cell sap; making it less concentrated than that in the adjacent cortex cell of the root; due to osmotic gradient, water moves from the adjacent cells to the next by osmosis; until it enters the xylem vessels located in the center of the root; the xylem vessels of the root then conduct the water up into the xylem vessels in the stem into the leaves; there is a force in the roots which pushes water up the stem; this force is known as root pressure; and can be considerably high in some plants; energy from the endodermal cells of the root is responsible for driving this force; in the xylem vessels, water would rise up by capillarity; to some extent because the vessels are narrower and there is  a high attractive force between the water molecules and the cell walls; the cohesive; and adhesive forces are important in the maintenance of a continuous and uninterrupted water column in the xylem vessels up the tree to the leaves; water vaporizes from the spongy mesophyll cells; their cell sap becomes concentrated than the adjacent cells. This increases the osmotic pressure of the spongy mesophyll cells; as a result of this, water flows into the cell from other surrounding cell, which in turn takes in water from xylem vessels within the leaf veins; this creates a pull/suction force that pulls a stream of water from xylem vessels in the stem and roots. This force, known as transpiration pull; helps in maintaining a continuous column of water from the roots to the leaves; water flows from the midrib into leaf veins from where it enters leaf cells; from the mesophyll cells, it enters the airspaces; then the substomatal air chambers; from where it evaporates through the stomata; to the atmosphere; Max. 20 mks

Q13. How is the mammalian heart adapted to its functions?

Heart is enclosed in a pericardial membrane/pericardium; that produces a fluid; to lubricate it; the membrane also keeps the heart in position; It is covered in a fatty layer; that acts as a shock absorber; made up of cardiac muscles; which are interconnected/interacted hence contract and relax without fatigue or nervous stimulation/myogenic; for continuous pumping of blood throughout the lifespan of the animal; the muscles are supplied by nutrients and oxygen; by the coronary arteries; and the coronary veins take away wastes and carbon (IV) oxide; heart is divided into 4 chambers; for efficient double circulation/ avoid mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood/carry large volume of blood; has interventricular septum; to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood; ventricles are thick/muscular; to generate high pressure to pump blood out of the heart; left ventricle has thick muscles/more muscular; to pump blood to all body tissues; heart has bicuspid; and tricuspid valves; to prevent back flow of blood to left auricle; and right auricle respectively; valves have tendinous cords/valve tendons; to prevent them from turning inside out; semi lunar valves located at the beginning of major arteries; prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles; has sino-artrio node located in the muscles of the right auricle; to initiate heart beat/contractions of heart muscles/cardiac muscles, rate of heart beat is controlled by nerves; vagus nerve; slows down heartbeat; while sympathetic nerve; speeds up the heartbeat; has aorta; to transport oxygenated blood to all body parts; has pulmonary artery; that transports deoxygenated blood from right ventricles to lungs for oxygenation; has pulmonary vein; that transports oxygenated blood from lungs to the left ventricles; for distribution to all body parts; has the venacava; that  receives deoxygenated blood from all body parts to right ventricles; Max. 20 mks

Q14. Describe double circulation in mammals

 Deoxygenated blood from body tissues (except lungs); enters the heart via the right auricle; through the venacava; it flows to the right ventricle; via the tricuspid valve; the right ventricle contracts; pumping blood; via the semi lunar valves; through the pulmonary artery; to the lungs for oxygenation; the oxygenated blood from the lungs; flow through the pulmonary vein; to the left auricle; via the bicuspid valve; to the left ventricle; the left ventricle contracts; pumping blood via the semi lunar valves; through the aorta; to the rest of the body tissues; Max. 20 mks

Q15. Describe the process of urine formation in the mammalian kidneys

      The afferent arteriole which is a branch of the renal artery supplies blood to the glomerulus; the afferent arteriole has a wider lumen/diameter than the efferent arteriole; which takes away blood from the glomerulus; the differences in the diameter of the afferent and the afferent vessels causes high pressure; leading to ultrafiltration of blood; the walls of the blood capillaries are one-cell thick; hence glucose, amino acids, vitamins, hormones, salts, creatine, urea and water filter into the Bowman’s capsule; to form glomerular filtrate; white blood cells, red blood cells, plasma proteins such as globulin and platelets are too large to pass through the capillary wall; hence remain in the blood capillaries; useful substances in the human body are selectively reabsorbed; back into the blood stream at the proximal convoluted tubule; the tubule is highly coiled; to increase the surface area for reabsorption of the substances; the useful substances include amino acids, glucose, vitamins, hormones, sodium chloride and water; many mitochondria found at the proximal convoluted tubule; provide energy for reabsorption of these substances against a concentration gradient; the glomerular filtrate flows into the descending and the ascending limb of the loop of Henle; blood in the capillaries and the glomerular filtrate in the loop of Henle move in opposite directions/counter-current flow; this provides a steep concentration gradient that leads to maximum absorption of water through osmosis; sodium chloride is actively absorbed from the ascending limb into the blood capillaries; under the influence of aldosterone hormone; the glomerular filtrate flows into the collecting tubule from where, more water is reabsorbed into the blood stream; antidiuretic hormone influences the amount of water to be reabsorbed depending on the osmotic pressure of the blood; the glomerular filtrate from several collecting tubules now referred to as urine; is emptied into the collecting duct; the urine passes through pyramid, pelvis and ureter into the bladder; where it is stored for some time. The sphincter on the urethra relaxes to allow urine to be released from the body; Max. 20 mks

Q16. Explain the role of the following hormones during homeostasis

  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Secreted by the (posterior lobe/end) pituitary gland; in response to an increase in the osmotic pressure of blood; the hormone stimulates the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts; to increase their permeability to water; this increases the reabsorption of water into the bloodstream; concentrated and less urine is excreted; when the osmotic pressure decreases, less or no hormone is produced; hence the tubules become impermeable to water; less water is reabsorbed into the bloodstream; hence more dilute urine is excreted; fluctuations in the osmotic pressure is detected by the hypothalamus;

Secreted by the pancrease; in response to a rise in blood sugar level; it stimulates liver cells to convert the excess glucose into glycogen and fats for storage in the liver and muscle cells; increases the oxidation of glucose in respiration to yield water energy and carbon (IV) oxide/increases metabolism in the body; this leads to a fall in blood glucose to normal level;

Secreted by the pancrease; in response to a decline in blood glucose level; it stimulates liver cells to convert the stored glycogen and fats back to glucose; stimulates the conversion of amino acids to glucose; and stops the oxidation of glucose in the body cells; the glucose formed is released to the bloodsteream causing a rise of blood glucose level to normal; Max. 20 mks

Q17. a) Distinguish between Diabetes mellitus and Diabetes insipidus

            Diabetes mellitus is a condition/disease caused by failure of the pancrease to produce adequate insulin hormone; leading to excess glucose levels in the body some of which is released in urine while diabetes insipidus is a condition caused by failure/inability of the kidney tubules to control the amount of water in urine as a result of a defect in production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) leading to production of more dilute urine; Max. 2 mks

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