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Not sure which path your essay should follow? Formatting an essay may not be as interesting as choosing a topic to write about or carefully crafting elegant sentences, but it’s an extremely important part of creating a high-quality paper. In this article, we’ll explain essay formatting rules for three of the most popular essay styles: MLA, APA, and Chicago.

For each, we’ll do a high-level overview of what your essay’s structure and references should look like, then we include a comparison chart with nitty-gritty details for each style, such as which font you should use for each and whether they’re a proponent of the Oxford comma. We also include information on why essay formatting is important and what you should do if you’re not sure which style to use.

Why Is Your Essay Format Important?

Does it really matter which font size you use or exactly how you cite a source in your paper? It can! Style formats were developed as a way to standardize how pieces of writing and their works cited lists should look. 

Why is this necessary? Imagine you’re a teacher, researcher, or publisher who reviews dozens of papers a week. If the papers didn’t follow the same formatting rules, you could waste a lot of time trying to figure out which sources were used, if certain information is a direct quote or paraphrased, even who the paper’s author is. Having essay formatting rules to follow makes things easier for everyone involved. Writers can follow a set of guidelines without trying to decide for themselves which formatting choices are best, and readers don’t need to go hunting for the information they’re trying to find.

Next, we’ll discuss the three most common style formats for essays.

MLA Essay Format

MLA style was designed by the Modern Language Association, and it has become the most popular college essay format for students writing papers for class. It was originally developed for students and researchers in the literature and language fields to have a standardized way of formatting their papers, but it is now used by people in all disciplines, particularly humanities. MLA is often the style teachers prefer their students to use because it has simple, clear rules to follow without extraneous inclusions often not needed for school papers. For example, unlike APA or Chicago styles, MLA doesn’t require a title page for a paper, only a header in the upper left-hand corner of the page.

MLA style doesn’t have any specific requirements for how to write your essay, but an MLA format essay will typically follow the standard essay format of an introduction (ending with a thesis statement), several body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

One of the nice things about creating your works cited for MLA is that all references are structured the same way, regardless of whether they’re a book, newspaper, etc. It’s the only essay format style that makes citing references this easy! Here is a guide on how to cite any source in MLA format. When typing up your works cited, here are a few MLA format essay rules to keep in mind:

  • The works cited page should be the last paper of your paper.
  • This page should still be double-spaced and include the running header of your last name and page number.
  • It should begin with “Works Cited” at the top of the page, centered.
  • Your works cited should be organized in alphabetical order, based on the first word of the citation.

APA Essay Format

APA stands for the American Psychological Association. This format type is most often used for research papers, specifically those in behavioral sciences (such as psychology and neuroscience) and social sciences (ranging from archeology to economics). Because APA is often used for more research-focused papers, they have a more specific format to follow compared to, say, MLA style.

All APA style papers begin with a title page, which contains the title of the paper (in capital letters), your name, and your institutional affiliation (if you’re a student, then this is simply the name of the school you attend). The APA recommends the title of your paper not be longer than 12 words.

After your title page, your paper begins with an abstract. The abstract is a single paragraph, typically between 150 to 250 words, that sums up your research. It should include the topic you’re researching, research questions, methods, results, analysis, and a conclusion that touches on the significance of the research. Many people find it easier to write the abstract last, after completing the paper.

After the abstract comes the paper itself. APA essay format recommends papers be short, direct, and make their point clearly and concisely. This isn’t the time to use flowery language or extraneous descriptions. Your paper should include all the sections mentioned in the abstract, each expanded upon.

Following the paper is the list of references used. Unlike MLA style, in APA essay format, every source type is referenced differently. So the rules for referencing a book are different from those for referencing a journal article are different from those referencing an interview. Here’s a guide for how to reference different source types in APA format . Your references should begin on a new page that says “REFERENCES” at the top, centered. The references should be listed in alphabetical order.

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Chicago Essay Format

Chicago style (sometimes referred to as “Turabian style”) was developed by the University of Chicago Press and is typically the least-used by students of the three major essay style formats. The Chicago Manual of Style (currently on its 17th edition) contains within its 1000+ pages every rule you need to know for this style. This is a very comprehensive style, with a rule for everything. It’s most often used in history-related fields, although many people refer to The Chicago Manual of Style for help with a tricky citation or essay format question. Many book authors use this style as well.

Like APA, Chicago style begins with a title page, and it has very specific format rules for doing this which are laid out in the chart below. After the title page may come an abstract, depending on whether you’re writing a research paper or not. Then comes the essay itself. The essay can either follow the introduction → body → conclusion format of MLA or the different sections included in the APA section. Again, this depends on whether you’re writing a paper on research you conducted or not.

Unlike MLA or APA, Chicago style typically uses footnotes or endnotes instead of in-text or parenthetical citations. You’ll place the superscript number at the end of the sentence (for a footnote) or end of the page (for an endnote), then have an abbreviated source reference at the bottom of the page. The sources will then be fully referenced at the end of the paper, in the order of their footnote/endnote numbers. The reference page should be titled “Bibliography” if you used footnotes/endnotes or “References” if you used parenthetical author/date in-text citations.

Comparison Chart

Below is a chart comparing different formatting rules for APA, Chicago, and MLA styles.

How Should You Format Your Essay If Your Teacher Hasn’t Specified a Format?

What if your teacher hasn’t specified which essay format they want you to use? The easiest way to solve this problem is simply to ask your teacher which essay format they prefer. However, if you can’t get ahold of them or they don’t have a preference, we recommend following MLA format. It’s the most commonly-used essay style for students writing papers that aren’t based on their own research, and its formatting rules are general enough that a teacher of any subject shouldn’t have a problem with an MLA format essay. The fact that this style has one of the simplest sets of rules for citing sources is an added bonus!

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What's Next?

Thinking about taking an AP English class? Read our guide on AP English classes to learn whether you should take AP English Language or AP English Literature (or both!)

Compound sentences are an importance sentence type to know. Read our guide on compound sentences for everything you need to know about compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences.

Need ideas for a research paper topic? Our guide to research paper topics has over 100 topics in ten categories so you can be sure to find the perfect topic for you.

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Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.

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Learn the Standard Essay Format: MLA, APA, Chicago Styles

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Being able to write an essay is a vital part of any student's education. However, it's not just about linearly listing ideas. A lot of institutions will require a certain format that your paper must follow; prime examples would be one of a basic essay format like MLA, the APA, and the Chicago formats. This article will explain the differences between the MLA format, the APA format, and the Chicago format. The application of these could range from high school to college essays, and they stand as the standard of college essay formatting. EssayPro — dissertation services , that will help to make a difference!

What is an Essay Format: Structure

Be it an academic, informative or a specific extended essay - structure is essential. For example, the IB extended essay has very strict requirements that are followed by an assigned academic style of writing (primarily MLA, APA, or Chicago):

This outline format for an extended essay is a great example to follow when writing a research essay, and sustaining a proper research essay format - especially if it is based on the MLA guidelines. It is vital to remember that the student must keep track of their resources to apply them to each step outlined above easily. And check out some tips on how to write an essay introduction .

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Navigate the complexities of essay structures with ease. Let our experts guide your paper to the format it deserves!

How to Format an Essay (MLA)

mla format

To write an essay in MLA format, one must follow a basic set of guidelines and instructions. This is a step by step from our business essay writing service.

Essay in MLA Format Example

Mla vs. apa.

Before we move on to the APA essay format, it is important to distinguish the two types of formatting. Let’s go through the similarities first:

  • The formatting styles are similar: spacing, citation, indentation.
  • All of the information that is used within the essay must be present within the works cited page (in APA, that’s called a reference page)
  • Both use the parenthetical citations within the body of the paper, usually to show a certain quote or calculation.
  • Citations are listed alphabetically on the works cited / reference page.

What you need to know about the differences is not extensive, thankfully:

  • MLA style is mostly used in humanities, while APA style is focused more on social sciences. The list of sources has a different name (works cited - MLA / references - APA)
  • Works cited differ on the way they display the name of the original content (MLA -> Yorke, Thom / APA -> Yorke T.)
  • When using an in-text citation, and the author’s name is listed within the sentence, place the page number found at the end: “Yorke believes that Creep was Radiohead’s worst song. (4).” APA, on the other hand, requires that a year is to be inserted: “According to Yorke (2013), Creep was a mess.”

Alright, let’s carry over to the APA style specifics.

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How to format an essay (apa).

The APA scheme is one of the most common college essay formats, so being familiar with its requirements is crucial. In a basic APA format structure, we can apply a similar list of guidelines as we did in the MLA section:

If you ask yourself how to format an essay, you can always turn to us and request to write or rewrite essay in APA format if you find it difficult or don't have time.

Note that some teachers and professors may request deviations from some of the characteristics that the APA format originally requires, such as those listed above.

apa format

If you think: 'I want someone write a research paper for me ', you can do it at Essaypro.

Essay in APA Format Example

Apa format chronobiology, chicago style.

The usage of Chicago style is prevalent in academic writing that focuses on the source of origin. This means that precise citations and footnotes are key to a successful paper.

Chicago Style Essay Format

The same bullet point structure can be applied to the Chicago essay format.

chicago style

Tips for Writing an Academic Paper

There isn’t one proper way of writing a paper, but there are solid guidelines to sustain a consistent workflow. Be it a college application essay, a research paper, informative essay, etc. There is a standard essay format that you should follow. For easier access, the following outline will be divided into steps:

Choose a Good Topic

A lot of students struggle with picking a good topic for their essays. The topic you choose should be specific enough so you can explore it in its entirety and hit your word limit if that’s a variable you worry about. With a good topic that should not be a problem. On the other hand, it should not be so broad that some resources would outweigh the information you could squeeze into one paper. Don’t be too specific, or you will find that there is a shortage of information, but don’t be too broad or you will feel overwhelmed. Don’t hesitate to ask your instructor for help with your essay writing.

Start Research as Soon as Possible

Before you even begin writing, make sure that you are acquainted with the information that you are working with. Find compelling arguments and counterpoints, trivia, facts, etc. The sky is the limit when it comes to gathering information.

Pick out Specific, Compelling Resources

When you feel acquainted with the subject, you should be able to have a basic conversation on the matter. Pick out resources that have been bookmarked, saved or are very informative and start extracting information. You will need all you can get to put into the citations at the end of your paper. Stash books, websites, articles and have them ready to cite. See if you can subtract or expand your scope of research.

Create an Outline

Always have a plan. This might be the most important phase of the process. If you have a strong essay outline and you have a particular goal in mind, it’ll be easy to refer to it when you might get stuck somewhere in the middle of the paper. And since you have direct links from the research you’ve done beforehand, the progress is guaranteed to be swift. Having a list of keywords, if applicable, will surely boost the informational scope. With keywords specific to the subject matter of each section, it should be much easier to identify its direction and possible informational criteria.

Write a Draft

Before you jot anything down into the body of your essay, make sure that the outline has enough information to back up whatever statement you choose to explore. Do not be afraid of letting creativity into your paper (within reason, of course) and explore the possibilities. Start with a standard 5 paragraph structure, and the content will come with time.

Ask for a Peer Review of Your Academic Paper

Before you know it, the draft is done, and it’s ready to be sent out for peer review. Ask a classmate, a relative or even a specialist if they are willing to contribute. Get as much feedback as you possibly can and work on it.

Final Draft

Before handing in the final draft, go over it at least one more time, focusing on smaller mistakes like grammar and punctuation. Make sure that what you wrote follows proper essay structure. Learn more about argumentative essay structure on our blog. If you need a second pair of eyes, get help from our service.

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What Is Essay Format?

How to format a college essay, how to write an essay in mla format.

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How to Write an Essay in APA Format

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

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What Is APA Format?

Apa essay format basics.

  • Steps to Follow

Frequently Asked Questions

If your instructor has asked you to write an APA format essay, it might at first seem like a daunting task, especially if you are accustomed to using another style such as MLA or Chicago. But you can master the rules of APA essay format, too.

An essay is one type of paper that can be written in APA format; others include lab reports, experimental reports, and case studies. Before you begin, familiarize yourself with some of the basic guidelines for writing a paper in APA format. Of course, it will also be important to follow any other formatting instructions that are part of your assignment.

How do you write an essay in APA format? The basic elements you need to include are:

  • A title page
  • An abstract
  • An introduction, main body, and conclusion
  • A reference section
  • Proper APA formatting with regard to margins, layout, spacing, titles, and indentations

This article discusses how to write an essay in APA format, including the basic steps you should follow and tips for how to get started.

Whether you’re taking an introductory or graduate-level psychology class, chances are strong that you will have to write at least one paper during the course of the semester. In almost every case, you will need to write your paper in APA format, the official publication style of the American Psychological Association . It is also used for academic journals.

Such rules are generally the same whether you are writing a high school essay, college essay, or professional essay for publication.

APA format is used in a range of disciplines including psychology , education, and other social sciences. The format dictates presentation elements of your paper including spacing, margins, and how the content is structured.

Most instructors and publication editors have strict guidelines when it comes to how your format your writing. Not only does adhering to APA format allow readers to know what to expect from your paper, but it also means that your work will not lose critical points over minor formatting errors. 

While the formatting requirements for your paper might vary depending on your instructor's directions, writing APA essay format means you will most likely need to include a title page, abstract, introduction, body, conclusion, and reference sections.

Your APA format essay should have a title page . This title page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. In some instances, your teacher might require additional information such as the course title, instructor name, and the date.

  • The title of your paper should be concise and clearly describe what your paper is about.
  • Your title can extend to two lines, but it should be no longer than 12 words.

An abstract is a brief summary of your paper that immediately follows the title page. It is not required for student papers, according to APA style. However, your instructor may request one.

If you include an abstract , it should be no more than 100 to 200 words, although this may vary depending upon the instructor requirements.

Your essay should also include a reference list with all of the sources that were cited in your essay,

  • The reference section is located at the end of your paper.
  • References should be listed alphabetically by the last name of the author.
  • References should be double-spaced.
  • Any source that is cited in your paper should be included in your reference section.

When writing in APA essay format, the text will include the actual essay itself: The introduction, body, and conclusion.

  • There should be uniform margins of at least one inch at the top, bottom, left, and right sides of your essay.
  • The text should be in Times New Roman size 12 font or another serif typeface that is easily readable.
  • Your paper should be double-spaced.
  • Every page should include a page number in the top right corner.
  • The first word of each paragraph in your paper should be indented one-half inch.

For professional papers (usually not student papers), every page of the essay also includes a running head at the top left. The running head is a shortened form of the title, often the first few words, and should be no more than 50 characters (including spaces).

Steps to a Successful APA Format Essay

In addition to ensuring that you cite your sources properly and present information according to the rules of APA style, there are a number of things you can do to make the writing process a little bit easier.

Choose a Topic

Start by choosing a good topic to write about. Ideally, you want to select a subject that is specific enough to let you fully research and explore the topic, but not so specific that you have a hard time finding sources of information.

If you choose something too specific, you may find yourself with not enough to write about. If you choose something too general, you might find yourself overwhelmed with information.

Research Your Topic

Start doing research as early as possible. Begin by looking at some basic books and articles on your topic to help develop it further. What is the question you are going to answer with your essay? What approach will you take to the topic?

Once you are more familiar with the subject, create a preliminary source list of potential books, articles, essays, and studies that you may end up using in your essay.

Remember, any source used in your essay must be included in your reference section. Conversely, any source listed in your references must be cited somewhere in the body of your paper.

Write Your Rough Draft

With research in hand, you are ready to begin. Some people like to create an outline to organize their argument prior to drafting. You may want to start with a very rough outline, and then add details.

Once you have a detailed outline, the next step is to translate it from notes to complete sentences and paragraphs. Remember, this is a first draft. It doesn't have to be perfect.

As you write your paper in APA essay format, be sure to keep careful track of the sources that you cite.

How do you start an APA paper? Your paper should begin with an introduction that includes a thesis statement that presents your main ideas, points, or arguments. Your introduction should start on the third page of your paper (after the title page and abstract). The title of your paper should be centered, bolded, and typed in title case at the top of the page.

Review and Revise

After you have prepared a rough draft of your essay, it's time to revise, review, and prepare your final draft. In addition to making sure that your writing is cohesive and supported by your sources, you should also check carefully for typos, grammar errors, and possible formatting mistakes.

When citing information or quotations taken from an interview, APA format requires that you cite the source, how the information was collected, and the date of the interview. They should not be included in the reference section, however, because they are not something that can be located by a reader in any published source or searchable database.

Instead, the information should be cited parenthetically in the main body of the text. For example: “There was an increase in the number of college students who screened positive for depression/anxiety” (R. Heathfield, personal communication, May 9, 2021).

If the essay is in a chapter of a book, edited collection, or anthology, APA format states that you should cite the last name, first name, title of essay, title of collection, publisher, year, and page range. For example: Smith, John, "The Light House," A Book of Poems , editing by Peter Roberts, Allworth Press, 2005, pp. 20-25.

According to APA format, a two-part essay is formatted the same as an essay, however, you'll need to create two title pages.

If you're including a short direct quote in your APA-format essay, you will need to cite the author, year of publication, and page number (p.) or page number span (pp.). Quotations longer than 40 words should omit the quotation marks and be put in the text using block quotation formatting, on its own line and indented 1/2 inch from the left margin.

The cover page or "title page" in APA essay format should always include the title of your paper, your name, and school affiliation as well as the course title, instructor name, and date, if requested by your teacher.

Nagda S.  How to write a scientific abstract.   J Indian Prosthodont Soc.  2013;13(3):382-383. doi:10.1007/s13191-013-0299-x

American Psychological Association.  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2019.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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Are you having trouble making your essay look just right? Lots of students find formatting tricky, so you're not alone. 

This guide is here to help you figure out how to format your essay. We've got examples of essays in APA, MLA, Chicago, and other styles to make it easier for you to learn.

So, keep reading – we've got you covered!

Arrow Down

  • 1. What is an Essay Format?
  • 2. How To Format Essay in MLA Style
  • 3. How to Format Essay in APA
  • 4. How to Format Essay in Chicago Style
  • 5. Formatting In-Text Citations: APA, MLA, and Chicago Styles
  • 6. How to Determine What Format to Follow

What is an Essay Format?

An essay format refers to a set of guidelines that decides how the elements of your paper should be arranged. No matter what type of essay you’re writing, formatting is an essential step in the essay writing process.

The format guidelines cover the essay structure, title, citations, and the basic outline of the essay. 

When formatting a paper, there are certain things that you need to pay attention to. These include the structure of an essay, title page, works cited page, and citation styles . 

Here is a basic essay format template:

How To Format Essay in MLA Style

Formatting an essay in MLA style is a common requirement in many academic settings, particularly in the humanities. 

MLA provides guidelines for various aspects of your essay, from font and margins to citations and bibliography. Here’s an essay format MLA you can use as a reference:

MLA Essay Format Template

  • Title Page: MLA does not typically require a separate title page. Instead, place your title at the top of the first page, centered, and do not use bold, italics, or underline for the title. Below the title, include your name, the instructor's name, the course name and number, and the due date, each on a separate line, left-aligned.
  • Header and Page Numbers: Create a header with your last name and page number in the upper right corner of every page, half an inch from the top, and flush with the right margin. For example: Smith 1.
  • Margins and Spacing: Set all margins to 1 inch, and use double-spacing throughout the essay.
  • Font and Size: Use a legible font like Times New Roman or Arial, size 12.
  • Indentation: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches, which can be done automatically using the "Tab" key.
  • Paragraphs: Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks within sentences.
  • Title: Place the title of your essay (centered) at the top of the first page. Do not use bold, italics, or underlining for the title. Capitalize major words.
  • Citations: MLA uses in-text citations to acknowledge sources. When quoting or paraphrasing, include the author's last name and the page number (e.g., Smith 45).
  • Works Cited Page: At the end of your essay, include a separate page titled "Works Cited." List all sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Follow the specific MLA citation style for different types of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.).

Sample MLA Essay

MLA Format Paper - MyPerfectWords.com

How to Format Essay in APA

Formatting an essay in APA style is commonly used in the social sciences and psychology. 

APA provides a set of guidelines for various elements of your essay, including formatting, citations, and references. Here’s how to format essay in apa:

APA Essay Format Template

  • Title Page: The title page in APA includes: Title of the Essay (centered, bold, and in title case) Your Name (centered) Institutional Affiliation (centered) Running head: [Shortened Title] (flush left, in uppercase) Page Number (flush right)
  • Header and Page Numbers: Create a header with the title of your essay in all capital letters, followed by a colon and a shortened version of the title (up to 50 characters), in the upper left corner of every page. The page number should be in the upper right corner.
  • Font and Size: Use a clear and readable font like Times New Roman or Arial, size 12.
  • Paragraphs: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches. Use a hanging indent for references on the reference page.
  • Citations: Use in-text citations to acknowledge sources. Include the author's last name and the publication year (e.g., Smith, 2023) when quoting or paraphrasing.
  • Title: Use bold and title case for the title of your essay on the title page. On subsequent pages, use a shortened version of the title (in uppercase) as the header.
  • References Page: At the end of your essay, create a separate page titled "References." List all sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Follow the specific APA citation style for different types of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.).

Sample APA Essay

APA Format Paper - MyPerfectWords.com

How to Format Essay in Chicago Style

Formatting an essay in Chicago style, often used in history and some other humanities disciplines, requires specific guidelines for citations and formatting. Here are the guidelines to format your essay in Chicago style:

Chicago Essay Format Template

  • Title Page: The title page in Chicago style includes: Title of the Essay (centered, in headline-style capitalization) Your Name (centered) Course Name and Number (centered) Instructor's Name (centered) Date (centered)
  • Margins and Spacing: Set all margins to 1 inch. Use double-spacing throughout the essay.
  • Page Numbers: Number pages in the upper right corner of each page, beginning with the first page of the main text (usually page 1). Page numbers should be in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.).
  • Paragraphs: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches. Use a block paragraph style with no extra space between paragraphs.
  • Citations: In Chicago style, you have two citation options: footnotes and endnotes. In your text, place a superscript number (e.g., ^1) at the end of the sentence containing the cited information. Corresponding footnotes or endnotes should provide full citation details.
  • Title: Use headline-style capitalization for the title of your essay (e.g., "The History of Ancient Civilizations").
  • Bibliography: At the end of your essay, include a separate page titled "Bibliography." List all sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Follow the specific Chicago citation style for different types of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.).

Sample Chicago Essay

Chicago Format Paper - MyPerfectWords.com

Formatting In-Text Citations: APA, MLA, and Chicago Styles

An in-text citation is a brief reference within the body of your essay or research paper that indicates the source of information you have incorporated into your writing.

Each of the formatting style have a unique way for adding in-text citations:

In APA style, remember to include the author's last name, the publication date, and the page number (if applicable) within parentheses.

Example: "The impact of climate change on biodiversity is a growing concern (Smith, 2020, p. 27)."

In MLA style, provide the author's last name and the page number without any punctuation between them.

Example: "The impact of climate change on biodiversity is a growing concern (Jones 42)."

Chicago Style Format

The Chicago Manual of Style offers two distinct options for in-text citations:

  • Author-Date Style: In this approach, you place your citations within parentheses directly within the text. This style involves citing the author's last name and the publication date within the body of your text. Example: (Smith 2021) or "According to Smith (2021),..."
  • Notes and Bibliography Style: This style utilizes numbered footnotes or endnotes to provide citations. Instead of placing citations within the text, you include a superscript number at the end of the relevant sentence, which corresponds to a full citation located in a footnote at the bottom of the page (or endnotes at the end of the document). Example: Johnson argues that "the data is unconvincing."¹ Nevertheless, Smith contends that the study makes "a compelling case" for this plan of action.²

Each of these Chicago citation styles has its unique advantages and is chosen based on the requirements of the assignment or the preferences of the writer.

How to Determine What Format to Follow

Selecting the appropriate citation format for your academic writing is essential to ensure that your work meets the expected standards. To make an informed decision, consider the following factors:

Subject and Discipline

  • APA Style: Primarily used in the social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, and education. It is also common in business and nursing disciplines.
  • MLA Style: Commonly employed in humanities disciplines, including literature, languages, and cultural studies. It's widely used for papers related to literature and the arts.
  • Chicago Style: Used in history, some social sciences, and certain humanities disciplines. Chicago offers both author-date and notes and bibliography styles, making it versatile for various subjects.

Professor's Instructions

Always adhere to your professor's specific instructions regarding citation style and writing convention . Professors may have preferences or requirements based on the nature of the course or assignment.

For instance, an English professor might prefer MLA for literary analysis, while a psychology professor may opt for APA to encourage familiarity with research norms. However, when formatting styles are not specified by the instructor, you can follow whatever is appropriate for your subject.

Institutional Guidelines

Your educational institution may have established guidelines or standards for citation formats. 

Check your institution's style guide or consult with academic advisors to ensure compliance with their specific requirements.

By considering the subject matter, your professor's preferences, and your institution's guidelines, you can confidently choose the appropriate citation style to enhance the clarity and professionalism of your academic writing.

Now that you've gained a solid understanding of the basics for three major formatting styles, you're well-prepared to tackle your essay formatting with confidence. 

Whether you're crafting an essay, a research paper, or any academic document, these formatting principles will help you present your ideas professionally.

If you find yourself in a time crunch, our expert writers are here to help you tackle your academic challenges in no time. 

With our custom essay writing service , you get reliable help with any type of assignment, even with tight deadlines. Our writers are sure to deliver you 100% original papers that meet your requirements. 

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IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Structures

The four most common IELTS writing Task 2 questions are: Opinion, Advantages and Disadvantages, Problem and Solution Discussion

IELTS Task 2 Essay Structures

Knowing how to structure your IELTS Writing Task 2 essay is an essential skill that can make the difference between getting and not getting the band score you deserve. With that in mind, we have outlined the most common IELTS Writing Task 2 structures below.

essay format 2

Nearly all of my Task 2 essays follow this basic structure: The sentences you put in each paragraph will depend on what type of question you get.

The five most common IELTS Writing Task 2 questions are:

  • Opinion (Agree or Disagree)
  • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Problem and Solution
  • Discussion (Discuss both views)
  • Two-part Question

Below I will outline examples and a structure approved by experienced IELTS teachers and examiners for each type of question. This will help you write a clear, coherent answer and hopefully boost your IELTS band score. I also include an example answer for each type of question so you can see the structure in a real essay.

Please note that these are general structures and may vary slightly depending on the question.

Please also note that no ‘one’ Task 2 essay structure will get you a high score. There are many types of structures that can get you a high score. These are just some I think are effective and easy to learn. 

Please visit the lessons below for more detailed guidance on each type of question. I have provided a link at the end of each section.

essay format 2

Opinion Questions (Agree or Disagree) 

Typical Question Words –

What is your opinion?

Do you agree or disagree?

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Direct question.

Example Question –

Some people believe that unpaid community service should be compulsory in high school programmes (for example, working for a charity, improving the neighbourhood or teaching sports to younger children).

Essay Structure 

Introduction 

1- Paraphrase Question

2- Give your opinion and outline the main ideas.

Main Body Paragraph 1 

1- Topic Sentence

2- Explain Topic Sentence

Main Body Paragraph 2

Conclusion 

1- Summary of main points and opinion

Student Sample Answer

It is argued that volunteering should be made part of the school curriculum. This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because it help pupils develop soft skills and helps them gain much-needed work experience.

Education should not be limited to strictly academic pursuits, and those in education should also develop life skills, such as teamwork, empathy and self-discipline, and one of the best ways to hone these aptitudes is through community service. Serving those less fortunate than ourselves teaches us many lessons, including how to work with people from other backgrounds and the value of hard work, thus enabling us to hone these skills before becoming an adult. For example, many young people from wealthier countries take a gap year and help those less fortunate than themselves to increase their gratitude for what they have and improve their work ethic.

Many colleges and companies are also increasingly looking for this type of experience. Most school leavers have the same grades, and charitable work can help set you apart from other students when making college applications. For example, Cambridge and Oxford receive thousands of applications from straight-A students yearly and can only accept a small percentage of applicants. What you have done outside the classroom often differentiates you from everyone else and gets you that coveted spot.

In conclusion, teenagers should be made to partake in unpaid work as part of their schooling because it will help them learn things they wouldn’t ordinarily learn from their teachers, and it will also boost their chances of getting into third-level education.

For more detail on how to answer agree or disagree questions, please visit our opinion essay lesson . 

Need help writing essays like this? Check out our ESSAY CORRECTION SERVICE .

Advantages and Disadvantages Questions

Typical Question Words 

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages.

What are the advantages and disadvantages?

Example Question

Technology is being used more and more in education.

Essay Structure

2- Outline Main Points

Main Body Paragraph 1

1- State Two Advantages

2- Expand/Explain First Advantage

3- Expand/Explain Second Advantage

1- State Two Disadvantages

2- Expand/Explain First Disadvantage

3- Expand/Explain Second Disadvantage

essay format 2

1- Summary of Main Points

Student Sample Answer 

It is argued that technology plays an ever-increasing role in schools and universities. Increased access to information and student freedom are the main advantages, whereas dependency on technology and decreasing levels of face-to-face contact are the main disadvantages.

Access to more information and student autonomy are the principal advantages of increasing the use of electronic devices in education. With the internet, students can access all the information available about any topic, regardless of what books and other resources are available in the school. Furthermore, students can focus on whatever topic or subject they want and study it in depth. A prime example of this is the number of online university courses available to students, covering a myriad of subjects that, up until recently, were unavailable to most learners. This has resulted in more people studying third-level degrees than ever before at a pace and schedule that suits them.

The main disadvantages associated with the increasing use of technology in education are the dependency on this technology and the decrease in face-to-face interaction between students. With many students now using the internet as their primary source of information, they often struggle to use other academic resources to find what they’re looking for. As well as this, students spend more time looking at computer screens by themselves than interacting with each other, which is thought to lead to lower levels of emotional intelligence. For instance, the recent explosion in smartphone use has been at the expense of genuine human interaction. This results in soft skills, such as verbal communication and empathy, being affected.

In conclusion, the benefits technology brings to education, such as unrestricted access to information and student autonomy, must be weighed against the drawbacks, such as dependency on this technology and the negative effects on human interaction.

For more detail on how to answer advantage and disadvantage questions, please visit our  advantage and disadvantage lesson . 

Discuss Both Views Question (Discussion Essay)  

essay format 2

Discuss both points of view and give your opinion.

Example Question 

Technology is being used more and more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences.

Discuss both sides of this argument and then give your own opinion.

1- Paraphrase Question and/or state both viewpoints.

2- Thesis Statement

3- Outline Sentence

1- State first viewpoint

2- Discuss first viewpoint

3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint

4- Example to support your view

1- State second viewpoint

2- Discuss second viewpoint

Sentence 1- Summary

Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important

There is an ever-increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in the classroom. It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and think it will lead to adverse ramifications. This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and teachers.

The Internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. This has allowed learners to research and learn about any subject at the touch of a button. It is therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for education. Wikipedia is a prime example, where students can type in any keyword and gain access to in-depth knowledge quickly and easily.

However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and empathy. Without these soft skills, many people find it difficult to become successful in work and their personal lives. Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the internet, and this essay disagrees that technology should be dismissed for this reason. For instance, Skype and Facebook allow people to interact in ways that were never before possible.

While the benefits of technology, particularly the internet, allow students to tap into limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomenon and not allow it to curb face-to-face interaction. However, as long as we carefully consider the importance of human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive.

For more detail on how to answer discussion questions please visit our  discussion essay lesson . 

Problem and Solution Questions

essay format 2

Problem and solution.

Cause and solution.

Students are becoming more and more reliant on technology.

What are some of the problems associated with reliance on computers, and what are some of the possible solutions?

2- Outline Sentence

1- State Problems

2- Explain First Problem

3- Explain Second Problem

4- Example of Second Problem

1- State Solutions

2- Explain First Solution

3- Explain Second Solution

4- Example of Second Solution

Learners are becoming increasingly dependent on technology, such as the Internet and mobile devices. This essay believes the main problems associated with dependence on computers are the lack of original thought and copying original work from others and suggests critical thinking classes and writing analysis software as the most viable solutions.

The principal problems with over-reliance on technology are people being unable to think for themselves and plagiarism. With access to so much information, students often rely on other people’s opinions instead of forming their own. As well as this, they often use search engines to answer a question and copy the text from a website rather than thinking about the question. This practice is prohibited in schools and universities and stunts students’ intellectual development because they will never truly think for themselves, which is what university is supposed to be for. For example, many teachers complain that students copy web pages straight from Wikipedia word for word rather than giving a reasoned answer to their questions.

Solutions to these worrying problems are special classes to focus on critical thinking and teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying. If teachers create situations where students have to infer meaning and express opinions based on a small amount of information, this will ensure that students have an opportunity to develop these skills. Also, if students know that their assignments are being checked for plagiarism, this will be enough to deter them from doing so. For instance, many universities already use this kind of software to scan coursework for plagiarism, and it could be extended to include all homework by learners in both secondary and tertiary education.

In conclusion, the main problems with the overuse of technology in education are the lack of original thought and plagiarism. These can be solved through special classes that teach students analytical skills and plagiarism detection software.

For more detail on how to answer problem and solution questions please visit our  problem and solution lesson . 

Two-Part Questions

essay format 2

There will normally be a statement, and they will then ask you to answer separate questions.

As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual wellbeing.

What factor contributes to job satisfaction?

How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers?

2- Outline Sentence (mention both questions)

1- Answer first question directly

2- Explain why

3- Further explain

1- Answer second question directly

As most adults spend most of their time at work, being content with your career is a crucial part of a person’s health and happiness. This essay will first suggest fair pay as a key element leading to job satisfaction, and it will then state that it is not very likely that everyone can be happy with their job.

The most important thing that satisfies someone at work is being compensated fairly. If those more senior than you respect you as a person and the job you are doing, then you feel like you are valued. A fair salary and benefits are important marks of respect, and if you feel you are being underpaid, you will either resent your bosses or look for another job. These two factors came top of a recent job satisfaction survey conducted by Monster.com, which found that 72% of people were pleased with their current role if their superiors regularly told them they were appreciated.

With regard to the question of happiness for all workers, I think this is and always will be highly unlikely. The vast majority of people fail to reach their goals and end up working in a post they don’t really care about in return for a salary. This money is just enough to pay their living expenses which often means they are trapped in a cycle of disenchantment. For example, The Times recently reported that 89% of office workers would leave their jobs if they did not need the money.

In conclusion, being satisfied with your trade or profession is an important part of one’s well-being, and respect from one’s colleagues and fair pay can improve your level of happiness; however, job satisfaction for all workers is an unrealistic prospect.

Can I get a band 8 or 9 following these structures? 

Nobody can give you a Task 2 IELTS structure that guarantees high scores. Your score is dependent on how good your grammar and vocabulary are and how well you answer the question. A good structure will help you answer the question to some extent and boost your score for coherence and cohesion, but you must use relevant ideas and use these ideas well to answer the question.

You can see how my student scored a Band 8.5 in IELTS Writing here:

essay format 2

Next Steps 

We hope you found those IELTS Writing Task 2 structures useful. Looking for some more sample questions? Here are over 100 sample questions from past exam papers.

If you would personalised feedback and guidance until you get the score you need, you can join the Waiting List for my VIP Course here.

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About Christopher Pell

My name is Christopher Pell and I'm the Managing Director of IELTS Advantage.

I started IELTS Advantage as a simple blog to help 16 students in my class. Several years later, I am very humbled that my VIP Course has been able to help thousands of people around the world to score a Band 7+ in their IELTS tests.

If you need my help with your IELTS preparation, you can send me an email using the contact us page.

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How to Write a Two Page Essay Quickly

Last Updated: March 28, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Megan Morgan, PhD . Megan Morgan is a Graduate Program Academic Advisor in the School of Public & International Affairs at the University of Georgia. She earned her PhD in English from the University of Georgia in 2015. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 98,679 times.

Writing a two page essay can be a daunting task. After all, writing takes specific skills and a lot of practice. If you are well-organized and have a specific plan, it can be done both successfully and quickly. College students, high school students, and people in most professions have to write from time to time (or every day). For many people, writing can be stressful. It helps to have a system in place to help make the process as efficient (and painless) as possible.

Getting Organized

Step 1 Make sure that you are ready to write.

  • If your instructor has given you a clear prompt, decide now how you will approach the question. For example, if the given assignment is "Write an essay on the women's movement. Was it successful?", you will need to decide which side you are going to take. Once you narrow your focus, your essay will be much easier to organize.
  • If you have a much broader assignment, it will be up to you to focus your topic. For example, if your assignment is "Write about something that interests you", you will not want to make the topic of your essay "Sports," especially for a short two-page essay. Choose a very specific topic, such as "Tailgating in the American South."

Step 3 Know your subject.

  • It's unlikely that you will need further research for a two-page paper, but if you aren't sure about the requirements, ask your teacher.

Step 4 Organize your materials.

Drafting Your Essay

Step 1 Brainstorm your thesis...

  • For example, if you're supposed to write a two-page essay about something that interests you, think about who your audience is (and how much explaining you'll have to do), what is the most relevant information, and why your topic is interesting to you.
  • Branching is another technique you can use while creating your thesis. Try to imagine your topic as a tree. Write your basic idea in the middle of your paper, and then "branch" out from there, adding ideas and thoughts to your central topic.
  • Another approach to try is brainstorming. To do this, write down anything and everything you know or need to know about your topic. Don't edit yourself, just get some thoughts down on paper. Once you can see your ideas, they will start to take shape. It's often helpful to do this before you try to write a formal outline, as you'll have a better idea of what you want to cover.

Step 2 Write your thesis statement.

  • For example, if you were writing an essay about college sports, a poor thesis would be, "College sports are very controversial in many ways." This is too vague, and it does not clearly take a position to argue. It will leave your reader wondering what argument you are making in your essay.
  • An example of a strong thesis for the same topic might be, "College athletes should be paid a salary for playing their sport." This is more successful because it indicates the topic you will address. It's also limited enough that you can adequately discuss it in a two-page paper.

Step 3 Put your thoughts on paper.

  • You don't necessarily need to do a formal outline to start with. Brainstorming or making a list-type outline, where you list out ideas that are related to your topic without putting them in a specific order, can help you know what you want to write about.
  • Once you have listed the ideas that support your thesis, you'll have a better sense of how to organize them.

Step 4 Include specific examples.

  • Note that not all teachers prefer or even accept this type of thesis, which is often referred to as a "multi-prong" or "three-prong" thesis. However, this type of thesis is often appropriate for very short writing assignments such as a two-page essay. If you're not sure what your teacher's preferences are, ask before you begin writing.
  • It's helpful to list specific examples in your outline, so that you know what evidence you have for each point. This can also be helpful to show you whether you have gaps or imbalances in your approach. For example, do you have just one example for one point, but three for another point? It would be better to use roughly the same number of examples per point, or even see if the less-supported point could be incorporated elsewhere.

Step 5 Cite your sources in your outline.

  • One type of citation is known as parenthetical documentation. For this method, you provide information about the source within the text of your essay. An example of this would be, "Brown argues that Einstein's theory of relativity is the most important scholarly achievement of the twentieth century (292)." The name Brown refers to the author of the book in this example, and 292 is the page number where this information is found. There are different ways to cite various sources, so make sure you know how to properly credit all of the sources you plan to use. [1] X Research source
  • Sometimes you may be asked to use footnotes or endnotes. While less common in brief essays, some teachers and bosses prefer them. Footnotes and endnotes include more thorough information about the source used. Often, when they replace parenthetical documentation, a Works Cited page is not required. [2] X Research source

Writing Your Essay

Step 1 Write your body paragraphs.

  • Make sure that each body paragraph has a topic sentence . This sentence makes it clear to your reader what each paragraph is about. For example, if you were writing an essay about the labor force during World War II, you might say, "Women were an important part of the workforce in World War II because they learned new jobs that were previously reserved only for men."
  • Include specific supporting examples in each body paragraph. For instance, if you were writing an essay about the labor force during World War II, you might say, "Many women became welders during World War II, which illustrates that gender roles in the workplace were changing."

Step 2 Write your introduction...

  • Start off with a broad contextual statement, but don't make it so broad as to have no relevance. Statements that begin like "Throughout history" or "In modern society" are "fluff" statements and don't provide any real context for your argument.
  • A good way to think of your introduction is as an inverted pyramid. Start with the broad statement that sets the scene, and then narrow down until you reach your thesis.
  • Include your thesis statement at the end of the conclusion.
  • Spend some time on your first sentence. It should be interesting and grab the attention of your reader. Try starting with a fascinating example or an exciting quotation.
  • Use your conclusion to tie together the strands of your argument. In some cases, such as persuasive essays , it's appropriate to include a call to action. You can also return to an anecdote or theme you brought up in the introduction to give your paper great symmetry.

Step 3 Use clear and concise language.

  • Watch out for the passive voice. Beginning writers often use the passive voice because it's wordier, which may be mistaken for "fancier." Here's an example of the passive voice: "It is believed by many that today's growing social violence is being caused by video games." Be verbs are often signs of passive voice. Reword it actively this way: "Many people blame video games for today's growing social violence." This is a clear grammatical order: People (subject) blame (verb) video games (direct object).
  • Avoid wordy constructions such as "It is believed that" or "This is suggestive of that." You can communicate these ideas more clearly and concisely: "People believe that" or "This suggests that."

Step 4 Use appropriate style and tone.

  • Some short essays may be more appropriate in the first-person, using "I." If you've been assigned to write a personal or persuasive essay, the first-person voice is often more personal and effective than using third-person.
  • Aim for parallel structure in sentences. Often, sentences end up sounding clunky if you ignore parallel structure. For example: "Paying college athletes is more important than to give them scholarships." Convert the infinitive "to give" to the gerund form "giving" for parallelism: "Paying college athletes is more important than giving them scholarships."

Step 5 Use transitions.

  • Here are some examples of transition words: similarly, in comparison, as a result, otherwise. During the editing process, you can try using several variations to see which best fits your style of writing. [8] X Research source

Editing Your Essay

Step 1 Walk away.

  • Be aware that the "grammar check" in word processors is often incorrect about issues, and may even suggest changes that make your writing incorrect. Don't rely only on technology.

Step 3 Read out loud.

  • There are several methods for creating a title. One idea is to begin your title with a question, such as "How..." or "Why...". Another method is to choose a specific example that occurs within your paper and use that as a starting point for your title. [10] X Research source

Step 7 Give your paper one final review.

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • Take a break if you need to. Writing takes a lot of practice! Ask for help if you need it, and just keep practicing and editing. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

essay format 2

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Write an Essay in Under 30 Minutes

  • ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative
  • ↑ https://www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation-guide/chicago-style/footnotes-and-endnotes
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.uagc.edu/body-paragraphs
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/introductions/
  • ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines
  • ↑ https://www.tacoma.uw.edu/sites/default/files/2021-05/accs_elements-and-structure-of-an-essay_rev2016.pdf
  • ↑ https://grammar.yourdictionary.com/style-and-usage/list-transition-words.html
  • ↑ https://researchguides.uic.edu/c.php?g=252299&p=1683205
  • ↑ https://writing.umn.edu/sws/assets/pdf/quicktips/titles.pdf

About This Article

Megan Morgan, PhD

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IELTS Writing Task 2: Format, Sample, Tips

The IELTS Writing Task 2: The second portion of the writing test, known as IELTS Writing Task 2, asks you to produce an essay in response to a point of view, argument, or problem. Your essay should be written in a formal tone, be at least 250 words long, and take no more than 40 minutes to finish.

Table of Content

IELTS Writing Task 2- Format

1. task question, 2. word limit, 4. response structure, 5. evaluation criteria, difference between ielts writing task 2- academic vs general, understanding the evaluation criteria, common ielts writing task 2 topics, band descriptors ielts writing task 2, ielts essay types for writing task 2, ielts writing task 2 preparation tips, ielts writing task 2 sample, ielts writing task 2- faqs, what are indigenous cultures and languages, why is it important to protect indigenous cultures and languages, what are some challenges in protecting indigenous cultures and languages, what role can governments play in protecting indigenous cultures and languages, are there any potential drawbacks to prioritizing the protection of indigenous cultures and languages.

  • You will be presented with a topic or statement related to a contemporary issue or problem.
  • The task question may ask you to discuss a particular problem, present a solution, evaluate a situation, or provide your opinion on a given topic.
  • You are expected to write at least 250 words for the IELTS Writing Task 2.
  • It is advisable to write within the range of 250300 words, as responses shorter than 250 words are penalized, and longer responses do not necessarily receive higher scores.
  • 3. Time Allotment:
  • You have 40 minutes to complete the IELTS Writing Task 2.
  • Your response should be structured as an essay with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
  • The introduction should provide an overview of the topic and outline the main points you will discuss.
  • The body paragraphs should develop your ideas and arguments, with one main idea per paragraph supported by relevant examples or evidence.
  • The conclusion should summarize your main points and provide a final perspective on the topic.
  • Your response will be evaluated based on four criteria: Task Response, Coherence and Cohesion, Lexical Resource (vocabulary), and Grammatical Range and Accuracy.
  • You should aim to address all parts of the task question, present a clear and coherent argument, use a wide range of vocabulary accurately, and demonstrate a good command of grammar and sentence structures.
Must Read: IELTS Academic vs General Tests – What’s the Difference?

The IELTS Writing Task 2 covers a wide range of topics related to contemporary issues and problems. Here are some common topics that frequently appear in the IELTS Writing Task 2:

1. Education:

  • The role of technology in education
  • The importance of extracurricular activities
  • The advantages and disadvantages of single gender schools

2. Environment:

  • Climate change and its impacts
  • Sustainable development and environmental conservation
  • The use of renewable energy sources
  • The impact of lifestyle choices on health
  • The role of government in promoting public health
  • The advantages and disadvantages of alternative medicine

4. Society and Culture:

  • The effects of globalization on local cultures
  • The impact of social media on human interactions
  • The role of religion in modern society

5. Technology:

  • The advantages and disadvantages of artificial intelligence
  • The impact of technology on employment and job markets
  • The role of technology in communication and information sharing

6. Urbanization and Transportation:

  • The challenges of urban growth and city planning
  • The benefits and drawbacks of public transportation
  • The impact of transportation on the environment

7. Crime and Justice:

  • The causes and prevention of crime
  • The effectiveness of different types of punishment
  • The role of the criminal justice system in society

8. Economics and Business:

  • The impact of globalization on international trade
  • The role of advertising in influencing consumer behavior
  • The advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing

9. Government and Politics:

  • The importance of freedom of speech and press
  • The role of government in regulating the economy
  • The impact of immigration on societies

10. Arts and Culture:

  • The importance of preserving cultural heritage
  • The role of art in society
  • The impact of censorship on artistic expression

In the IELTS Writing Task 2, candidates are required to write an essay in response to a prompt or question. There are several common types of essays that may appear in Task 2:

1. Argumentative/Opinion Essays: These essays require candidates to express their opinion on a given topic and support it with reasons and examples. They often involve discussing both sides of an issue and presenting a clear argument in favor of one viewpoint.

2. Discussion/Two-sided Essays: Similar to argumentative essays, discussion essays require candidates to discuss both sides of an issue before expressing their opinion or preference. They need to provide balanced arguments and consider opposing viewpoints.

3. Advantages and Disadvantages Essays : In these essays, candidates need to discuss the pros and cons of a particular issue, situation, or trend. They should provide examples to illustrate each point and offer a balanced analysis.

4. Problem-Solution Essays: These essays involve identifying a problem or issue, discussing its causes and effects, and proposing possible solutions or measures to address it. Candidates need to present logical arguments and support their solutions with evidence.

5. Cause and Effect Essays: Cause and effect essays focus on analyzing the reasons behind a specific phenomenon or event and its subsequent effects. Candidates should clearly outline the causal relationships and provide relevant examples.

6. Comparison/Contrast Essays: These essays require candidates to compare and contrast two or more ideas, concepts, or approaches. They should highlight similarities and differences and draw conclusions based on their analysis.

7. Process Essays: Process essays explain a sequence of steps or actions involved in a particular process, such as how to do something or how something works. Candidates need to provide clear explanations and use appropriate transition words to guide the reader through each step.

8. Agree/Disagree Essays: In these essays, candidates are given a statement or opinion, and they need to express whether they agree or disagree with it. They should support their stance with reasons and examples.

IELTS Writing Task 2 preparation tips to help you improve your performance:

1. Understand the Task Question

  • Read the task question carefully and identify the key components, such as the topic, the instructions (e.g., discuss, evaluate, give your opinion), and any specific aspects to be addressed.
  • Underline or highlight the essential elements to ensure you address all parts of the question.

2. Plan Your Essay

  • Spend a few minutes planning your essay before you start writing.
  • Brainstorm ideas and organize them into an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
  • Develop a clear thesis statement and main points to guide your essay.

3. Manage Your Time

  • Allocate your time wisely, allowing enough time for planning, writing, and reviewing.
  • Aim to spend around 510 minutes planning, 2530 minutes writing, and 5 minutes reviewing and making corrections.

4. Use Appropriate Structure and Paragraphing

  • Follow a standard essay structure with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
  • Each body paragraph should focus on one main idea and include supporting details, examples, or evidence.
  • Use clear topic sentences and logical transitions between paragraphs.

5. Develop Your Ideas

  • Provide relevant and welldeveloped ideas to support your main points.
  • Use examples, personal experiences, facts, or hypothetical situations to illustrate your arguments.
  • Show critical thinking by analyzing different perspectives and addressing counterarguments.

6. Use Appropriate Language and Vocabulary

  • Use a range of appropriate vocabulary related to the topic.
  • Vary your sentence structures and avoid repetition.
  • Demonstrate your ability to use idiomatic expressions and collocations accurately.

7. Pay Attention to Grammar and Accuracy

  • Review and proofread your essay for grammatical errors, spelling mistakes, and punctuation issues.
  • Ensure subjectverb agreement, correct tense usage, and appropriate word forms.
  • Avoid overly complex sentences that may increase the risk of errors.

8. Practice with Sample Questions

  • Familiarize yourself with different types of IELTS Writing Task 2 questions by practicing with sample prompts.
  • Set a timer and practice writing complete essays under timed conditions.
  • Seek feedback from experienced IELTS teachers or online resources to identify areas for improvement.

9. Learn from Model Answers

  • Study highscoring model answers to understand the expected level of writing and the organization of ideas.
  • Analyze the structure, language use, and development of arguments in these model answers.
  • Incorporate effective strategies and techniques into your own writing practice.

10. Stay UptoDate with Current Affairs

  • Stay informed about current events, global issues, and debates related to various topics.
  • Read reputable news sources, magazines, or online articles to broaden your knowledge and enhance your ability to discuss contemporary topics.
Here is a practice IELTS Writing Task 2 topic for you: Topic: Some people believe that governments should make more efforts to protect indigenous cultures and languages from disappearing. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write at least 250 words discussing both viewpoints and giving your opinion.
  • Make a plan before you start writing. Outline your introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion.
  • The introduction should paraphrase the topic and outline what will be discussed.
  • Discuss both sides of the argument in the body paragraphs. One paragraph arguing for protecting indigenous cultures/languages, one paragraph arguing against or giving the opposite view.
  • Use examples, data or personal experiences to support your arguments.
  • The conclusion should summarize your main points and give a clear opinion.
  • Use a range of vocabulary and sentence structures. Avoid repetition.
  • Check for grammar, spelling and punctuation errors.

In conclusion, while protecting indigenous cultures and languages is undoubtedly important for preserving human diversity and heritage, it should be balanced with practical considerations and the interests of the wider community. A nuanced approach that promotes understanding and appreciation while accommodating evolving societal needs is ideal.

Also Read: IELTS Full Form: Check Its Significance IELTS Average Score: Across Worldwide and India IELTS Minimum Score for Top Universities in 2024 IELTS Exam Pattern 2024: Section-wise IELTS Exam Paper Pattern, Question Types
Indigenous cultures and languages refer to the traditional practices, belief systems, and modes of expression of ethnic groups native to a particular region or country.
Protecting indigenous cultures and languages helps preserve unique identities, traditional knowledge, and cultural diversity, which are valuable aspects of human heritage and can contribute to our understanding of history, societies, and the environment.
Challenges include globalization, urbanization, lack of resources, and a shift towards more dominant cultures and languages, which can lead to the erosion of indigenous practices and languages over time.
Governments can implement policies to support the use and teaching of indigenous languages, provide funding for cultural preservation efforts, and promote awareness and appreciation of indigenous cultures through education and media.
Potential drawbacks include the allocation of limited resources towards this effort at the expense of other priorities, the potential for cultural stagnation or resistance to cultural evolution, and the risk of creating divisions or conflicts within diverse societies.

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A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style.

It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing style.

The generated references can be copied into a reference list or bibliography, and then collectively appended to the end of an academic assignment. This is the standard way to give credit to sources used in the main body of an assignment.

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Harvard is the main referencing style at colleges and universities in the United Kingdom and Australia. It is also very popular in other English-speaking countries such as South Africa, Hong Kong, and New Zealand. University-level students in these countries are most likely to use a Harvard generator to aid them with their undergraduate assignments (and often post-graduate too).

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A well-formatted and broad bibliography can account for up to 20% of the total grade for an undergraduate-level project, and using a generator tool can contribute significantly towards earning them.

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2024 WAEC: Physics 1 & 2 – (Essay), (Objective) – How to Pass the Exam Today

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The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) exams are a pivotal point in the academic journey of students across West Africa. Excelling in these exams can open doors to higher education and career opportunities.

In this article, we will focus on the Physics 2 (Essay) and Physics 1 (Objective) exams, providing you with strategies and answers to the most asked questions to help you succeed.

Understanding the Exam Format

Physics 2 (Essay)

  • Duration: 1 hour, 30 minutes
  • Structure: Several essay questions requiring detailed explanations and calculations.

Physics 1 (Objective)

  • Duration: 1 hour, 15 minutes
  • Structure: Multiple-choice questions covering a wide range of topics.

Frequently Asked Questions

How can i effectively prepare for the physics essay and objective exams.

  • Study the Syllabus : Familiarize yourself with the topics outlined in the WAEC syllabus.
  • Practice Past Papers : Work through previous years’ exam papers to understand the question patterns.
  • Understand Key Concepts : Ensure you have a strong grasp of fundamental physics principles.
  • Time Management : Practice answering questions within the set time limits.

What Are the Key Topics to Focus On?

  • Mechanics : Motion, forces, work, energy, and power.
  • Thermodynamics : Heat, temperature, and laws of thermodynamics.
  • Waves and Optics : Properties of waves, sound, light, lenses, and mirrors.
  • Electricity and Magnetism : Electric fields, circuits, magnetism, and electromagnetic induction.

How Can I Master the Practical Aspects of the Exam?

  • Watch Tutorial Videos : Utilize online resources for step-by-step practical guides.
  • Understand the Experiments : Know the procedures and expected outcomes for standard physics experiments.
  • Practice Drawing : Learn to accurately draw diagrams for experiments and apparatus setups.

What Are Some Last-Minute Tips for Exam Day?

  • Review Key Formulas : Have a quick look at essential physics equations.
  • Stay Calm : Keep a clear mind and manage exam stress effectively.
  • Check Your Work : If time permits, review your answers for any mistakes.

Passing the WAEC Physics exams requires dedication, understanding, and strategic preparation. By focusing on the areas of concentration, practicing consistently, and utilizing available resources, you can enhance your chances of success. Remember, the key to excelling is not just hard work, but also smart work.

Good luck to all the candidates!

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